An Efficient Motion Recognition System Based on LMA Technique and a Discrete Hidden Markov Model
Human motion recognition has been extensively increased in recent years due to its importance in a wide range of applications, such as human-computer interaction, intelligent surveillance, augmented reality, content-based video compression and retrieval, etc. However, it is still regarded as a challenging task especially in realistic scenarios. It can be seen as a general machine learning problem which requires an effective human motion representation and an efficient learning method. In this work, we introduce a descriptor based on Laban Movement Analysis technique, a formal and universal language for human movement, to capture both quantitative and qualitative aspects of movement. We use Discrete Hidden Markov Model (DHMM) for training and classification motions. We improve the classification algorithm by proposing two DHMMs for each motion class to process the motion sequence in two different directions, forward and backward. Such modification allows avoiding the misclassification that can happen when recognizing similar motions. Two experiments are conducted. In the first one, we evaluate our method on a public dataset, the Microsoft Research Cambridge-12 Kinect gesture data set (MSRC-12) which is a widely used dataset for evaluating action/gesture recognition methods. In the second experiment, we build a dataset composed of 10 gestures(Introduce yourself, waving, Dance, move, turn left, turn right, stop, sit down, increase velocity, decrease velocity) performed by 20 persons. The evaluation of the system includes testing the efficiency of our descriptor vector based on LMA with basic DHMM method and comparing the recognition results of the modified DHMM with the original one. Experiment results demonstrate that our method outperforms most of existing methods that used the MSRC-12 dataset, and a near perfect classification rate in our dataset.
Quantum Markov Modeling for Healthcare
A Markov model defines a system of states, composed
by the feasible transition paths between those states, and the
parameters of those transitions. The paths and parameters may be
a representative way to address healthcare issues, such as to identify
the most likely sequence of patient health states given the sequence
of observations. Furthermore estimating the length of stay (LoS) of
patients in hospitalization is one of the challenges that Markov models
allow us to solve. However, finding the maximum probability of
any path that gets to state at time t, can have high computational
cost. A quantum approach allows us to take advantage of quantum
computation since the calculated probabilities can be in several states,
ending up to outperform classical computing due to the possible
superposition of states when handling large amounts of data. The
aid of quantum physics-based architectures and machine learning
techniques are therefore appropriated to address the complexity of
Analysis of Linguistic Disfluencies in Bilingual Children’s Discourse
Speech disfluencies are common in spontaneous speech. The primary purpose of this study was to distinguish linguistic disfluencies from stuttering disfluencies in bilingual Tamil–English (TE) speaking children. The secondary purpose was to determine whether their disfluencies are mediated by native language dominance and/or on an early onset of developmental stuttering at childhood. A detailed study was carried out to identify the prosodic and acoustic features that uniquely represent the disfluent regions of speech. This paper focuses on statistical modeling of repetitions, prolongations, pauses and interjections in the speech corpus encompassing bilingual spontaneous utterances from school going children – English and Tamil. Two classifiers including Hidden Markov Models (HMM) and the Multilayer Perceptron (MLP), which is a class of feed-forward artificial neural network, were compared in the classification of disfluencies. The results of the classifiers document the patterns of disfluency in spontaneous speech samples of school-aged children to distinguish between Children Who Stutter (CWS) and Children with Language Impairment CLI). The ability of the models in classifying the disfluencies was measured in terms of F-measure, Recall, and Precision.
Classification of State Transition by Using a Microwave Doppler Sensor for Wandering Detection
With global aging, people who require care, such as people with dementia (PwD), are increasing within many developed countries. And PwDs may wander and unconsciously set foot outdoors, it may lead serious accidents, such as, traffic accidents. Here, round-the-clock monitoring by caregivers is necessary, which can be a burden for the caregivers. Therefore, an automatic wandering detection system is required when an elderly person wanders outdoors, in which case the detection system transmits a ‘moving’ followed by an ‘absence’ state. In this paper, we focus on the transition from the ‘resting’ to the ‘absence’ state, via the ‘moving’ state as one of the wandering transitions. To capture the transition of the three states, our method based on the hidden Markov model (HMM) is built. Using our method, the restraint where the ‘resting’ state and ‘absence’ state cannot be transmitted to each other is applied. To validate our method, we conducted the experiment with 10 subjects. Our results show that the method can classify three states with 0.92 accuracy.
Exploring the Activity Fabric of an Intelligent Environment with Hierarchical Hidden Markov Theory
The Internet of Things (IoT) was designed for widespread convenience. With the smart tag and the sensing network, a large quantity of dynamic information is immediately presented in the IoT. Through the internal communication and interaction, meaningful objects provide real-time services for users. Therefore, the service with appropriate decision-making has become an essential issue. Based on the science of human behavior, this study employed the environment model to record the time sequences and locations of different behaviors and adopted the probability module of the hierarchical Hidden Markov Model for the inference. The statistical analysis was conducted to achieve the following objectives: First, define user behaviors and predict the user behavior routes with the environment model to analyze user purposes. Second, construct the hierarchical Hidden Markov Model according to the logic framework, and establish the sequential intensity among behaviors to get acquainted with the use and activity fabric of the intelligent environment. Third, establish the intensity of the relation between the probability of objects’ being used and the objects. The indicator can describe the possible limitations of the mechanism. As the process is recorded in the information of the system created in this study, these data can be reused to adjust the procedure of intelligent design services.
Part of Speech Tagging Using Statistical Approach for Nepali Text
Part of Speech Tagging has always been a challenging task in the era of Natural Language Processing. This article presents POS tagging for Nepali text using Hidden Markov Model and Viterbi algorithm. From the Nepali text, annotated corpus training and testing data set are randomly separated. Both methods are employed on the data sets. Viterbi algorithm is found to be computationally faster and accurate as compared to HMM. The accuracy of 95.43% is achieved using Viterbi algorithm. Error analysis where the mismatches took place is elaborately discussed.
Maintenance Alternatives Related to Costs of Wind Turbines Using Finite State Markov Model
The cumulative costs for O&M may represent as
much as 65%-90% of the turbine's investment cost. Nowadays the
cost effectiveness concept becomes a decision-making and
technology evaluation metric. The cost of energy metric accounts for
the effect replacement cost and unscheduled maintenance cost
parameters. One key of the proposed approach is the idea of
maintaining the WTs which can be captured via use of a finite state
Markov chain. Such a model can be embedded within a probabilistic
operation and maintenance simulation reflecting the action to be
done. In this paper, an approach of estimating the cost of O&M is
presented. The finite state Markov model is used for decision
problems with number of determined periods (life cycle) to predict
the cost according to various options of maintenance.
A Hybrid System of Hidden Markov Models and Recurrent Neural Networks for Learning Deterministic Finite State Automata
In this paper, we present an optimization technique or
a learning algorithm using the hybrid architecture by combining the
most popular sequence recognition models such as Recurrent Neural
Networks (RNNs) and Hidden Markov models (HMMs). In order to
improve the sequence/pattern recognition/classification performance
by applying a hybrid/neural symbolic approach, a gradient descent
learning algorithm is developed using the Real Time Recurrent
Learning of Recurrent Neural Network for processing the knowledge
represented in trained Hidden Markov Models. The developed hybrid
algorithm is implemented on automata theory as a sample test beds
and the performance of the designed algorithm is demonstrated and
evaluated on learning the deterministic finite state automata.
Advances in Artificial Intelligence Using Speech Recognition
This research study aims to present a retrospective
study about speech recognition systems and artificial intelligence.
Speech recognition has become one of the widely used technologies,
as it offers great opportunity to interact and communicate with
automated machines. Precisely, it can be affirmed that speech
recognition facilitates its users and helps them to perform their daily
routine tasks, in a more convenient and effective manner. This
research intends to present the illustration of recent technological
advancements, which are associated with artificial intelligence.
Recent researches have revealed the fact that speech recognition is
found to be the utmost issue, which affects the decoding of speech. In
order to overcome these issues, different statistical models were
developed by the researchers. Some of the most prominent statistical
models include acoustic model (AM), language model (LM), lexicon
model, and hidden Markov models (HMM). The research will help in
understanding all of these statistical models of speech recognition.
Researchers have also formulated different decoding methods, which
are being utilized for realistic decoding tasks and constrained
artificial languages. These decoding methods include pattern
recognition, acoustic phonetic, and artificial intelligence. It has been
recognized that artificial intelligence is the most efficient and reliable
methods, which are being used in speech recognition.
An Optimal Bayesian Maintenance Policy for a Partially Observable System Subject to Two Failure Modes
In this paper, we present a new maintenance model
for a partially observable system subject to two failure modes,
namely a catastrophic failure and a failure due to the system
degradation. The system is subject to condition monitoring and the
degradation process is described by a hidden Markov model. A
cost-optimal Bayesian control policy is developed for maintaining
the system. The control problem is formulated in the semi-Markov
decision process framework. An effective computational algorithm is
developed, illustrated by a numerical example.
Residual Life Prediction for a System Subject to Condition Monitoring and Two Failure Modes
In this paper, we investigate the residual life prediction
problem for a partially observable system subject to two failure
modes, namely a catastrophic failure and a failure due to the system
degradation. The system is subject to condition monitoring and the
degradation process is described by a hidden Markov model with
unknown parameters. The parameter estimation procedure based on
an EM algorithm is developed and the formulas for the conditional
reliability function and the mean residual life are derived, illustrated
by a numerical example.
Multiple Targets Classification and Fuzzy Logic Decision Fusion in Wireless Sensor Networks
This paper proposes a hierarchical hidden Markov model (HHMM) to model the detection of M vehicles in a wireless sensor network (WSN). The HHMM model contains an extra level of hidden Markov model to model the temporal transitions of each
state of the first HMM. By modeling the temporal transitions, only those hypothesis with nonzero transition probabilities needs to be tested. Thus, this method efficiently reduces the computation load, which is preferable in WSN applications.This paper integrates several techniques to optimize the detection performance. The output of the states of the first HMM is modeled as Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM), where the number of states and the number of Gaussians are experimentally determined, while the other parameters are estimated using Expectation Maximization (EM). HHMM is used to model the sequence of the local decisions which are based on multiple hypothesis testing with maximum likelihood approach. The states in the HHMM represent various combinations of vehicles of different types. Due to the statistical advantages of multisensor data fusion, we propose a heuristic based on fuzzy weighted majority voting to enhance cooperative classification of moving vehicles within a region that is monitored by a wireless sensor network. A fuzzy inference system weighs each local decision based on the signal to noise
ratio of the acoustic signal for target detection and the signal to noise ratio of the radio signal for sensor communication. The spatial correlation among the observations of neighboring sensor nodes is efficiently utilized as well as the temporal correlation. Simulation results demonstrate the efficiency of this scheme.
Review of Surface Electromyogram Signals: Its Analysis and Applications
Electromyography (EMG) is the study of muscles function through analysis of electrical activity produced from muscles. This electrical activity which is displayed in the form of signal is the result of neuromuscular activation associated with muscle contraction. The most common techniques of EMG signal recording are by using surface and needle/wire electrode where the latter is usually used for interest in deep muscle. This paper will focus on surface electromyogram (SEMG) signal. During SEMG recording, several problems had to been countered such as noise, motion artifact and signal instability. Thus, various signal processing techniques had been implemented to produce a reliable signal for analysis. SEMG signal finds broad application particularly in biomedical field. It had been analyzed and studied for various interests such as neuromuscular disease, enhancement of muscular function and human-computer interface.
Event Information Extraction System (EIEE): FSM vs HMM
Automatic Extraction of Event information from
social text stream (emails, social network sites, blogs etc) is a vital
requirement for many applications like Event Planning and
Management systems and security applications. The key information
components needed from Event related text are Event title, location,
participants, date and time. Emails have very unique distinctions over
other social text streams from the perspective of layout and format
and conversation style and are the most commonly used
communication channel for broadcasting and planning events.
Therefore we have chosen emails as our dataset. In our work, we
have employed two statistical NLP methods, named as Finite State
Machines (FSM) and Hidden Markov Model (HMM) for the
extraction of event related contextual information. An application
has been developed providing a comparison among the two methods
over the event extraction task. It comprises of two modules, one for
each method, and works for both bulk as well as direct user input.
The results are evaluated using Precision, Recall and F-Score.
Experiments show that both methods produce high performance and
accuracy, however HMM was good enough over Title extraction and
FSM proved to be better for Venue, Date, and time.
Musical Instrument Classification Using Embedded Hidden Markov Models
In this paper, a novel method for recognition of musical
instruments in a polyphonic music is presented by using an
embedded hidden Markov model (EHMM). EHMM is a doubly
embedded HMM structure where each state of the external HMM
is an independent HMM. The classification is accomplished for
two different internal HMM structures where GMMs are used as
likelihood estimators for the internal HMMs. The results are compared
to those achieved by an artificial neural network with two
hidden layers. Appropriate classification accuracies were achieved
both for solo instrument performance and instrument combinations
which demonstrates that the new approach outperforms the similar
classification methods by means of the dynamic of the signal.
Unconstrained Arabic Online Handwritten Words Segmentation using New HMM State Design
In this paper we propose a segmentation system for unconstrained Arabic online handwriting. An essential problem addressed by analytical-based word recognition system. The system is composed of two-stages the first is a newly special designed hidden Markov model (HMM) and the second is a rules based stage. In our system, handwritten words are broken up into characters by simultaneous segmentation-recognition using HMMs of unique design trained using online features most of which are novel. The HMM output characters boundaries represent the proposed segmentation points (PSP) which are then validated by rules-based post stage without any contextual information help to solve different segmentation errors. The HMM has been designed and tested using a self collected dataset (OHASD) . Most errors cases are cured and remarkable segmentation enhancement is achieved. Very promising word and character segmentation rates are obtained regarding the unconstrained Arabic handwriting difficulty and not using context help.
Comparison among Various Question Generations for Decision Tree Based State Tying in Persian Language
Performance of any continuous speech recognition system is highly dependent on performance of the acoustic models. Generally, development of the robust spoken language technology relies on the availability of large amounts of data. Common way to cope with little data for training each state of Markov models is treebased state tying. This tying method applies contextual questions to tie states. Manual procedure for question generation suffers from human errors and is time consuming. Various automatically generated questions are used to construct decision tree. There are three approaches to generate questions to construct HMMs based on decision tree. One approach is based on misrecognized phonemes, another approach basically uses feature table and the other is based on state distributions corresponding to context-independent subword units. In this paper, all these methods of automatic question generation are applied to the decision tree on FARSDAT corpus in Persian language and their results are compared with those of manually generated questions. The results show that automatically generated questions yield much better results and can replace manually generated questions in Persian language.
A Hidden Markov Model for Modeling Pavement Deterioration under Incomplete Monitoring Data
In this paper, the potential use of an exponential
hidden Markov model to model a hidden pavement deterioration
process, i.e. one that is not directly measurable, is investigated. It is
assumed that the evolution of the physical condition, which is the
hidden process, and the evolution of the values of pavement distress
indicators, can be adequately described using discrete condition states
and modeled as a Markov processes. It is also assumed that condition
data can be collected by visual inspections over time and represented
continuously using an exponential distribution. The advantage of
using such a model in decision making process is illustrated through
an empirical study using real world data.
Improvement of MLLR Speaker Adaptation Using a Novel Method
This paper presents a technical speaker adaptation
method called WMLLR, which is based on maximum likelihood linear
regression (MLLR). In MLLR, a linear regression-based transform
which adapted the HMM mean vectors was calculated to maximize the
likelihood of adaptation data. In this paper, the prior knowledge of the
initial model is adequately incorporated into the adaptation. A series of
speaker adaptation experiments are carried out at a 30 famous city
names database to investigate the efficiency of the proposed method.
Experimental results show that the WMLLR method outperforms the
conventional MLLR method, especially when only few utterances
from a new speaker are available for adaptation.
Javanese Character Recognition Using Hidden Markov Model
Hidden Markov Model (HMM) is a stochastic method
which has been used in various signal processing and character
recognition. This study proposes to use HMM to recognize Javanese
characters from a number of different handwritings, whereby HMM
is used to optimize the number of state and feature extraction. An
85.7 % accuracy is obtained as the best result in 16-stated vertical
model using pure HMM. This initial result is satisfactory for
prompting further research.
Fusion Classifier for Open-Set Face Recognition with Pose Variations
A fusion classifier composed of two modules, one made by a hidden Markov model (HMM) and the other by a support vector machine (SVM), is proposed to recognize faces with pose variations in open-set recognition settings. The HMM module captures the evolution of facial features across a subject-s face using the subject-s facial images only, without referencing to the faces of others. Because of the captured evolutionary process of facial features, the HMM module retains certain robustness against pose variations, yielding low false rejection rates (FRR) for recognizing faces across poses. This is, however, on the price of poor false acceptance rates (FAR) when recognizing other faces because it is built upon withinclass samples only. The SVM module in the proposed model is developed following a special design able to substantially diminish the FAR and further lower down the FRR. The proposed fusion classifier has been evaluated in performance using the CMU PIE database, and proven effective for open-set face recognition with pose variations. Experiments have also shown that it outperforms the face classifier made by HMM or SVM alone.
Application of Smooth Ergodic Hidden Markov Model in Text to Speech Systems
In developing a text-to-speech system, it is well
known that the accuracy of information extracted from a text is
crucial to produce high quality synthesized speech. In this paper, a
new scheme for converting text into its equivalent phonetic spelling
is introduced and developed. This method is applicable to many
applications in text to speech converting systems and has many
advantages over other methods. The proposed method can also
complement the other methods with a purpose of improving their
performance. The proposed method is a probabilistic model and is
based on Smooth Ergodic Hidden Markov Model. This model can be
considered as an extension to HMM. The proposed method is applied
to Persian language and its accuracy in converting text to speech
phonetics is evaluated using simulations.
NonStationary CMA for Decision Feedback Equalization of Markovian Time Varying Channels
In this paper, we propose a modified version of the
Constant Modulus Algorithm (CMA) tailored for blind Decision
Feedback Equalizer (DFE) of first order Markovian time varying
channels. The proposed NonStationary CMA (NSCMA) is designed
so that it explicitly takes into account the Markovian structure of
the channel nonstationarity. Hence, unlike the classical CMA, the
NSCMA is not blind with respect to the channel time variations.
This greatly helps the equalizer in the case of realistic channels, and
avoids frequent transmissions of training sequences.
This paper develops a theoretical analysis of the steady state
performance of the CMA and the NSCMA for DFEs within a time
varying context. Therefore, approximate expressions of the mean
square errors are derived. We prove that in the steady state, the
NSCMA exhibits better performance than the classical CMA. These
new results are confirmed by simulation.
Through an experimental study, we demonstrate that the Bit Error
Rate (BER) is reduced by the NSCMA-DFE, and the improvement
of the BER achieved by the NSCMA-DFE is as significant as the
channel time variations are severe.
Efficient System for Speech Recognition using General Regression Neural Network
In this paper we present an efficient system for
independent speaker speech recognition based on neural network
approach. The proposed architecture comprises two phases: a
preprocessing phase which consists in segmental normalization and
features extraction and a classification phase which uses neural
networks based on nonparametric density estimation namely the
general regression neural network (GRNN). The relative
performances of the proposed model are compared to the similar
recognition systems based on the Multilayer Perceptron (MLP), the
Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) and the well known Discrete
Hidden Markov Model (HMM-VQ) that we have achieved also.
Experimental results obtained with Arabic digits have shown that the
use of nonparametric density estimation with an appropriate
smoothing factor (spread) improves the generalization power of the
neural network. The word error rate (WER) is reduced significantly
over the baseline HMM method. GRNN computation is a successful
alternative to the other neural network and DHMM.
Evolutionary Training of Hybrid Systems of Recurrent Neural Networks and Hidden Markov Models
We present a hybrid architecture of recurrent neural
networks (RNNs) inspired by hidden Markov models (HMMs). We
train the hybrid architecture using genetic algorithms to learn and
represent dynamical systems. We train the hybrid architecture on a
set of deterministic finite-state automata strings and observe the
generalization performance of the hybrid architecture when presented
with a new set of strings which were not present in the training data
set. In this way, we show that the hybrid system of HMM and RNN
can learn and represent deterministic finite-state automata. We ran
experiments with different sets of population sizes in the genetic
algorithm; we also ran experiments to find out which weight
initializations were best for training the hybrid architecture. The
results show that the hybrid architecture of recurrent neural networks
inspired by hidden Markov models can train and represent dynamical
systems. The best training and generalization performance is
achieved when the hybrid architecture is initialized with random real
weight values of range -15 to 15.
Word Recognition and Learning based on Associative Memories and Hidden Markov Models
A word recognition architecture based on a network
of neural associative memories and hidden Markov models has been
developed. The input stream, composed of subword-units like wordinternal
triphones consisting of diphones and triphones, is provided
to the network of neural associative memories by hidden Markov
models. The word recognition network derives words from this input
stream. The architecture has the ability to handle ambiguities on
subword-unit level and is also able to add new words to the
vocabulary during performance. The architecture is implemented to
perform the word recognition task in a language processing system
for understanding simple command sentences like “bot show apple".
Speaker Independent Quranic Recognizer Basedon Maximum Likelihood Linear Regression
An automatic speech recognition system for the
formal Arabic language is needed. The Quran is the most formal
spoken book in Arabic, it is spoken all over the world. In this
research, an automatic speech recognizer for Quranic based speakerindependent
was developed and tested. The system was developed
based on the tri-phone Hidden Markov Model and Maximum
Likelihood Linear Regression (MLLR). The MLLR computes a set
of transformations which reduces the mismatch between an initial
model set and the adaptation data. It uses the regression class tree, as
well as, estimates a set of linear transformations for the mean and
variance parameters of a Gaussian mixture HMM system. The 30th
Chapter of the Quran, with five of the most famous readers of the
Quran, was used for the training and testing of the data. The chapter
includes about 2000 distinct words. The advantages of using the
Quranic verses as the database in this developed recognizer are the
uniqueness of the words and the high level of orderliness between
verses. The level of accuracy from the tested data ranged 68 to 85%.
A New Vector Quantization Front-End Process for Discrete HMM Speech Recognition System
The paper presents a complete discrete statistical framework, based on a novel vector quantization (VQ) front-end process. This new VQ approach performs an optimal distribution of VQ codebook components on HMM states. This technique that we named the distributed vector quantization (DVQ) of hidden Markov models, succeeds in unifying acoustic micro-structure and phonetic macro-structure, when the estimation of HMM parameters is performed. The DVQ technique is implemented through two variants. The first variant uses the K-means algorithm (K-means- DVQ) to optimize the VQ, while the second variant exploits the benefits of the classification behavior of neural networks (NN-DVQ) for the same purpose. The proposed variants are compared with the HMM-based baseline system by experiments of specific Arabic consonants recognition. The results show that the distributed vector quantization technique increase the performance of the discrete HMM system.