Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 16

Enhancement of Pulsed Eddy Current Response Based on Power Spectral Density after Continuous Wavelet Transform Decomposition

The main objective of this work is to enhance the Pulsed Eddy Current (PEC) response from the aluminum structure using signal processing. Cracks and metal loss in different structures cause changes in PEC response measurements. In this paper, time-frequency analysis is used to represent PEC response, which generates a large quantity of data and reduce the noise due to measurement. Power Spectral Density (PSD) after Wavelet Decomposition (PSD-WD) is proposed for defect detection. The experimental results demonstrate that the cracks in the surface can be extracted satisfactorily by the proposed methods. The validity of the proposed method is discussed.

Reinforced Concrete Bridge Deck Condition Assessment Methods Using Ground Penetrating Radar and Infrared Thermography

Reinforced concrete bridge deck condition assessments primarily use visual inspection methods, where an inspector looks for and records locations of cracks, potholes, efflorescence and other signs of probable deterioration. Sounding is another technique used to diagnose the condition of a bridge deck, however this method listens for damage within the subsurface as the surface is struck with a hammer or chain. Even though extensive procedures are in place for using these inspection techniques, neither one provides the inspector with a comprehensive understanding of the internal condition of a bridge deck – the location where damage originates from.  In order to make accurate estimates of repair locations and quantities, in addition to allocating the necessary funding, a total understanding of the deck’s deteriorated state is key. The research presented in this paper collected infrared thermography and ground penetrating radar data from reinforced concrete bridge decks without an asphalt overlay. These decks were of various ages and their condition varied from brand new, to in need of replacement. The goals of this work were to first verify that these nondestructive evaluation methods could identify similar areas of healthy and damaged concrete, and then to see if combining the results of both methods would provide a higher confidence than if the condition assessment was completed using only one method. The results from each method were presented as plan view color contour plots. The results from one of the decks assessed as a part of this research, including these plan view plots, are presented in this paper. Furthermore, in order to answer the interest of transportation agencies throughout the United States, this research developed a step-by-step guide which demonstrates how to collect and assess a bridge deck using these nondestructive evaluation methods. This guide addresses setup procedures on the deck during the day of data collection, system setups and settings for different bridge decks, data post-processing for each method, and data visualization and quantification.

Seismic Vulnerability Assessment of Masonry Buildings in Seismic Prone Regions: The Case of Annaba City, Algeria
Seismic vulnerability assessment of masonry buildings is a fundamental issue even for moderate to low seismic hazard regions. This fact is even more important when dealing with old structures such as those located in Annaba city (Algeria), which the majority of dates back to the French colonial era from 1830. This category of buildings is in high risk due to their highly degradation state, heterogeneous materials and intrusive modifications to structural and non-structural elements. Furthermore, they are usually shelter a dense population, which is exposed to such risk. In order to undertake a suitable seismic risk mitigation strategies and reinforcement process for such structures, it is essential to estimate their seismic resistance capacity at a large scale. In this sense, two seismic vulnerability index methods and damage estimation have been adapted and applied to a pilot-scale building area located in the moderate seismic hazard region of Annaba city: The first one based on the EMS-98 building typologies, and the second one derived from the Italian GNDT approach. To perform this task, the authors took the advantage of an existing data survey previously performed for other purposes. The results obtained from the application of the two methods were integrated and compared using a geographic information system tool (GIS), with the ultimate goal of supporting the city council of Annaba for the implementation of risk mitigation and emergency planning strategies.
A Study on the Non-Destructive Test Characterization of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics Using Thermo-Graphic Camera

Non-destructive testing and evaluation techniques for assessing the integrity of composite structures are essential to both reduce manufacturing costs and out of service time of transport means due to maintenance. In this study, Analyze into non-destructive test characterization of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) internal and external defects using thermo-graphic camera and transient thermography method. non-destructive testing were characterized by defect size (Ø8, Ø10, Ø12, Ø14) and depth (1.2mm, 2.4mm).

Model-Based Control for Piezoelectric-Actuated Systems Using Inverse Prandtl-Ishlinskii Model and Particle Swarm Optimization

In this paper feedforward controller is designed to eliminate nonlinear hysteresis behaviors of a piezoelectric stack actuator (PSA) driven system. The control design is based on inverse Prandtl-Ishlinskii (P-I) hysteresis model identified using particle swarm optimization (PSO) technique. Based on the identified P-I model, both the inverse P-I hysteresis model and feedforward controller can be determined. Experimental results obtained using the inverse P-I feedforward control are compared with their counterparts using hysteresis estimates obtained from the identified Bouc-Wen model. Effectiveness of the proposed feedforward control scheme is demonstrated. To improve control performance feedback compensation using traditional PID scheme is adopted to integrate with the feedforward controller. 

Natural Convection Heat Transfer from Inclined Cylinders: A Unified Correlation

An empirical correlation for predicting the heat transfer coefficient for a cylinder under free convection, inclined at any arbitrary angle with the horizontal has been developed in terms of Nusselt number, Prandtl number and Grashof number. Available experimental data was used to determine the parameters for the proposed correlation. The proposed correlation predicts the available data well within ±10%, for Prandtl number in the range 0.68-0.72 and Grashof number in the range 1.4×104–1.2×1010.

Prediction of Compressive Strength Using Artificial Neural Network

Structures are a combination of various load carrying members which transfer the loads to the foundation from the superstructure safely. At the design stage, the loading of the structure is defined and appropriate material choices are made based upon their properties, mainly related to strength. The strength of materials kept on reducing with time because of many factors like environmental exposure and deformation caused by unpredictable external loads. Hence, to predict the strength of materials used in structures, various techniques are used. Among these techniques, Non-destructive techniques (NDT) are the one that can be used to predict the strength without damaging the structure. In the present study, the compressive strength of concrete has been predicted using Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The predicted strength was compared with the experimentally obtained actual compressive strength of concrete and equations were developed for different models. A good co-relation has been obtained between the predicted strength by these models and experimental values. Further, the co-relation has been developed using two NDT techniques for prediction of strength by regression analysis. It was found that the percentage error has been reduced between the predicted strength by using combined techniques in place of single techniques.

Development of an Infrared Thermography Method with CO2 Laser Excitation, Applied to Defect Detection in CFRP

This paper presents a NDT by infrared thermography with excitation CO2 Laser, wavelength of 10.6 μm. This excitation is the controllable heating beam, confirmed by a preliminary test on a wooden plate 1.2 m x 0.9 m x 1 cm. As the first practice, this method is applied to detecting the defect in CFRP heated by the Laser 300 W during 40 s. Two samples 40 cm x 40 cm x 4.5 cm are prepared, one with defect, another one without defect. The laser beam passes through the lens of a deviation device, and heats the samples placed at a determinate position and area. As a result, the absence of adhesive can be detected. This method displays prominently its application as NDT with the composite materials. This work gives a good perspective to characterize the laser beam, which is very useful for the next detection campaigns.

Modeling and Simulation of Delaminations in FML Using Step Pulsed Active Thermography

The study focuses to investigate the thermal response of delaminations and develop mathematical models using numerical results to obtain the optimum heat requirement and time to identify delaminations in GLARE type of Fibre Metal Laminates (FML) in both reflection mode and through-transmission (TT) mode of step pulsed active thermography (SPAT) method in the type of nondestructive testing and evaluation (NDTE) technique. The influence of applied heat flux and time on various sizes and depth of delaminations in FML is analyzed to investigate the thermal response through numerical simulations. A finite element method (FEM) is applied to simulate SPAT through ANSYS software based on 3D transient heat transfer principle with the assumption of reflection mode and TT mode of observation individually.

The results conclude that the numerical approach based on SPAT in reflection mode is more suitable for analysing smaller size of near-surface delaminations located at the thermal stimulator side and TT mode is more suitable for analysing smaller size of deeper delaminations located far from thermal stimulator side or near thermal detector/Infrared camera side. The mathematical models provide the optimum q and T at the required MRTD to identify unidentified delamination 7 with 25015.0022W/m2 at 2.531sec and delamination 8 with 16663.3356 W/m2 at 1.37857sec in reflection mode. In TT mode, the delamination 1 with 34954W/m2 at 13.0399sec, delamination 2 with 20002.67W/m2 at 1.998sec and delamination 7 with 20010.87 W/m2 at 0.6171sec could be identified.

Effect of Prandtl Number on Natural Convection Heat Transfer from a Heated Semi-Circular Cylinder
Natural convection heat transfer from a heated horizontal semi-circular cylinder (flat surface upward) has been investigated for the following ranges of conditions; Grashof number, and Prandtl number. The governing partial differential equations (continuity, Navier-Stokes and energy equations) have been solved numerically using a finite volume formulation. In addition, the role of the type of the thermal boundary condition imposed at cylinder surface, namely, constant wall temperature (CWT) and constant heat flux (CHF) are explored. Natural convection heat transfer from a heated horizontal semi-circular cylinder (flat surface upward) has been investigated for the following ranges of conditions; Grashof number, and Prandtl number, . The governing partial differential equations (continuity, Navier-Stokes and energy equations) have been solved numerically using a finite volume formulation. In addition, the role of the type of the thermal boundary condition imposed at cylinder surface, namely, constant wall temperature (CWT) and constant heat flux (CHF) are explored. The resulting flow and temperature fields are visualized in terms of the streamline and isotherm patterns in the proximity of the cylinder. The flow remains attached to the cylinder surface over the range of conditions spanned here except that for and ; at these conditions, a separated flow region is observed when the condition of the constant wall temperature is prescribed on the surface of the cylinder. The heat transfer characteristics are analyzed in terms of the local and average Nusselt numbers. The maximum value of the local Nusselt number always occurs at the corner points whereas it is found to be minimum at the rear stagnation point on the flat surface. Overall, the average Nusselt number increases with Grashof number and/ or Prandtl number in accordance with the scaling considerations. The numerical results are used to develop simple correlations as functions of Grashof and Prandtl number thereby enabling the interpolation of the present numerical results for the intermediate values of the Prandtl or Grashof numbers for both thermal boundary conditions.
Numerical Study of Vertical Wall Jets: Influence of the Prandtl Number
This paper is a numerical investigation of a laminar isothermal plane two dimensional wall jet. Special attention has been paid to the effect of the inlet conditions at the nozzle exit on the hydrodynamic and thermal characteristics of the flow. The behaviour of various fluids evolving in both forced and mixed convection regimes near a vertical plate plane is carried out. The system of governing equations is solved with an implicit finite difference scheme. For numerical stability we use a staggered non uniform grid. The obtained results show that the effect of the Prandtl number is significant in the plume region in which the jet flow is governed by buoyant forces. Further for ascending X values, the buoyancy forces become dominating, and a certain agreement between the temperature profiles are observed, which shows that the velocity profile has no longer influence on the wall temperature evolution in this region. Fluids with low Prandtl number warm up more importantly, because for such fluids the effect of heat diffusion is higher.
The Integrated Management of Health Care Strategies and Differential Diagnosis by Expert System Technology: A Single-Dimensional Approach

The Integrated Management of Child illnesses (IMCI) and the surveillance Health Information Systems (HIS) are related strategies that are designed to manage child illnesses and community practices of diseases. However, both strategies do not function well together because of classification incompatibilities and, as such, are difficult to use by health care personnel in rural areas where a majority of people lack the basic knowledge of interpreting disease classification from these methods. This paper discusses a single approach on how a stand-alone expert system can be used as a prompt diagnostic tool for all cases of illnesses presented. The system combines the action-oriented IMCI and the disease-oriented HIS approaches to diagnose malaria and typhoid fever in the rural areas of the Niger-delta region.

The Comparison of Form Drag and Profile Dragof a Wind Turbine Blade Section in Pitching Oscillation
Extensive wind tunnel tests have been conducted to investigate the unsteady flow field over and behind a 2D model of a 660 kW wind turbine blade section in pitching motion. The surface pressure and wake dynamic pressure variation at a distance of 1.5 chord length from trailing edge were measured by pressure transducers during several oscillating cycles at 3 reduced frequencies and oscillating amplitudes. Moreover, form drag and linear momentum deficit are extracted and compared at various conditions. The results show that the wake velocity field and surface pressure of the model have similar behavior before and after the airfoil beyond the static stall angle of attack. In addition, the effects of reduced frequency and oscillation amplitudes are discussed.
Numerical Study of Transient Laminar Natural Convection Cooling of high Prandtl Number Fluids in a Cubical Cavity: Influence of the Prandtl Number

This paper presents and discusses the numerical simulations of transient laminar natural convection cooling of high Prandtl number fluids in cubical cavities, in which the six walls of the cavity are subjected to a step change in temperature. The effect of the fluid Prandtl number on the heat transfer coefficient is studied for three different fluids (Golden Syrup, Glycerin and Glycerin-water solution 50%). The simulations are performed at two different Rayleigh numbers (5·106 and 5·107) and six different Prandtl numbers (3 · 105 ≥Pr≥ 50). Heat conduction through the cavity glass walls is also considered. The propsed correlations of the averaged heat transfer coefficient (N u) showed that it is dependant on the initial Ra and almost independent on P r. The instantaneous flow patterns, temperature contours and time evolution of volume averaged temperature and heat transfer coefficient are presented and analyzed.

Public R and D Risk and Risk Management Policy
R&D risk management has been suggested as one of the management approaches for accomplishing the goals of public R&D investment. The investment in basic science and core technology development is the essential roles of government for securing the social base needed for continuous economic growth. And, it is also an important role of the science and technology policy sectors to generate a positive environment in which the outcomes of public R&D can be diffused in a stable fashion by controlling the uncertainties and risk factors in advance that may arise during the application of such achievements to society and industry. Various policies have already been implemented to manage uncertainties and variables that may have negative impact on accomplishing public R& investment goals. But we may derive new policy measures for complementing the existing policies and for exploring progress direction by analyzing them in a policy package from the viewpoint of R&D risk management.
Classification of Defects by the SVM Method and the Principal Component Analysis (PCA)
Analyses carried out on examples of detected defects echoes showed clearly that one can describe these detected forms according to a whole of characteristic parameters in order to be able to make discrimination between a planar defect and a volumic defect. This work answers to a problem of ultrasonics NDT like Identification of the defects. The problems as well as the objective of this realized work, are divided in three parts: Extractions of the parameters of wavelets from the ultrasonic echo of the detected defect - the second part is devoted to principal components analysis (PCA) for optimization of the attributes vector. And finally to establish the algorithm of classification (SVM, Support Vector Machine) which allows discrimination between a plane defect and a volumic defect. We have completed this work by a conclusion where we draw up a summary of the completed works, as well as the robustness of the various algorithms proposed in this study.
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