Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 16

Mathematical Properties of the Viscous Rotating Stratified Fluid Counting with Salinity and Heat Transfer in a Layer

A model of the mathematical fluid dynamics which describes the motion of a three-dimensional viscous rotating fluid in a homogeneous gravitational field with the consideration of the salinity and heat transfer is considered in a vertical finite layer. The model is a generalization of the linearized Navier-Stokes system with the addition of the Coriolis parameter and the equations for changeable density, salinity, and heat transfer. An explicit solution is constructed and the proof of the existence and uniqueness theorems is given. The localization and the structure of the spectrum of inner waves is also investigated. The results may be used, in particular, for constructing stable numerical algorithms for solutions of the considered models of fluid dynamics of the Atmosphere and the Ocean.

Assessment of Modern RANS Models for the C3X Vane Film Cooling Prediction

The paper presents the results of a detailed assessment of several modern Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) turbulence models for prediction of C3X vane film cooling at various injection regimes. Three models are considered, namely the Shear Stress Transport (SST) model, the modification of the SST model accounting for the streamlines curvature (SST-CC), and the Explicit Algebraic Reynolds Stress Model (EARSM). It is shown that all the considered models face with a problem in prediction of the adiabatic effectiveness in the vicinity of the cooling holes; however, accounting for the Reynolds stress anisotropy within the EARSM model noticeably increases the solution accuracy. On the other hand, further downstream all the models provide a reasonable agreement with the experimental data for the adiabatic effectiveness and among the considered models the most accurate results are obtained with the use EARMS.

An Implicit Methodology for the Numerical Modeling of Locally Inextensible Membranes
We present in this paper a fully implicit finite element method tailored for the numerical modeling of inextensible fluidic membranes in a surrounding Newtonian fluid. We consider a highly simplified version of the Canham-Helfrich model for phospholipid membranes, in which the bending force and spontaneous curvature are disregarded. The coupled problem is formulated in a fully Eulerian framework and the membrane motion is tracked using the level set method. The resulting nonlinear problem is solved by a Newton-Raphson strategy, featuring a quadratic convergence behavior. A monolithic solver is implemented, and we report several numerical experiments aimed at model validation and illustrating the accuracy of the proposed method. We show that stability is maintained for significantly larger time steps with respect to an explicit decoupling method.
On the Strong Solutions of the Nonlinear Viscous Rotating Stratified Fluid
A nonlinear model of the mathematical fluid dynamics which describes the motion of an incompressible viscous rotating fluid in a homogeneous gravitational field is considered. The model is a generalization of the known Navier-Stokes system with the addition of the Coriolis parameter and the equations for changeable density. An explicit algorithm for the solution is constructed, and the proof of the existence and uniqueness theorems for the strong solution of the nonlinear problem is given. For the linear case, the localization and the structure of the spectrum of inner waves are also investigated.
New Insight into Fluid Mechanics of Lorenz Equations

New physical insights into the nonlinear Lorenz equations related to flow resistance is discussed in this work. The chaotic dynamics related to Lorenz equations has been studied in many papers, which is due to the sensitivity of Lorenz equations to initial conditions and parameter uncertainties. However, the physical implication arising from Lorenz equations about convectional motion attracts little attention in the relevant literature. Therefore, as a first step to understand the related fluid mechanics of convectional motion, this paper derives the Lorenz equations again with different forced conditions in the model. Simulation work of the modified Lorenz equations without the viscosity or buoyancy force is discussed. The time-domain simulation results may imply that the states of the Lorenz equations are related to certain flow speed and flow resistance. The flow speed of the underlying fluid system increases as the flow resistance reduces. This observation would be helpful to analyze the coupling effects of different fluid parameters in a convectional model in future work.

Numerical Study of Vortex Formation inside a Stirred Tank

The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study of stirred tank with the air-water interface are carried out in the presence of different types of the impeller and with or without baffles. A multiple reference frame (MRF) approach with the volume of fluid (VOF) method is used to capture the air-water interface. The RANS (Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes) equations with k-ε turbulence model are solved to predict the flow behavior of water and air phase which are treated as a different phases. The predicted results have shown that the VOF method is able to capture the interface in the unbaffled tank. While, the VOF method is showing an unfeasible results in the baffled tank with high rotational impeller speed. For continuous stirred tank, the air-water interface is disturbed by the inflow and the level of water is also increased with time.

CFD Modeling of Insect Flight at Low Reynolds Number

The typical insects employ a flapping-wing mode of flight. The numerical simulations on free flight of a model fruit fly (Re=143) including hovering and are presented in this paper. Unsteady aerodynamics around a flapping insect is studied by solving the three-dimensional Newtonian dynamics of the flyer coupled with Navier-Stokes equations. A hybrid-grid scheme (Generalized Finite Difference Method) that combines great geometry flexibility and accuracy of moving boundary definition is employed for obtaining flow dynamics. The results show good points of agreement and consistency with the outcomes and analyses of other researchers, which validate the computational model and demonstrate the feasibility of this computational approach on analyzing fluid phenomena in insect flight. The present modeling approach also offers a promising route of investigation that could complement as well as overcome some of the limitations of physical experiments in the study of free flight aerodynamics of insects. The results are potentially useful for the design of biomimetic flapping-wing flyers.

Comparison of Two Types of Preconditioners for Stokes and Linearized Navier-Stokes Equations

To solve saddle point systems efficiently, several preconditioners have been published. There are many methods for constructing preconditioners for linear systems from saddle point problems, for instance, the relaxed dimensional factorization (RDF) preconditioner and the augmented Lagrangian (AL) preconditioner are used for both steady and unsteady Navier-Stokes equations. In this paper we compare the RDF preconditioner with the modified AL (MAL) preconditioner to show which is more effective to solve Navier-Stokes equations. Numerical experiments indicate that the MAL preconditioner is more efficient and robust, especially, for moderate viscosities and stretched grids in steady problems. For unsteady cases, the convergence rate of the RDF preconditioner is slightly faster than the MAL perconditioner in some circumstances, but the parameter of the RDF preconditioner is more sensitive than the MAL preconditioner. Moreover the convergence rate of the MAL preconditioner is still quite acceptable. Therefore we conclude that the MAL preconditioner is more competitive than the RDF preconditioner. These experiments are implemented with IFISS package. 

A Transform-Free HOC Scheme for Incompressible Viscous Flow past a Rotationally Oscillating Circular Cylinder
A numerical study is made of laminar, unsteady flow behind a rotationally oscillating circular cylinder using a recently developed higher order compact (HOC) scheme. The stream function vorticity formulation of Navier-Stokes (N-S) equations in cylindrical polar coordinates are considered as the governing equations. The temporal behaviour of vortex formation and relevant streamline patterns of the flow are scrutinized over broad ranges of two externally specified parameters namely dimensionless forced oscillating frequency Sf and dimensionless peak rotation rate αm for the Reynolds-s number Re = 200. Excellent agreements are found both qualitatively and quantitatively with the existing experimental and standard numerical results.
Fourth Order Accurate Free Convective Heat Transfer Solutions from a Circular Cylinder
Laminar natural-convective heat transfer from a horizontal cylinder is studied by solving the Navier-Stokes and energy equations using higher order compact scheme in cylindrical polar coordinates. Results are obtained for Rayleigh numbers of 1, 10, 100 and 1000 for a Prandtl number of 0.7. The local Nusselt number and mean Nusselt number are calculated and compared with available experimental and theoretical results. Streamlines, vorticity - lines and isotherms are plotted.
Performance Prediction of a 5MW Wind Turbine Blade Considering Aeroelastic Effect
In this study, aeroelastic response and performance analyses have been conducted for a 5MW-Class composite wind turbine blade model. Advanced coupled numerical method based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and computational flexible multi-body dynamics (CFMBD) has been developed in order to investigate aeroelastic responses and performance characteristics of the rotating composite blade. Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations with k-ω SST turbulence model were solved for unsteady flow problems on the rotating turbine blade model. Also, structural analyses considering rotating effect have been conducted using the general nonlinear finite element method. A fully implicit time marching scheme based on the Newmark direct integration method is applied to solve the coupled aeroelastic governing equations of the 3D turbine blade for fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problems. Detailed dynamic responses and instantaneous velocity contour on the blade surfaces which considering flow-separation effects were presented to show the multi-physical phenomenon of the huge rotating wind- turbine blade model.
Vortex-Induced Vibration Characteristics of an Elastic Circular Cylinder
A numerical simulation of vortex-induced vibration of a 2-dimensional elastic circular cylinder with two degree of freedom under the uniform flow is calculated when Reynolds is 200. 2-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved with the space-time finite element method, the equation of the cylinder motion is solved with the new explicit integral method and the mesh renew is achieved by the spring moving mesh technology. Considering vortex-induced vibration with the low reduced damping parameter, the variety trends of the lift coefficient, the drag coefficient, the displacement of cylinder are analyzed under different oscillating frequencies of cylinder. The phenomena of locked-in, beat and phases-witch were captured successfully. The evolution of vortex shedding from the cylinder with time is discussed. There are very similar trends in characteristics between the results of the one degree of freedom cylinder model and that of the two degree of freedom cylinder model. The streamwise vibrations have a certain effect on the lateral vibrations and their characteristics.
Exact Solutions of Steady Plane Flows of an Incompressible Fluid of Variable Viscosity Using (ξ, ψ)- Or (η, ψ)- Coordinates

The exact solutions of the equations describing the steady plane motion of an incompressible fluid of variable viscosity for an arbitrary state equation are determined in the (ξ,ψ) − or (η,ψ )- coordinates where ψ(x,y) is the stream function, ξ and η are the parts of the analytic function, ϖ =ξ( x,y )+iη( x,y ). Most of the solutions involve arbitrary function/ functions indicating  that the flow equations possess an infinite set of solutions. 

Toward a New Simple Analytical Formulation of Navier-Stokes Equations
Incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are reviewed in this work. Three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations are solved analytically. The Mathematical derivation shows that the solutions for the zero and constant pressure gradients are similar. Descriptions of the proposed formulation and validation against two laminar experiments and three different turbulent flow cases are reported in this paper. Even though, the analytical solution is derived for nonreacting flows, it could reproduce trends for cases including combustion.
Significance of Splitting Method in Non-linear Grid system for the Solution of Navier-Stokes Equation

Solution to unsteady Navier-Stokes equation by Splitting method in physical orthogonal algebraic curvilinear coordinate system, also termed 'Non-linear grid system' is presented. The linear terms in Navier-Stokes equation are solved by Crank- Nicholson method while the non-linear term is solved by the second order Adams-Bashforth method. This work is meant to bring together the advantage of Splitting method as pressure-velocity solver of higher efficiency with the advantage of consuming Non-linear grid system which produce more accurate results in relatively equal number of grid points as compared to Cartesian grid. The validation of Splitting method as a solution of Navier-Stokes equation in Nonlinear grid system is done by comparison with the benchmark results for lid driven cavity flow by Ghia and some case studies including Backward Facing Step Flow Problem.

Finite Element Solution of Navier-Stokes Equations for Steam Flow and Heat Transfer

Computational simulation of steam flow and heat transfer in power plant condensers on the basis of the threedimensional mathematical model for the flow through porous media is presented. In order to solve the mathematical model of steam flow and heat transfer in power plant condensers, the Streamline Upwind Petrov-Galerkin finite element method is applied. By comparison of the results of simulation with experimental results about an experimental condenser, it is confirmed that SUPG finite element method can be successfully applied for solving the three-dimensional mathematical model of steam flow and heat transfer in power plant condensers.

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