Mixed Convection Heat Transfer of Copper Oxide-Heat Transfer Oil Nanofluid in Vertical Tube
In this paper, experiments were conducted to investigate the heat transfer of Copper Oxide-Heat Transfer Oil (CuO-HTO) nanofluid laminar flow in vertical smooth and microfin tubes as the surface temperature is constant. The effect of adding the nanoparticle to base fluid and Richardson number on the heat transfer enhancement is investigated as Richardson number increases from 0.1 to 0.7. The experimental results demonstrate that the combined forced-natural convection heat transfer rate may be improved significantly with an increment of mass nanoparticle concentration from 0% to 1.5%. In this experiment, a correlation is also proposed to predict the mixed convection heat transfer rate of CuO-HTO nanofluid flow. The maximum deviation of both correlations is less than 14%. Moreover, a correlation is presented to estimate the Nusselt number inside vertical smooth and microfin tubes as Rayleigh number is between 2´105 and 6.8´106 with the maximum deviation of 12%.
Experimental on Free and Forced Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop of Copper Oxide-Heat Transfer Oil Nanofluid in Horizontal and Inclined Microfin Tube
In this paper, the combined free and forced convection heat transfer of the Copper Oxide-Heat Transfer Oil (CuO-HTO) nanofluid flow in horizontal and inclined microfin tubes is studied experimentally. The flow regime is laminar, and pipe surface temperature is constant. The effect of nanoparticle and microfin tube on the heat transfer rate is investigated with the Richardson number which is between 0.1 and 0.7. The results show an increasing nanoparticle concentration between 0% and 1.5% leads to enhance the combined free and forced convection heat transfer rate. According to the results, five correlations are proposed to provide estimating the free and forced heat transfer rate as the increasing Richardson number from 0.1 to 0.7. The maximum deviation of both correlations is less than 16%. Moreover, four correlations are suggested to assess the Nusselt number based on the Rayleigh number in inclined tubes from 1800000 to 7000000. The maximum deviation of the correlation is almost 16%. The Darcy friction factor of the nanofluid flow has been investigated. Furthermore, CuO-HTO nanofluid flows in inclined microfin tubes.
Numerical Solution of Steady Magnetohydrodynamic Boundary Layer Flow Due to Gyrotactic Microorganism for Williamson Nanofluid over Stretched Surface in the Presence of Exponential Internal Heat Generation
This paper focuses on the study of two dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) steady incompressible viscous Williamson nanofluid with exponential internal heat generation containing gyrotactic microorganism over a stretching sheet. The governing equations and auxiliary conditions are reduced to a set of non-linear coupled differential equations with the appropriate boundary conditions using similarity transformation. The transformed equations are solved numerically through spectral relaxation method. The influences of various parameters such as Williamson parameter γ, power constant λ, Prandtl number Pr, magnetic field parameter M, Peclet number Pe, Lewis number Le, Bioconvection Lewis number Lb, Brownian motion parameter Nb, thermophoresis parameter Nt, and bioconvection constant σ are studied to obtain the momentum, heat, mass and microorganism distributions. Moment, heat, mass and gyrotactic microorganism profiles are explored through graphs and tables. We computed the heat transfer rate, mass flux rate and the density number of the motile microorganism near the surface. Our numerical results are in better agreement in comparison with existing calculations. The Residual error of our obtained solutions is determined in order to see the convergence rate against iteration. Faster convergence is achieved when internal heat generation is absent. The effect of magnetic parameter M decreases the momentum boundary layer thickness but increases the thermal boundary layer thickness. It is apparent that bioconvection Lewis number and bioconvection parameter has a pronounced effect on microorganism boundary. Increasing brownian motion parameter and Lewis number decreases the thermal boundary layer. Furthermore, magnetic field parameter and thermophoresis parameter has an induced effect on concentration profiles.
Nanofluid-Based Emulsion Liquid Membrane for Selective Extraction and Separation of Dysprosium
Dysprosium is a rare earth element which is essential for many growing high-technology applications. Dysprosium along with neodymium plays a significant role in different applications such as metal halide lamps, permanent magnets, and nuclear reactor control rods preparation. The purification and separation of rare earth elements are challenging because of their similar chemical and physical properties. Among the various methods, membrane processes provide many advantages over the conventional separation processes such as ion exchange and solvent extraction. In this work, selective extraction and separation of dysprosium from aqueous solutions containing an equimolar mixture of dysprosium and neodymium by emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) was investigated. The organic membrane phase of the ELM was a nanofluid consisting of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), Span80 as surfactant, Cyanex 272 as carrier, kerosene as base fluid, and nitric acid solution as internal aqueous phase. Factors affecting separation of dysprosium such as carrier concentration, MWCNT concentration, feed phase pH and stripping phase concentration were analyzed using Taguchi method. Optimal experimental condition was obtained using analysis of variance (ANOVA) after 10 min extraction. Based on the results, using MWCNT nanofluid in ELM process leads to increase the extraction due to higher stability of membrane and mass transfer enhancement and separation factor of 6 for dysprosium over neodymium can be achieved under the optimum conditions. Additionally, demulsification process was successfully performed and the membrane phase reused effectively in the optimum condition.
Molecular Dynamics Simulation of the Effect of the Solid Gas Interface Nanolayer on Enhanced Thermal Conductivity of Copper-CO2 Nanofluid
The use of CO2 in oil recovery and in CO2 capture and storage is gaining traction in recent years. These applications involve heat transfer between CO2 and the base fluid, and hence, there arises a need to improve the thermal conductivity of CO2 to increase the process efficiency and reduce cost. One way to improve the thermal conductivity is through nanoparticle addition in the base fluid. The nanofluid model in this study consisted of copper (Cu) nanoparticles in varying concentrations with CO2 as a base fluid. No experimental data are available on thermal conductivity of CO2 based nanofluid. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are an increasingly adopted tool to perform preliminary assessments of nanoparticle (NP) fluid interactions. In this study, the effect of the formation of a nanolayer (or molecular layering) at the gas-solid interface on thermal conductivity is investigated using equilibrium MD simulations by varying NP diameter and keeping the volume fraction (1.413%) of nanofluid constant to check the diameter effect of NP on the nanolayer and thermal conductivity. A dense semi-solid fluid layer was seen to be formed at the NP-gas interface, and the thickness increases with increase in particle diameter, which also moves with the NP Brownian motion. Density distribution has been done to see the effect of nanolayer, and its thickness around the NP. These findings are extremely beneficial, especially to industries employed in oil recovery as increased thermal conductivity of CO2 will lead to enhanced oil recovery and thermal energy storage.
Influence of Mass Flow Rate on Forced Convective Heat Transfer through a Nanofluid Filled Direct Absorption Solar Collector
The convective and radiative heat transfer performance and entropy generation on forced convection through a direct absorption solar collector (DASC) is investigated numerically. Four different fluids, including Cu-water nanofluid, Al2O3-waternanofluid, TiO2-waternanofluid, and pure water are used as the working fluid. Entropy production has been taken into account in addition to the collector efficiency and heat transfer enhancement. Penalty finite element method with Galerkin’s weighted residual technique is used to solve the governing non-linear partial differential equations. Numerical simulations are performed for the variation of mass flow rate. The outcomes are presented in the form of isotherms, average output temperature, the average Nusselt number, collector efficiency, average entropy generation, and Bejan number. The results present that the rate of heat transfer and collector efficiency enhance significantly for raising the values of m up to a certain range.
Conjugate Mixed Convection Heat Transfer and Entropy Generation of Cu-Water Nanofluid in an Enclosure with Thick Wavy Bottom Wall
Mixed convection of Cu-water nanofluid in an enclosure
with thick wavy bottom wall has been investigated numerically.
A co-ordinate transformation method is used to transform the
computational domain into an orthogonal co-ordinate system. The
governing equations in the computational domain are solved through
a pressure correction based iterative algorithm. The fluid flow
and heat transfer characteristics are analyzed for a wide range
of Richardson number (0.1 ≤ Ri ≤ 5), nanoparticle volume
concentration (0.0 ≤ ϕ ≤ 0.2), amplitude (0.0 ≤ α ≤ 0.1) of
the wavy thick- bottom wall and the wave number (ω) at a fixed
Reynolds number. Obtained results showed that heat transfer rate
increases remarkably by adding the nanoparticles. Heat transfer rate
is dependent on the wavy wall amplitude and wave number and
decreases with increasing Richardson number for fixed amplitude
and wave number. The Bejan number and the entropy generation are
determined to analyze the thermodynamic optimization of the mixed
Gyrotactic Microorganisms Mixed Convection Nanofluid Flow along an Isothermal Vertical Wedge in Porous Media
The main objective of the present article is to explore the state of mixed convection nanofluid flow of gyrotactic microorganisms from an isothermal vertical wedge in porous medium. In our pioneering investigation, the easiest possible boundary conditions have been employed, in other words when the temperature, the nanofluid and motile microorganisms’ density have been considered to be constant on the wedge wall. Adding motile microorganisms to the nanofluid tends to enhance microscale mixing, mass transfer, and improve the nanofluid stability. Upon the Oberbeck–Boussinesq approximation and non-similarity transmutation, the paradigm of nonlinear equations are obtained and tackled numerically by using the R.K. Gill and shooting methods to obtain the dimensionless velocity, temperature, nanoparticle concentration and motile microorganisms density together with the reduced Sherwood, Nusselt, and numbers. Bioconvection parameters have strong effect upon the motile microorganism, heat, and volume fraction of nanoparticle transport rates. In the case when bioconvection is neglected, the obtained computations were found in very good agreement with the previous published data.
Effects of Thermal Radiation on Mixed Convection in a MHD Nanofluid Flow over a Stretching Sheet Using a Spectral Relaxation Method
The effects of thermal radiation, Soret and Dufour
parameters on mixed convection and nanofluid flow over a stretching
sheet in the presence of a magnetic field are investigated. The flow is
subject to temperature dependent viscosity and a chemical reaction
parameter. It is assumed that the nanoparticle volume fraction at the
wall may be actively controlled. The physical problem is modelled
using systems of nonlinear differential equations which have been
solved numerically using a spectral relaxation method. In addition
to the discussion on heat and mass transfer processes, the velocity,
nanoparticles volume fraction profiles as well as the skin friction
coefficient are determined for different important physical parameters.
A comparison of current findings with previously published results
for some special cases of the problem shows an excellent agreement.
Optimization of Samarium Extraction via Nanofluid-Based Emulsion Liquid Membrane Using Cyanex 272 as Mobile Carrier
Samarium as a rare-earth element is playing a growing important role in high technology. Traditional methods for extraction of rare earth metals such as ion exchange and solvent extraction have disadvantages of high investment and high energy consumption. Emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) as an improved solvent extraction technique is an effective transport method for separation of various compounds from aqueous solutions. In this work, the extraction of samarium from aqueous solutions by ELM was investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). The organic membrane phase of the ELM was a nanofluid consisted of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), Span80 as surfactant, Cyanex 272 as mobile carrier, and kerosene as base fluid. 1 M nitric acid solution was used as internal aqueous phase. The effects of the important process parameters on samarium extraction were investigated, and the values of these parameters were optimized using the Central Composition Design (CCD) of RSM. These parameters were the concentration of MWCNT in nanofluid, the carrier concentration, and the volume ratio of organic membrane phase to internal phase (Roi). The three-dimensional (3D) response surfaces of samarium extraction efficiency were obtained to visualize the individual and interactive effects of the process variables. A regression model for % extraction was developed, and its adequacy was evaluated. The result shows that % extraction improves by using MWCNT nanofluid in organic membrane phase and extraction efficiency of 98.92% can be achieved under the optimum conditions. In addition, demulsification was successfully performed and the recycled membrane phase was proved to be effective in the optimum condition.
Evaluation of Heat Transfer and Entropy Generation by Al2O3-Water Nanofluid
In this numerical work, natural convection and entropy generation of Al2O3–water nanofluid in square cavity have been studied. A two-dimensional steady laminar natural convection in a differentially heated square cavity of length L, filled with a nanofluid is investigated numerically. The horizontal walls are considered adiabatic. Vertical walls corresponding to x=0 and x=L are respectively maintained at hot temperature, Th and cold temperature, Tc. The resolution is performed by the CFD code "FLUENT" in combination with GAMBIT as mesh generator. These simulations are performed by maintaining the Rayleigh numbers varied as 103 ≤ Ra ≤ 106, while the solid volume fraction varied from 1% to 5%, the particle size is fixed at dp=33 nm and a range of the temperature from 20 to 70 °C. We used models of thermophysical nanofluids properties based on experimental measurements for studying the effect of adding solid particle into water in natural convection heat transfer and entropy generation of nanofluid. Such as models of thermal conductivity and dynamic viscosity which are dependent on solid volume fraction, particle size and temperature. The average Nusselt number is calculated at the hot wall of the cavity in a different solid volume fraction. The most important results is that at low temperatures (less than 40 °C), the addition of nanosolids Al2O3 into water leads to a decrease in heat transfer and entropy generation instead of the expected increase, whereas at high temperature, heat transfer and entropy generation increase with the addition of nanosolids. This behavior is due to the contradictory effects of viscosity and thermal conductivity of the nanofluid. These effects are discussed in this work.
Thermal Conductivity of Al2O3/Water-Based Nanofluids: Revisiting the Influences of pH and Surfactant
The present work focuses on the preparation and the stabilization of Al2O3-water based nanofluids. Though they have been widely considered in the past, to the best of our knowledge, there is no clear consensus about a proper way to prepare and stabilize them by the appropriate surfactant. In this paper, a careful experimental investigation is performed to quantify the combined influence of pH and the surfactant on the stability of Al2O3-water based nanofluids. Two volume concentrations of nanoparticles and three nanoparticle sizes have been considered. The good preparation and stability of these nanofluids are evaluated through thermal conductivity measurements. The results show that the optimum value for the thermal conductivity is obtained mainly by controlling the pH of the mixture and surfactants are not necessary to stabilize the solution.
Numerical Heat Transfer Performance of Water-Based Graphene Nanoplatelets
Since graphene nanoplatelet (GNP) is a promising material due to desirable thermal properties, this paper is related to the thermophysical and heat transfer performance of covalently functionalized GNP-based water/ethylene glycol nanofluid through an annular channel. After experimentally measuring thermophysical properties of prepared samples, a computational fluid dynamics study has been carried out to examine the heat transfer and pressure drop of well-dispersed and stabilized nanofluids. The effect of concentration of GNP and Reynolds number at constant wall temperature boundary condition under turbulent flow regime on convective heat transfer coefficient has been investigated. Based on the results, for different Reynolds numbers, the convective heat transfer coefficient of the prepared nanofluid is higher than that of the base fluid. Also, the enhancement of convective heat transfer coefficient and thermal conductivity increase with the increase of GNP concentration in base-fluid. Based on the results of this investigation, there is a significant enhancement on the heat transfer rate associated with loading well-dispersed GNP in base-fluid.
Determination of Thermophysical Properties of Water Based Magnetic Nanofluids
In this study, it was aimed to determine the thermophysical properties of two different magnetic nanofluids (NiFe2O4-water and CoFe2O4-water). Magnetic nanoparticles were dispersed into the pure water at different volume fractions from 0 vol.% to 4 vol.%. The measurements were performed in the temperature range of 15 oC-55 oC. In order to get better idea on the temperature dependent thermophysical properties of magnetic nanofluids (MNFs), viscosity and thermal conductivity measurements were made. SEM images of both NiFe2O4 and CoFe2O4 nanoparticles were used in order to confirm the average dimensions. The measurements showed that the thermal conductivity of MNFs increased with an increase in the volume fraction as well as viscosity. Increase in the temperature of both MNFs resulted in an increase in the thermal conductivity and a decrease in the viscosity. Based on the measured data, the correlations for both the viscosity and the thermal conductivity were presented with respect to solid volume ratio and temperature. Effective thermal conductivity of the prepared MNFs was also calculated. The results indicated that water based NiFe2O4 nanofluid had higher thermal conductivity than that of the CoFe2O4. Once the viscosity values of both MNFs were compared, almost no difference was observed.
Thermal Performance Analysis of Nanofluids in a Concetric Heat Exchanger Equipped with Turbulators
Turbulent forced convection heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of Al2O3–water nanofluid flowing through a concentric tube heat exchanger with and without coiled wire turbulators were studied experimentally. The experiments were conducted in the Reynolds number ranging from 4000 to 20000, particle volume concentrations of 0.8 vol.% and 1.6 vol.%. Two turbulators with the pitches of 25 mm and 39 mm were used. The results of nanofluids indicated that average Nusselt number increased much more with increasing Reynolds number compared to that of pure water. Thermal conductivity enhancement by the nanofluids resulted in heat transfer enhancement. Once the pressure drop of the alumina/water nanofluid was analyzed, it was nearly equal to that of pure water at the same Reynolds number range. It was concluded that nanofluids with the volume fractions of 0.8 and 1.6 did not have a significant effect on pressure drop change. However, the use of wire coils in heat exchanger enhanced heat transfer as well as the pressure drop.
Numerical Study of Developing Laminar Forced Convection Flow of Water/CuO Nanofluid in a Circular Tube with a 180 Degrees Curve
Numerical investigation into convective heat transfer of CuO-Water based nanofluid in a pipe with return bend under laminar flow conditions has been done. The impacts of Reynolds number and the volume concentration of nanoparticles on the flow and the convective heat transfer behaviour are investigated. The results indicate that the increase in Reynolds number leads to the enhancement of average Nusselt number, and the increase in specific heat in the presence of the nanofluid results in improvement in heat transfer. Also, the presence of the secondary flow in the curve plays a key role in increasing the average Nusselt number and it appears higher than the inlet and outlet tubes. However, the pressure drop curve increases significantly in the tubes with the increase in nanoparticles concentration.
Conjugate Free Convection in a Square Cavity Filled with Nanofluid and Heated from Below by Spatial Wall Temperature
The problem of conjugate free convection in a square
cavity filled with nanofluid and heated from below by spatial wall
temperature is studied numerically using the finite difference method.
Water-based nanofluid with copper nanoparticles are chosen for the
investigation. Governing equations are solved over a wide range
of nanoparticle volume fraction (0 ≤ φ ≤ 0.2), wave number
((0 ≤ λ ≤ 4) and thermal conductivity ratio (0.44 ≤ Kr ≤ 6). The
results presented for values of the governing parameters in terms of
streamlines, isotherms and average Nusselt number. It is found that
the flow behavior and the heat distribution are clearly enhanced with
the increment of the non-uniform heating.
Thermophysical and Heat Transfer Performance of Covalent and Noncovalent Functionalized Graphene Nanoplatelet-Based Water Nanofluids in an Annular Heat Exchanger
The new design of heat exchangers utilizing an
annular distributor opens a new gateway for realizing higher energy
optimization. To realize this goal, graphene nanoplatelet-based water
nanofluids with promising thermophysical properties were
synthesized in the presence of covalent and noncovalent
functionalization. Thermal conductivity, density, viscosity and
specific heat capacity were investigated and employed as a raw data
for ANSYS-Fluent to be used in two-phase approach. After
validation of obtained results by analytical equations, two special
parameters of convective heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop
were investigated. The study followed by studying other heat transfer
parameters of annular pass in the presence of graphene nanopletelesbased
water nanofluids at different weight concentrations, input
powers and temperatures. As a result, heat transfer performance and
friction loss are predicted for both synthesized nanofluids.
Unsteady Flow and Heat Transfer of Nanofluid from Circular Tube in Cross-Flow
Unsteady flow and heat transfer from a circular
cylinder in cross-flow is studied numerically. The governing
equations are solved by using finite volume method. Reynolds
number varies in range of 50 to 200; in this range flow is considered
to be laminar and unsteady. Al2O3 nanoparticle with volume fraction
in range of 5% to 20% is added to pure water. Effects of adding
nanoparticle to pure water on lift and drag coefficient and Nusselt
number is presented. Addition of Al2O3 has inconsiderable effect on
the value of drags and lift coefficient. However, it has significant
effect on heat transfer; results show that heat transfer of Al2O3
nanofluid is about 9% to 36% higher than pure water.
Experimental Investigation and Optimization of Nanoparticle Mass Concentration and Heat Input of Loop Heat Pipe
This study presents experimental and optimization of
nanoparticle mass concentration and heat input based on the total
thermal resistance (Rth) of loop heat pipe (LHP), employed for PCCPU
cooling. In this study, silica nanoparticles (SiO2) in water with
particle mass concentration ranged from 0% (pure water) to 1% is
considered as the working fluid within the LHP. The experimental
design and optimization is accomplished by the design of
experimental tool, Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The
results show that the nanoparticle mass concentration and the heat
input have significant effect on the Rth of LHP. For a given heat
input, the Rth is found to decrease with the increase of the
nanoparticle mass concentration up to 0.5% and increased thereafter.
It is also found that the Rth is decreased when the heat input is
increased from 20W to 60W. The results are optimized with the
objective of minimizing the Rth, using Design-Expert software, and
the optimized nanoparticle mass concentration and heat input are
0.48% and 59.97W, respectively, the minimum thermal resistance
being 2.66 (ºC/W).
Thermal Analysis on Heat Transfer Enhancement and Fluid Flow for Al2O3 Water-Ethylene Glycol Nanofluid in Single PEMFC Mini Channel
Thermal enhancement of a single mini channel in
Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) cooling plate is
numerically investigated. In this study, low concentration of Al2O3 in
Water - Ethylene Glycol mixtures is used as coolant in single channel
of carbon graphite plate to mimic the mini channels in PEMFC
cooling plate. A steady and incompressible flow with constant heat
flux is assumed in the channel of 1mm x 5mm x 100mm. Nano
particle of Al2O3 used ranges from 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 vol %
concentration and then dispersed in 60:40 (water: Ethylene Glycol)
mixture. The effect of different flow rates to fluid flow and heat
transfer enhancement in Re number range of 20 to 140 was observed.
The result showed that heat transfer coefficient was improved by
18.11%, 9.86% and 5.37% for 0.5, 0.3 and 0.1 vol. % Al2O3 in 60:40
(water: EG) as compared to base fluid of 60:40 (water: EG). It is also
showed that the higher vol. % concentration of Al2O3 performed
better in term of thermal enhancement but at the expense of higher
pumping power required due to increase in pressure drop
experienced. Maximum additional pumping power of 0.0012W was
required for 0.5 vol % Al2O3 in 60:40 (water: EG) at Re number 140.
Investigation on Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer Characteristics in Spray Cooling Systems Using Nanofluids
This paper aims to study the heat transfer and fluid
flow characteristics of nanofluids used in spray cooling systems. The
effect of spray height, type of nanofluids and concentration of
nanofluids are numerically investigated. Five different nanofluids
such as AgH2O, Al2O3, CuO, SiO2 and TiO2 with volume fraction
range of 0.5% to 2.5% are used. The results revealed that the heat
transfer performance decreases as spray height increases. It is found
that TiO2 has the highest transfer coefficient among other nanofluids.
In dilute spray conditions, low concentration of nanofluids is
observed to be more effective in heat removal in a spray cooling
Prediction of Unsteady Forced Convection over Square Cylinder in the Presence of Nanofluid by Using ANN
Heat transfer due to forced convection of copper water
based nanofluid has been predicted by Artificial Neural network
(ANN). The present nanofluid is formed by mixing copper
nanoparticles in water and the volume fractions are considered here
are 0% to 15% and the Reynolds number are kept constant at 100.
The back propagation algorithm is used to train the network. The
present ANN is trained by the input and output data which has been
obtained from the numerical simulation, performed in finite volume
based Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) commercial software
Ansys Fluent. The numerical simulation based results are compared
with the back propagation based ANN results. It is found that the
forced convection heat transfer of water based nanofluid can be
predicted correctly by ANN. It is also observed that the back
propagation ANN can predict the heat transfer characteristics of
nanofluid very quickly compared to standard CFD method.
Performance Evaluation and Economic Analysis of Minimum Quantity Lubrication with Pressurized/Non-Pressurized Air and Nanofluid Mixture
Water miscible cutting fluids are conventionally used to lubricate and cool the machining zone. But issues related to health hazards, maintenance and disposal costs have limited their usage, leading to application of Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL). To increase the effectiveness of MQL, nanocutting fluids are proposed. In the present work, water miscible nanographite cutting fluids of varying concentration are applied at cutting zone by two systems A and B. System A utilizes high pressure air and supplies cutting fluid at a flow rate of 1ml/min. System B uses low pressure air and supplies cutting fluid at a flow rate of 5ml/min. Their performance in machining is evaluated by measuring cutting temperatures, tool wear, cutting forces and surface roughness and compared with dry machining and flood machining. Application of nanocutting fluid using both systems showed better performance than dry machining. Cutting temperatures and cutting forces obtained by both techniques are more than flood machining. But tool wear and surface roughness showed improvement compared to flood machining. Economic analysis has been carried out in all the cases to decide the applicability of the techniques.
The Effect of Type of Nanoparticles on the Quenching Process
In this study, the experiments were carried out to
determine the best coolant for the quenching process among waterbased
silica, alumina, titania and copper oxide nanofluids (0.1 vol%).
A sphere made up off brass material was used in the experiments.
When the spherical test specimen was heated at high temperatures, it
was suddenly immersed into the nanofluids. All experiments were
carried out at saturated conditions and under atmospheric pressure.
After the experiments, the cooling curves were obtained by using the
temperature-time data of the specimen. The experimental results
showed that the cooling performance of test specimen depended on
the type of nanofluids. The silica nanoparticles enhanced the
performance of boiling heat transfer and it is the best coolant for the
quenching among other nanoparticles.
Heat and Mass Transfer in MHD Flow of Nanofluids through a Porous Media Due to a Permeable Stretching Sheet with Viscous Dissipation and Chemical Reaction Effects
The convective heat and mass transfer in nanofluid
flow through a porous media due to a permeable stretching sheet with
magnetic field, viscous dissipation, chemical reaction and Soret
effects are numerically investigated. Two types of nanofluids, namely
Cu-water and Ag-water were studied. The governing boundary layer
equations are formulated and reduced to a set of ordinary differential
equations using similarity transformations and then solved
numerically using the Keller box method. Numerical results are
obtained for the skin friction coefficient, Nusselt number and
Sherwood number as well as for the velocity, temperature and
concentration profiles for selected values of the governing
parameters. Excellent validation of the present numerical results has
been achieved with the earlier linearly stretching sheet problems in
MHD Boundary Layer Flow of a Nanofluid Past a Wedge Shaped Wick in Heat Pipe
This paper deals with the theoretical and numerical
investigation of magneto hydrodynamic boundary layer flow of a
nanofluid past a wedge shaped wick in heat pipe used for the cooling
of electronic components and different type of machines. To
incorporate the effect of nanoparticle diameter, concentration of
nanoparticles in the pure fluid, nanothermal layer formed around the
nanoparticle and Brownian motion of nanoparticles etc., appropriate
models are used for the effective thermal and physical properties of
nanofluids. To model the rotation of nanoparticles inside the base
fluid, microfluidics theory is used. In this investigation ethylene
glycol (EG) based nanofluids, are taken into account. The non-linear
equations governing the flow and heat transfer are solved by using a
very effective particle swarm optimization technique along with
Runge-Kutta method. The values of heat transfer coefficient are
found for different parameters involved in the formulation viz.
nanoparticle concentration, nanoparticle size, magnetic field and
wedge angle etc. It is found that, the wedge angle, presence of
magnetic field, nanoparticle size and nanoparticle concentration etc.
have prominent effects on fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics
for the considered configuration.
Numerical Evaluation of Nusselt Number on the Hot Wall in Square Enclosure Filled with Nanofluid
In this paper, effects of using Alumina-water
nanofluid on the rate of heat transfer have been investigated
numerically. Physical model is a square enclosure with insulated top
and bottom horizontal walls, while the vertical walls are kept at
different constant temperatures. Two appropriate models are used to
evaluate the viscosity and thermal conductivity of nanofluid. The
governing stream-vorticity equations are solved using a second order
central finite difference scheme, coupled to the conservation of mass
and energy. The study has been carried out for the Richardson
number 0.1 to 10 and the solid volume fraction 0 to 0.04. Results are
presented by isotherms lines, average Nusselt number and normalized
Nusselt number in different range of φ and Ri for forced, combined
and natural convection dominated regime. It is found that higher heat
transfer rate is predicted when the effects of nanoparticle is taken into
Investigation of Enhancement of Heat Transfer in Natural Convection Utilizing of Nanofluids
This paper analyses the heat transfer performance and
fluid flow using different nanofluids in a square enclosure. The
energy equation and Navier-Stokes equation are solved numerically
using finite volume scheme. The effect of volume fraction
concentration on the enhancement of heat transfer has been studied
icorporating the Brownian motion; the influence of effective thermal
conductivity on the enhancement was also investigated for a range of
volume fraction concentration. The velocity profile for different
Rayleigh number. Water-Cu, water AL2O3 and water-TiO2 were
Estimation of Thermal Conductivity of Nanofluids Using MD-Stochastic Simulation Based Approach
The thermal conductivity of a fluid can be
significantly enhanced by dispersing nano-sized particles in it, and
the resultant fluid is termed as "nanofluid". A theoretical model for
estimating the thermal conductivity of a nanofluid has been proposed
here. It is based on the mechanism that evenly dispersed
nanoparticles within a nanofluid undergo Brownian motion in course
of which the nanoparticles repeatedly collide with the heat source.
During each collision a rapid heat transfer occurs owing to the solidsolid
contact. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of the collision
of nanoparticles with the heat source has shown that there is a pulselike
pick up of heat by the nanoparticles within 20-100 ps, the extent
of which depends not only on thermal conductivity of the
nanoparticles, but also on the elastic and other physical properties of
the nanoparticle. After the collision the nanoparticles undergo
Brownian motion in the base fluid and release the excess heat to the
surrounding base fluid within 2-10 ms. The Brownian motion and
associated temperature variation of the nanoparticles have been
modeled by stochastic analysis. Repeated occurrence of these events
by the suspended nanoparticles significantly contributes to the
characteristic thermal conductivity of the nanofluids, which has been
estimated by the present model for a ethylene glycol based nanofluid
containing Cu-nanoparticles of size ranging from 8 to 20 nm, with
Gaussian size distribution. The prediction of the present model has
shown a reasonable agreement with the experimental data available