|Commenced in January 2007||Frequency: Monthly||Edition: International||Paper Count: 5|
Studying DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) sequence is useful in biological processes and it is applied in the fields such as diagnostic and forensic research. DNA is the hereditary information in human and almost all other organisms. It is passed to their generations. Earlier stage detection of defective DNA sequence may lead to many developments in the field of Bioinformatics. Nowadays various tedious techniques are used to identify defective DNA. The proposed work is to analyze and identify the cancer-causing DNA motif in a given sequence. Initially the human DNA sequence is separated as k-mers using k-mer separation rule. The separated k-mers are clustered using Self Organizing Map (SOM). Using Levenshtein distance measure, cancer associated DNA motif is identified from the k-mer clusters. Experimental results of this work indicate the presence or absence of cancer causing DNA motif. If the cancer associated DNA motif is found in DNA, it is declared as the cancer disease causing DNA sequence. Otherwise the input human DNA is declared as normal sequence. Finally, elapsed time is calculated for finding the presence of cancer causing DNA motif using clustering formation. It is compared with normal process of finding cancer causing DNA motif. Locating cancer associated motif is easier in cluster formation process than the other one. The proposed work will be an initiative aid for finding genetic disease related research.
GRF, Growth regulating factor, genes encode a novel class of plant-specific transcription factors. The GRF proteins play a role in the regulation of cell numbers in young and growing tissues and may act as transcription activations in growth and development of plants. Identification of GRF genes and their expression are important in plants to performance of the growth and development of various organs. In this study, to better understanding the structural and functional differences of GRFs family, 45 GRF proteins sequences in A. thaliana, Z. mays, O. sativa, B. napus, B. rapa, H. vulgare and S. bicolor, have been collected and analyzed through bioinformatics data mining. As a result, in secondary structure of GRFs, the number of alpha helices was more than beta sheets and in all of them QLQ domains were completely in the biggest alpha helix. In all GRFs, QLQ and WRC domains were completely protected except in AtGRF9. These proteins have no trans-membrane domain and due to have nuclear localization signals act in nuclear and they are component of unstable proteins in the test tube.
In biological and biomedical research motif finding tools are important in locating regulatory elements in DNA sequences. There are many such motif finding tools available, which often yield position weight matrices and significance indicators. These indicators, p-values and E-values, describe the likelihood that a motif alignment is generated by the background process, and the expected number of occurrences of the motif in the data set, respectively. The various tools often estimate these indicators differently, making them not directly comparable. One approach for comparing motifs from different tools, is computing the E-value as the product of the p-value and the number of possible alignments in the data set. In this paper we explore the combinatorics of the motif alignment models OOPS, ZOOPS, and ANR, and propose a generic algorithm for computing the number of possible combinations accurately. We also show that using the wrong alignment model can give E-values that significantly diverge from their true values.