Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 26

26
10008817
Evaluation of NH3-Slip from Diesel Vehicles Equipped with Selective Catalytic Reduction Systems by Neural Networks Approach
Abstract:
Selective catalytic reduction systems for nitrogen oxides reduction by ammonia has been the chosen technology by most of diesel vehicle (i.e. bus and truck) manufacturers in Brazil, as also in Europe. Furthermore, at some conditions, over-stoichiometric ammonia availability is also needed that increases the NH3 slips even more. Ammonia (NH3) by this vehicle exhaust aftertreatment system provides a maximum efficiency of NOx removal if a significant amount of NH3 is stored on its catalyst surface. In the other words, the practice shows that slightly less than 100% of the NOx conversion is usually targeted, so that the aqueous urea solution hydrolyzes to NH3 via other species formation, under relatively low temperatures. This paper presents a model based on neural networks integrated with a road vehicle simulator that allows to estimate NH3-slip emission factors for different driving conditions and patterns. The proposed model generates high NH3slips which are not also limited in Brazil, but more efforts needed to be made to elucidate the contribution of vehicle-emitted NH3 to the urban atmosphere.
25
10007487
Investigation of Main Operating Parameters Affecting Gas Turbine Efficiency and Gas Releases
Abstract:

This work presents a study on the influence of the main operating variables on the gas turbine cycle. A numerical simulation of a gas turbine cycle is performed for a real net power of 100 MW. A calculation code is developed using EES software. The operating variables are taken in conformity with the local environmental conditions adopted by the Tunisian Society of Electricity and Gas. Results show that the increase of ambient temperature leads to an increase of Tpz and NOx emissions rate and a decrease of cycle efficiency and UHC emissions. The CO emissions decrease with the raise of residence time, while NOx emissions rate increases and UHC emissions rate decreases. Furthermore, both of cycle efficiency and NOx emissions increase with the increase of the pressure ratio.

24
10005891
Microkinetic Modelling of NO Reduction on Pt Catalysts
Abstract:

The major harmful automobile exhausts are nitric oxide (NO) and unburned hydrocarbon (HC). Reduction of NO using unburned fuel HC as a reductant is the technique used in hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reduction (HC-SCR). In this work, we study the microkinetic modelling of NO reduction using propene as a reductant on Pt catalysts. The selectivity of NO reduction to N2O is detected in some ranges of operating conditions, whereas the effect of inlet O2% causes a number of changes in the feasible regimes of operation.

23
10005278
Implementation and Demonstration of Software-Defined Traffic Grooming
Abstract:

Since the traditional network is closed and it has no architecture to create applications, it has been unable to evolve with changing demands under the rapid innovation in services. Additionally, due to the lack of the whole network profile, the quality of service cannot be well guaranteed in the traditional network. The Software Defined Network (SDN) utilizes global resources to support on-demand applications/services via open, standardized and programmable interfaces. In this paper, we implement the traffic grooming application under a real SDN environment, and the corresponding analysis is made. In our SDN: 1) we use OpenFlow protocol to control the entire network by using software applications running on the network operating system; 2) several virtual switches are combined into the data forwarding plane through Open vSwitch; 3) An OpenFlow controller, NOX, is involved as a logically centralized control plane that dynamically configures the data forwarding plane; 4) The traffic grooming based on SDN is demonstrated through dynamically modifying the idle time of flow entries. The experimental results demonstrate that the SDN-based traffic grooming effectively reduces the end-to-end delay, and the improvement ratio arrives to 99%.

22
10005247
Degradation of Amitriptyline Hydrochloride, Methyl Salicylate and 2-Phenoxyethanol in Water Systems by the Combination UV/Cl2
Abstract:

Three emerging contaminants (amitriptyline hydrochloride, methyl salicylate and 2-phenoxyethanol) frequently found in waste-waters were selected to be individually degraded in ultra-pure water by the combined advanced oxidation process constituted by UV radiation and chlorine. The influence of pH, initial chlorine concentration and nature of the contaminants was firstly explored. The trend for the reactivity of the selected compounds was deduced: amitriptyline hydrochloride > methyl salicylate > 2-phenoxyethanol. A later kinetic study was carried out and focused on the specific evaluation of the first-order rate constants and the determination of the partial contribution to the global reaction of the direct photochemical pathway and the radical pathway. A comparison between the rate constant values among photochemical experiments without and with the presence of Cl2 reveals a clear increase in the oxidation efficiency of the combined process with respect to the photochemical reaction alone. In a second stage, the simultaneous oxidation of mixtures of the selected contaminants in several types of water (ultrapure water, surface water from a reservoir, and two secondary effluents) was also performed by the same combination UV/Cl2 under more realistic operating conditions. The efficiency of this combined system UV/Cl2 was compared to other oxidants such as the UV/S2O82- and UV/H2O2 AOPs. Results confirmed that the UV/Cl2 system provides higher elimination efficiencies among the AOPs tested.

21
10004048
Statistically Significant Differences of Carbon Dioxide and Carbon Monoxide Emission in Photocopying Process
Abstract:
Experimental results confirmed the temporal variation of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide concentration during the working shift of the photocopying process in a small photocopying shop in Novi Sad, Serbia. The statistically significant differences of target gases were examined with two-way analysis of variance without replication followed by Scheffe's post hoc test. The existence of statistically significant differences was obtained for carbon monoxide emission which is pointed out with F-values (12.37 and 31.88) greater than Fcrit (6.94) in contrary to carbon dioxide emission (F-values of 1.23 and 3.12 were less than Fcrit).  Scheffe's post hoc test indicated that sampling point A (near the photocopier machine) and second time interval contribute the most on carbon monoxide emission.
20
10001272
Effect of Hydrogen-Diesel Dual Fuel Combustion on the Performance and Emission Characteristics of a Four Stroke-Single Cylinder Diesel Engine
Abstract:

The present work attempts to investigate the combustion, performance and emission characteristics of an existing single-cylinder four-stroke compression-ignition engine operated in dual-fuel mode with hydrogen as an alternative fuel. Environmental concerns and limited amount of petroleum fuels have caused interests in the development of alternative fuels like hydrogen for internal combustion (IC) engines. In this experimental investigation, a diesel engine is made to run using hydrogen in dual fuel mode with diesel, where hydrogen is introduced into the intake manifold using an LPGCNG injector and pilot diesel is injected using diesel injectors. A Timed Manifold Injection (TMI) system has been developed to vary the injection strategies. The optimized timing for the injection of hydrogen was 10^0 CA after top dead center (ATDC). From the study it was observed that with increasing hydrogen rate, enhancement in brake thermal efficiency (BTHE) of the engine has been observed with reduction in brake specific energy consumption (BSEC). Furthermore, Soot contents decrease with an increase in indicated specific NOx emissions with the enhancement of hydrogen flow rate.

19
10002410
Low NOx Combustion of Pulverized Petroleum Cokes
Abstract:
This paper is aimed to study combustion characteristics of low NOx burner using petroleum cokes as fuel. The petroleum coke, which is produced through the oil refining process, is an attractive fuel in terms of its high heating value and low price. But petroleum coke is a challenging fuel because of its low volatile content, high sulfur and nitrogen content, which give rise to undesirable emission characteristics and low ignitability. Therefore, the research and development regarding the petroleum coke burner is needed for applying this industrial system. In this study, combustion and emission characteristics of petroleum cokes burner are experimentally investigated in an industrial steam boiler. The low NOx burner is designed to control fuel and air mixing to achieve staged combustion, which, in turn reduces both flame temperature and oxygen. Air distribution ratio of triple staged air is optimized experimentally. The result showed that NOx concentration is lowest when overfire air is used, and the burner function at a fuel rich condition. That is, the burner is operated at the equivalence ratio of 1.67 and overall equivalence ratio including overfire air is kept 0.87.
18
9999808
Low NOx Combustion Technology for Minimizing NOx
Abstract:

A noble low NOx combustion technology, based on partial oxidation combustion concept in a fuel rich combustion zone, is successfully applied in this research. The burner is designed such that a portion of fuel is heated and pre-vaporized in the furnace then injected into a fuel rich combustion zone so that a partial oxidation reaction occurs. The effects of equivalence ratio, thermal load, and fuel distribution ratio on the emissions of NOx and CO are experimentally investigated. This newly developed combustion technology showed very low NOx emission level, about 12 ppm, when light oil is used as a fuel.

17
10000180
Effect of Fuel Lean Reburning Process on NOx Reduction and CO Emission
Abstract:

Reburning is a useful technology in reducing nitric oxide through injection of a secondary hydrocarbon fuel. In this paper, an experimental study has been conducted to evaluate the effect of fuel lean reburning on NOx/CO reduction in LNG flame. Experiments were performed in flames stabilized by a co-flow swirl burner, which was mounted at the bottom of the furnace. Tests were conducted using LNG gas as the reburn fuel as well as the main fuel. The effects of reburn fuel fraction and injection manner of the reburn fuel were studied when the fuel lean reburning system was applied. The paper reports data on flue gas emissions and temperature distribution in the furnace for a wide range of experimental conditions. At steady state, temperature distribution and emission formation in the furnace have been measured and compared. This paper makes clear that in order to decrease both NOx and CO concentrations in the exhaust when the pulsated fuel lean reburning system was adapted, it is important that the control of some factors such as frequency and duty ratio. Also it shows the fuel lean reburning is also effective method to reduce NOx as much as reburning.

16
10000131
Optimum Design of Heat Exchanger in Diesel Engine Cold EGR for Pollutants Reduction
Abstract:

Using cold EGR method with variable venturi and turbocharger has a very significant effect on reduction of NOX and grime simultaneously. EGR cooler is one of the most important parts in the cold EGR circuit. In this paper optimum design of cooler for working in different percentages of EGR and for determining optimum temperature of exhausted gases, growth of efficiency, reduction of weight, dimension, expenditures, sediment and also optimum performance by using gasoil which has significant amounts of brimstone are investigated and optimized.

Keywords:
15
4508
Response of Wax Apple Cultivars by Applied GA3 and 2,4-D on Fruit Growth and Fruit Quality
Abstract:
The experiment was performed to evaluate the effect of GA3, 2,4-D on fruit growth and fruit quality of wax apple. The experiment consisted of Red A, Monulla, Atu, Red B cultivars. GA3 and 2,4-D were applied at the small bud and petal fall stage. Physiological, biochemical characters of fruit were recoded. The result showed application of GA3, 2,4-D greatly response in increasing fruit set for all treatment as compared to control. Fruit weight, fruit size were increased at 10 ppm 2,4-D in ‘Red A’, ‘Red B’, however it was also enhancing at 10 ppm GA3 in ‘Monulla’, ‘Atu’. For ‘Monulla’, ‘Atu’ fruit crack reduced by 10 ppm 2,4-D application, but ‘Red B’, ‘Red A’ gave least fruit crack at 10 and 30 ppm GA3, respectively. ‘Monulla’, ‘Atu’ and ‘Red B’ resulted in response well to 10 ppm GA3 on improving TSS, whereas application of 30 ppm GA3 greatly enhancing TSS in ‘Red A’. For ‘Atu’ titratable acidity markedly reduced by 10 ppm GA3 application, but spraying with 30 ppm GA3 greatly response in reducing titratable acidity in ‘Red A’, ‘Red B’ and ‘Monulla’. It was concluded that GA3, 2,4-D can be an effective tool to enhancing fruit set, fruit growth as well as improving fruit quality of wax apple.
14
15192
In Silico Analysis of Quinoxaline Ligand Conformations on 1ZIP: Adenylate Kinase
Abstract:
Adenylate kinase (AK) catalyse the phosphotransferase reaction plays an important role in cellular energy homeostasis. The inhibitors of bacterial AK are useful in the treatment of several bacterial infections. To the novel inhibitors of AK, docking studies performed by using the 3D structure of Bacillus stearothermophilus adenylate kinase from protein data bank (IZIP). 46 Quinoxaline analogues were docked in 1ZIP and selected the highly interacting compounds based on their binding energies, for further studies
13
16918
Study of Carbon Monoxide Oxidation in a Monolithic Converter
Abstract:

Combustion of fuels in industrial and transport sector has lead to an alarming release of polluting gases to the atmosphere. Carbon monoxide is one such pollutant, which is formed as a result of incomplete oxidation of the fuel. In order to analyze the effect of catalyst on the reduction of CO emissions to the atmosphere, two catalysts Mn2O3 and Hopcalite are considered. A model was formed based on mass and energy balance equations. Results show that Hopcalite catalyst as compared to Mn2O3 catalyst helped in faster conversion of the polluting gas as the operating temperature of the hopcalite catalyst is much lower as compared to the operating temperature of Mn2O3 catalyst.

12
4303
Study on the Variation Effects of Diverging Angleon Characteristics of Flow in Converging and Diverging Ducts by Numerical Method
Abstract:

The present paper develops and validates a numerical procedure for the calculation of turbulent combustive flow in converging and diverging ducts and throuh simulation of the heat transfer processes, the amount of production and spread of Nox pollutant has been measured. A marching integration solution procedure employing the TDMA is used to solve the discretized equations. The turbulence model is the Prandtl Mixing Length method. Modeling the combustion process is done by the use of Arrhenius and Eddy Dissipation method. Thermal mechanism has been utilized for modeling the process of forming the nitrogen oxides. Finite difference method and Genmix numerical code are used for numerical solution of equations. Our results indicate the important influence of the limiting diverging angle of diffuser on the coefficient of recovering of pressure. Moreover, due to the intense dependence of Nox pollutant to the maximum temperature in the domain with this feature, the Nox pollutant amount is also in maximum level.

11
5549
Tension Stiffening Parameter in Composite Concrete Reinforced with Inoxydable Steel: Laboratory and Finite Element Analysis
Abstract:
In the present work, behavior of inoxydable steel as reinforcement bar in composite concrete is being investigated. The bar-concrete adherence in reinforced concrete (RC) beam is studied and focus is made on the tension stiffening parameter. This study highlighted an approach to observe this interaction behavior in bending test instead of direct tension as per reported in many references. The approach resembles actual loading condition of the structural RC beam. The tension stiffening properties are then applied to numerical finite element analysis (FEA) to verify their correlation with laboratory results. Comparison with laboratory shows a good correlation between the two. The experimental settings is able to determine tension stiffening parameters in RC beam and the modeling strategies made in ABAQUS can closely represent the actual condition. Tension stiffening model used can represent the interaction properties between inoxydable steel and concrete.
10
8010
Internal Behavior of Biological Nutrient Removal System for Advanced Wastewater Treatment
Abstract:
The purpose of this research was develop a biological nutrient removal (BNR) system which has low energy consumption, sludge production, and land usage. These indicate that BNR system could be a alternative of future wastewater treatment in ubiquitous city(U-city). Organics and nitrogen compounds could be removed by this system so that secondary or tertiary stages of wastewater treatment satisfy their standards. This system was composed of oxic and anoxic filter filed with PVDC and POM media. Anoxic/oxic filter system operated under empty bed contact time of 4 hours by increasing recirculation ratio from 0 to 100 %. The system removals of total nitrogen and COD were 76.3% and 93%, respectively. To be observed internal behavior in this system SCOD, NH3-N, and NO3-N were conducted and removal shows range of 25~100%, 59~99%, and 70~100%, respectively.
9
3627
Oxidation of Carbon Monoxide in a Monolithic Reactor
Abstract:
Solution for the complete removal of carbon monoxide from the exhaust gases still poses a challenge to the researchers and this problem is still under development. Modeling for reduction of carbon monoxide is carried out using heterogeneous reaction using low cost non-noble metal based catalysts for the purpose of controlling emissions released to the atmosphere. A simple one-dimensional model was developed for the monolith using hopcalite catalyst. The converter is assumed to be an adiabatic monolith operating under warm-up conditions. The effect of inlet gas temperatures and catalyst loading on carbon monoxide reduction during cold start period in the converter is analysed.
8
9370
Mycoflora of Activated Sludge with MBRs in Berlin, Germany
Abstract:
Thirty six samples from each (aerobic and anoxic) activated sludge were collected from two wastewater treatment plants with MBRs in Berlin, Germany. The samples were prepared for count and definition of fungal isolates; these isolates were purified by conventional techniques and identified by microscopic examination. Sixty tow species belonging to 28 genera were isolated from activated sludge samples under aerobic conditions (28 genera and 58 species) and anoxic conditions (26 genera and 52 species). The obtained data show that, Aspergillus was found at 94.4% followed by Penicillium 61.1 %, Fusarium (61.1 %), Trichoderma (44.4 %) and Geotrichum candidum (41.6 %) species were the most prevalent in all activated sludge samples. The study confirmed that fungi can thrive in activated sludge and sporulation, but isolated in different numbers depending on the effect of aeration system. Some fungal species in our study are saprophytic, and other a pathogenic to plants and animals.
7
2951
The Occurrence of Fungi in Activated Sludge from MBRs
Abstract:
The objective of this study is to evaluate the occurrence of fungi in aerobic and anoxic activated sludge from membrane bioreactors (MBRs). Thirty-six samples of both aerobic and anoxic activated sludge were taken from 2 MBR treating domestic wastewater. Over a period of eight months 2 samples from each plant were taken per month. The samples were prepared for count and definition of fungi. The obtained data show that, sixty species belonging to 27 genera were collected from activated sludge samples under aerobic and anoxic conditions. Regarding to the fungi definition, under aerobic condition the Geotrichum was found at (8.8%) followed by Penicillium (75.0%), Yeasts (65.7%) and Trichoderma (55.5%), while Yeasts (77.1%) Geotrichum candidumand Penicillium (61.1%) species were the most prevalent in anoxic activated sludge. The results indicate that activated sludge is habitat for growth and sporulation of different groups of fungi, both saprophytic and pathogenic.
6
6256
Effect of Herbicides on Narrow Leaved Weeds and Yield of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
Abstract:
This study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of five herbicides on narrow leaved weeds and growth and yield of wheat. An experiment was conducted at Agronomic Research Farm, University of Agriculture Faisalabad. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block designee (RCBD) with three replications. Treatments studied were clodinafop (Topic-15 WG) at 37 g a.i. ha-1, clodinafop (Topaz-15 WG) at 45 g a.i. ha-1, fenoxaprop-p-ethyl (Puma Super-75 EW) at 45 g a.i. ha-1, fenoxaprop-p-ethyl (Gramicide-6.9 EW) at 85 g a.i. ha-1, fenoxaprop-p-ethyl (Chinlima-6.9 EW) at 85 g a.i. ha-1 and weedy check. Plots treated with fenoxaprop-p-ethyl (Puma Super-75 EW) at 45 g a.i. ha-1 produced relatively less weed biomass, more plant height, number of spike bearing tillers, number of grains per spike, 1000-grain weight and grain yield (4.20 t ha-1).
5
9563
Experimental Investigation of Combustion Chamber Dimensions Effects on Pollutant Emission and Combustion Efficiency
Abstract:
The combustion chamber dimensions have important effects on pollutant emission in furnaces as a direct result of temperature distribution and maximum temperature value. In this paper the pollutant emission and the temperature distribution in two cylindrical furnaces with different dimensions (with similar length to diameter ratio) in similar condition have been investigated experimentally. The furnace fuel is gas oil that is used with three different flow rates. The results show that in these two cases the temperature increases to its maximum value quickly, and then decreases slowly. The results also show that increase in fuel flow rate cause to increase in NOx emission in each case, but this increase is greater in small furnace. With increase in fuel flow rate, CO emission decreases firstly, and then it increases. Combustion efficiency reduces with increase in fuel flow rate but the rate of reduction in small furnace is greater than large furnace. The results of axial temperature distribution have been compared with those have been obtained numerically and experimentally by Moghiman.
4
8114
Trade-off Between NOX, Soot and EGR Rates for an IDI Diesel Engine Fuelled with JB5
Abstract:

Nowadays, the focus on renewable energy and alternative fuels has increased due to increasing oil prices, environment pollution, and also concern on preserving the nature. Biodiesel has been known as an attractive alternative fuel although biodiesel produced from edible oil is very expensive than conventional diesel. Therefore, the uses of biodiesel produced from non-edible oils are much better option. Currently Jatropha biodiesel (JBD) is receiving attention as an alternative fuel for diesel engine. Biodiesel is non-toxic, biodegradable, high lubricant ability, highly renewable, and its use therefore produces real reduction in petroleum consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Although biodiesel has many advantages, but it still has several properties need to improve, such as lower calorific value, lower effective engine power, higher emission of nitrogen oxides (NOX) and greater sensitivity to low temperature. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is effective technique to reduce NOX emission from diesel engines because it enables lower flame temperature and oxygen concentration in the combustion chamber. Some studies succeeded to reduce the NOX emission from biodiesel by EGR but they observed increasing soot emission. The aim of this study was to investigate the engine performance and soot emission by using blended Jatropha biodiesel with different EGR rates. A CI engine that is water-cooled, turbocharged, using indirect injection system was used for the investigation. Soot emission, NOX, CO2, carbon monoxide (CO) were recorded and various engine performance parameters were also evaluated.

3
11971
CFD Modeling of Reduction in NOX Emission Using HiTAC Technique
Abstract:
In the present study, the rate of NOx emission in a combustion chamber working in conventional combustion and High Temperature Air Combustion (HiTAC) system are examined using CFD modeling. The effect of peak temperature, combustion air temperature and oxygen concentration on NOx emission rate was undertaken. Results show that in a fixed oxygen concentration, increasing the preheated air temperature will increase the peak temperature and NOx emission rate. In addition, it was observed that the reduction of the oxygen concentration in the fixed preheated air temperature decreases the peak temperature and NOx emission rate. On the other hand, the results show that increase of preheated air temperature at various oxygen concentrations increases the NOx emission rate. However, the rate of increase in HiTAC conditions is quite lower than the conventional combustion. The modeling results show that the NOx emission rate in HiTAC combustion is 133% less than that of the conventional combustion.
2
14552
Influence of Type of Burner on NOx Emission Characteristics from Combustion of Palm Methyl Ester
Abstract:
Palm methyl ester (PME) is one of the alternative biomass fuels to liquid fossil fuels. To investigate the combustion characteristics of PME as an alternative fuel for gas turbines, combustion experiments using two types of burners under atmospheric pressure were performed. One of the burners has a configuration making strong non-premixed flame, whereas the other has a configuration promoting prevaporization of fuel droplets. The results show that the NOx emissions can be reduced by employing the latter burner without accumulation of soot when PME is used as a fuel. A burner configuration promoting prevaporzation of fuel droplets is recommended for PME.
1
551
Numerical Prediction of NOX in the Exhaust of a Compression Ignition Engine
Abstract:
For numerical prediction of the NOX in the exhaust of a compression ignition engine a model was developed by considering the parameter equivalence ratio. This model was validated by comparing the predicted results of NOX with experimental ones. The ultimate aim of the work was to access the applicability, robustness and performance of the improved NOX model against other NOX models.
Vol:13 No:03 2019Vol:13 No:02 2019Vol:13 No:01 2019
Vol:12 No:12 2018Vol:12 No:11 2018Vol:12 No:10 2018Vol:12 No:09 2018Vol:12 No:08 2018Vol:12 No:07 2018Vol:12 No:06 2018Vol:12 No:05 2018Vol:12 No:04 2018Vol:12 No:03 2018Vol:12 No:02 2018Vol:12 No:01 2018
Vol:11 No:12 2017Vol:11 No:11 2017Vol:11 No:10 2017Vol:11 No:09 2017Vol:11 No:08 2017Vol:11 No:07 2017Vol:11 No:06 2017Vol:11 No:05 2017Vol:11 No:04 2017Vol:11 No:03 2017Vol:11 No:02 2017Vol:11 No:01 2017
Vol:10 No:12 2016Vol:10 No:11 2016Vol:10 No:10 2016Vol:10 No:09 2016Vol:10 No:08 2016Vol:10 No:07 2016Vol:10 No:06 2016Vol:10 No:05 2016Vol:10 No:04 2016Vol:10 No:03 2016Vol:10 No:02 2016Vol:10 No:01 2016
Vol:9 No:12 2015Vol:9 No:11 2015Vol:9 No:10 2015Vol:9 No:09 2015Vol:9 No:08 2015Vol:9 No:07 2015Vol:9 No:06 2015Vol:9 No:05 2015Vol:9 No:04 2015Vol:9 No:03 2015Vol:9 No:02 2015Vol:9 No:01 2015
Vol:8 No:12 2014Vol:8 No:11 2014Vol:8 No:10 2014Vol:8 No:09 2014Vol:8 No:08 2014Vol:8 No:07 2014Vol:8 No:06 2014Vol:8 No:05 2014Vol:8 No:04 2014Vol:8 No:03 2014Vol:8 No:02 2014Vol:8 No:01 2014
Vol:7 No:12 2013Vol:7 No:11 2013Vol:7 No:10 2013Vol:7 No:09 2013Vol:7 No:08 2013Vol:7 No:07 2013Vol:7 No:06 2013Vol:7 No:05 2013Vol:7 No:04 2013Vol:7 No:03 2013Vol:7 No:02 2013Vol:7 No:01 2013
Vol:6 No:12 2012Vol:6 No:11 2012Vol:6 No:10 2012Vol:6 No:09 2012Vol:6 No:08 2012Vol:6 No:07 2012Vol:6 No:06 2012Vol:6 No:05 2012Vol:6 No:04 2012Vol:6 No:03 2012Vol:6 No:02 2012Vol:6 No:01 2012
Vol:5 No:12 2011Vol:5 No:11 2011Vol:5 No:10 2011Vol:5 No:09 2011Vol:5 No:08 2011Vol:5 No:07 2011Vol:5 No:06 2011Vol:5 No:05 2011Vol:5 No:04 2011Vol:5 No:03 2011Vol:5 No:02 2011Vol:5 No:01 2011
Vol:4 No:12 2010Vol:4 No:11 2010Vol:4 No:10 2010Vol:4 No:09 2010Vol:4 No:08 2010Vol:4 No:07 2010Vol:4 No:06 2010Vol:4 No:05 2010Vol:4 No:04 2010Vol:4 No:03 2010Vol:4 No:02 2010Vol:4 No:01 2010
Vol:3 No:12 2009Vol:3 No:11 2009Vol:3 No:10 2009Vol:3 No:09 2009Vol:3 No:08 2009Vol:3 No:07 2009Vol:3 No:06 2009Vol:3 No:05 2009Vol:3 No:04 2009Vol:3 No:03 2009Vol:3 No:02 2009Vol:3 No:01 2009
Vol:2 No:12 2008Vol:2 No:11 2008Vol:2 No:10 2008Vol:2 No:09 2008Vol:2 No:08 2008Vol:2 No:07 2008Vol:2 No:06 2008Vol:2 No:05 2008Vol:2 No:04 2008Vol:2 No:03 2008Vol:2 No:02 2008Vol:2 No:01 2008
Vol:1 No:12 2007Vol:1 No:11 2007Vol:1 No:10 2007Vol:1 No:09 2007Vol:1 No:08 2007Vol:1 No:07 2007Vol:1 No:06 2007Vol:1 No:05 2007Vol:1 No:04 2007Vol:1 No:03 2007Vol:1 No:02 2007Vol:1 No:01 2007