Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 29

Synthesis and Characterization of Nickel and Sulphur Sensitized Zinc Oxide Structures

The use of nanostructured semiconducting material to catalyze degradation of environmental pollutants still receives much attention to date. One of the desired characteristics for pollutant degradation under ultra-violet visible light is the materials with extended carrier charge separation that allows for electronic transfer between the catalyst and the pollutants. In this work, zinc oxide n-type semiconductor vertically aligned structures were fabricated on silicon (100) substrates using the chemical bath deposition method. The as-synthesized structures were treated with nickel and sulphur. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were used to characterize the phase purity, structural dimensions and elemental composition of the obtained structures respectively. Photoluminescence emission measurements showed a decrease in both the near band edge emission as well as the defect band emission upon addition of nickel and sulphur with different concentrations. This was attributed to increased charger-carrier-separation due to the presence of Ni-S material on ZnO surface, which is linked to improved charge transfer during photocatalytic reactions.

Optimization Study of Adsorption of Nickel(II) on Bentonite

This work concerns with the experimental study of the adsorption of the Ni(II) on bentonite. The effects of various parameters such as contact time, stirring rate, initial concentration of Ni(II), masse of clay, initial pH of aqueous solution and temperature on the adsorption yield, were carried out. The study of the effect of the ionic strength on the yield of adsorption was examined by the identification and the quantification of the present chemical species in the aqueous phase containing the metallic ion Ni(II). The adsorbed species were investigated by a calculation program using CHEAQS V. L20.1 in order to determine the relation between the percentages of the adsorbed species and the adsorption yield. The optimization process was carried out using 23 factorial designs. The individual and combined effects of three process parameters, i.e. initial Ni(II) concentration in aqueous solution (2.10−3 and 5.10−3 mol/L), initial pH of the solution (2 and 6.5), and mass of bentonite (0.03 and 0.3 g) on Ni(II) adsorption, were studied.

Simulation of Reflection Loss for Carbon and Nickel-Carbon Thin Films

Maximal radar wave absorbing cannot be achieved by shaping alone. We have to focus on the parameters of absorbing materials such as permittivity, permeability, and thickness so that best absorbing according to our necessity can happen. The real and imaginary parts of the relative complex permittivity (εr' and εr") and permeability (µr' and µr") were obtained by simulation. The microwave absorbing property of carbon and Ni(C) is simulated in this study by MATLAB software; the simulation was in the frequency range between 2 to 12 GHz for carbon black (C), and carbon coated nickel (Ni(C)) with different thicknesses. In fact, we draw reflection loss (RL) for C and Ni-C via frequency. We have compared their absorption for 3-mm thickness and predicted for other thicknesses by using of electromagnetic wave transmission theory. The results showed that reflection loss position changes in low frequency with increasing of thickness. We found out that, in all cases, using nanocomposites as absorbance cannot get better results relative to pure nanoparticles. The frequency where absorption is maximum can determine the best choice between nanocomposites and pure nanoparticles. Also, we could find an optimal thickness for long wavelength absorbing in order to utilize them in protecting shields and covering.

Nickel Electroplating in Post Supercritical CO2 Mixed Watts Bath under Different Agitations

The process of post-supercritical CO2 electroplating uses the electrolyte solution after being mixed with supercritical CO2 and released to atmospheric pressure. It utilizes the microbubbles that form when oversaturated CO2 in the electrolyte returns to gaseous state, which gives the similar effect of pulsed electroplating. Under atmospheric pressure, the CO2 bubbles gradually diffuse. Therefore, the introduction of ultrasound and/or other agitation can potentially excite the CO2 microbubbles to achieve an electroplated surface of even higher quality. In this study, during the electroplating process, three different modes of agitation: magnetic stirrer agitation, ultrasonic agitation and a combined mode (magnetic + ultrasonic) were applied, respectively, in order to obtain an optimal surface morphology and mechanical properties for the electroplated Ni coating. It is found that the combined agitation mode at a current density of 40 A/dm2 achieved the smallest grain size, lower surface roughness, and produced an electroplated Ni layer that achieved hardness of 320 HV, much higher when compared with conventional method, which were usually in the range of 160 to 300 HV. However, at the same time, the electroplating with combined agitation developed a higher internal stress of 320 MPa due to the lower current efficiency of the process and finer grain in the coating. Moreover, a new control methodology for tailoring the coating’s mechanical property through its thickness was demonstrated by the timely introduction of ultrasonic agitation during the electroplating process with post supercritical CO2 mixed electrolyte.

Process Optimisation for Internal Cylindrical Rough Turning of Nickel Alloy 625 Weld Overlay
Nickel-based superalloys are generally known to be difficult to cut due to their strength, low thermal conductivity, and high work hardening tendency. Superalloy such as alloy 625 is often used in the oil and gas industry as a surfacing material to provide wear and corrosion resistance to components. The material is typically applied onto a metallic substrate through weld overlay cladding, an arc welding technique. Cladded surfaces are always rugged and carry a tough skin; this creates further difficulties to the machining process. The present work utilised design of experiment to optimise the internal cylindrical rough turning for weld overlay surfaces. An L27 orthogonal array was used to assess effects of the four selected key process variables: cutting insert, depth of cut, feed rate, and cutting speed. The optimal cutting conditions were determined based on productivity and the level of tool wear.
Selective Solvent Extraction of Calcium and Magnesium from Concentrate Nickel Solutions Using Mixtures of Cyanex 272 and D2EHPA

The performance of organophosphorus extractants Cyanex 272 and D2EHPA on the purification of concentrate nickel sulfate solutions was evaluated. Batch scale tests were carried out at pH range of 2 to 7 using a laboratory solution simulating concentrate nickel liquors as those typically obtained when sulfate intermediates from nickel laterite are re-leached and treated for the selective removal of cobalt, zinc, manganese and copper with Cyanex 272 ([Ca] = 0.57 g/L, [Mg] = 3.2 g/L, and [Ni] = 88 g/L). The increase on the concentration of D2EHPA favored the calcium extraction. The extraction of magnesium is dependent on the pH and of ratio of extractants D2EHPA and Cyanex 272 in the organic phase. The composition of the investigated organic phase did not affect nickel extraction. The number of stages is dependent on the magnesium extraction. The most favorable operating condition to selectively remove calcium and magnesium was determined.

Investigation of Ceramic-Metal Composites Produced by Electroless Ni Plating of AlN- Astaloy Cr-M

The microstructure, mechanical properties and metalgraphic characteristics of Ni plated AlN-Astaloy Cr-M powders were investigated using specimens produced by tube furnace sintering at 1000-1400 °C temperature. A uniform nickel layer on AlN powders was deposited prior to sintering using electroless plating technique. A composite consisting of ternary additions, metallic phase, Ni and ceramic phase AlN within a matrix of Astaloy Cr-M had been prepared under Ar shroud and then tube furnace sintered. The experimental results carried out by using XRD (X-Ray Diffraction) and SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope) for composition (10% AlN-Astaloy Cr-M) 10% Ni at 1400 °C suggest that the best properties as 132.45HB and permittivity were obtained at 1400 °C.

Characterization of Pure Nickel Coatings Fabricated under Pulse Current Conditions
Pure nickel coatings have been successfully electrodeposited on copper substrates by the pulse plating technique. The influence of current density, duty cycle and pulse frequency on the surface morphology, crystal orientation, and microhardness was determined. It was found that the crystallite size of the deposit increases with increasing current density and duty cycle. The crystal orientation progressively changed from a random texture at 1 A/dm2 to (200) texture at 10 A/dm2. Increasing pulse frequency resulted in increased texture coefficient and peak intensity of (111) reflection. An increase in duty cycle resulted in considerable increase in texture coefficient and peak intensity of (311) reflection. Coatings obtained at high current densities and duty cycle present a mixed morphology of small and large grains. Maximum microhardness of 193 Hv was achieved at 4 A/dm2, 10 Hz and duty cycle of 50%. Nickel coatings with (200) texture are ductile while (111) texture improves the microhardness of the coatings.
Rapid Processing Techniques Applied to Sintered Nickel Battery Technologies for Utility Scale Applications
Through use of novel modern/rapid processing techniques such as screen printing and Near-Infrared (NIR) radiative curing, process time for the sintering of sintered nickel plaques, applicable to alkaline nickel battery chemistries, has been drastically reduced from in excess of 200 minutes with conventional convection methods to below 2 minutes using NIR curing methods. Steps have also been taken to remove the need for forming gas as a reducing agent by implementing carbon as an in-situ reducing agent, within the ink formulation.
Multiaxial Fatigue Analysis of a High Performance Nickel-Based Superalloy

Over the past four decades, the fatigue behavior of nickel-based alloys has been widely studied. However, in recent years, significant advances in the fabrication process leading to grain size reduction have been made in order to improve fatigue properties of aircraft turbine discs. Indeed, a change in particle size affects the initiation mode of fatigue cracks as well as the fatigue life of the material. The present study aims to investigate the fatigue behavior of a newly developed nickel-based superalloy under biaxial-planar loading. Low Cycle Fatigue (LCF) tests are performed at different stress ratios so as to study the influence of the multiaxial stress state on the fatigue life of the material. Full-field displacement and strain measurements as well as crack initiation detection are obtained using Digital Image Correlation (DIC) techniques. The aim of this presentation is first to provide an in-depth description of both the experimental set-up and protocol: the multiaxial testing machine, the specific design of the cruciform specimen and performances of the DIC code are introduced. Second, results for sixteen specimens related to different load ratios are presented. Crack detection, strain amplitude and number of cycles to crack initiation vs. triaxial stress ratio for each loading case are given. Third, from fractographic investigations by scanning electron microscopy it is found that the mechanism of fatigue crack initiation does not depend on the triaxial stress ratio and that most fatigue cracks initiate from subsurface carbides.

Structure and Morphology of Electrodeposited Nickel Nanowires at an Electrode Distance of 20mm

The objective of this work is to study the effect of two key factors - external magnetic field and applied current density during template-based electrodeposition of nickel nanowires using an electrode distance of 20 mm. Morphology, length, crystallite size and crystallographic characterization of the grown nickel nanowires at an electrode distance of 20mm are presented. For this electrode distance of 20 mm, these two key electrodeposition factors when coupled was found to reduce crystallite size with a higher growth length and preferred orientation of Ni crystals. These observed changes can be inferred to be due to coupled interaction forces induced by the intensity of applied electric field (current density) and external magnetic field known as magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effect during the electrodeposition process.

Na Promoted Ni/γ-Al2O3 Catalysts Prepared by Solution Combustion Method for Syngas Methanation

Ni-based catalysts with different amounts of Na as promoter from 2 to 6 wt % were prepared by solution combustion method. The catalytic activity was investigated in syngas methanation reaction. Carbon oxides conversion and methane selectivity are greatly influenced by sodium loading. Adding 2 wt% Na remarkably improves catalytic activity and long-term stability, attributed to its smaller mean NiO particle size, better distribution, and milder metal-support interaction. However, excess addition of Na results in deactivation distinctly due to the blockage of active sites.

Interfacial Layer Effect on Novel p-Ni1-xO:Li/n-Si Heterojunction Solar Cells

This study fabricates p-type Ni1−xO:Li/n-Si heterojunction solar cells (P+/n HJSCs) by using radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering and investigates the effect of substrate temperature on photovoltaic cell properties. Grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, four point probe, and ultraviolet-visible-near infrared discover the optoelectrical properties of p-Ni1-xO thin films. The results show that p-Ni1-xO thin films deposited at 300 oC has the highest grain size (22.4 nm), average visible transmittance (~42%), and electrical resistivity (2.7 Ωcm). However, the conversion efficiency of cell is shown only 2.33% which is lower than the cell (3.39%) fabricated at room temperature. This result can be mainly attributed to interfacial layer thickness (SiOx) reduces from 2.35 nm to 1.70 nm, as verified by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy.

Development of Risk-Based Ambient Air Quality Standards in the Russian Federation on the Basis of Risk Assessment Procedures Harmonized with International Approaches

Nowadays harmonization of sanitary and hygienic standards of environmental quality with international standards is crucial part of integration of Russia into the international community. Harmonization of Russian and international ambient air quality standards may be realized by risk-based standards development. In this paper approaches to risk-based standards development and examples of these approaches implementation are presented.

Exploring the Influences on Entrainment of Serpentines by Grinding and Reagents
This paper presents the influences on the entrainment of serpentines by grinding and reagents during copper–nickel sulfide flotation. The previous bench flotation tests were performed to extract the metallic values from the ore in Yunnan Mine, China and the relatively satisfied results with recoveries of 86.92% Cu, 54.92% Ni, and 74.73% Pt+Pd in the concentrate were harvested at their grades of 4.02%, 3.24% and 76.61 g/t, respectively. However, the content of MgO in the concentrate was still more than 19%. Micro-flotation tests were conducted with the objective of figuring out the influences on the entrainment of serpentines into the concentrate by particle size, flocculants or depressants and collectors, as well as visual observations in suspension by OLYMPUS camera. All the tests results pointed to the presences of both “entrapped-in” serpentines and its coating on the hydrophobic flocs resulted from strong collectors (combination of butyl xanthate, butyl ammonium dithophosphate, even after adding carboxymethyl cellulose as effective depressant. And fine grinding may escalate the entrainment of serpentines in the concentrate.
Evaluation of Salivary Nickel Level during Orthodontic Treatment

Since nickel is a known toxic and carcinogenic metal, the present study was designed to evaluate the level of nickel released into the saliva of orthodontic patients. Non-stimulated saliva was collected from 18 patients attending The Orthodontic Clinic of Dental Faculty of Benghazi University. Patients were divided into two groups and level of nickel was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Nickel concentration value (mg/L) in first group prior to starting treatment was 0.097± 0.071. An increase in level of nickel was followed by decrease 4 and 8 weeks after applying the arch wire (0.208± 0.112) and (0.077±0.056 mg/L) respectively. Nickel levels in saliva of the second group were showed minimal variation and ranged from 0.061± 0.044mg/L to 0.083±0.054 throughout period of study. It may be concluded that there could be a release of nickel from the appliances used in first group but it doesn't reach toxic level in saliva.

An Advanced Technology for Renovation of Extruding Shafts
The paper is concerned with the technological process of renovation of shafts used in industrial manufacturing for extruding of sheet material. In the classical renovation technologies, a chrome based coating is applied to the working surface of the shaft in galvanic baths. The process, however, is known to be exclusively harmful due to the waste cyanide products. In this work, we present an advanced nanotechnology based on nonelectric chemical laying of a nickel coating with included nanoparticles. The technology is environmentally harmless and the new coating features an increased hardness and wear resistance. Results from experimental tests of the nanostructured nickel coating are presented and discussed.
Current Density Effect on Nickel Electroplating Using Post Supercritical CO2 Mixed Watts Electrolyte

In this study, a nickel film with nano-crystalline grains, high hardness and smooth surface was electrodeposited using a post supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) mixed Watts electrolyte. Although the hardness was not as high as its Sc-CO2 counterpart, the thin coating contained significantly less number of nano-sized pinholes. By measuring the escape concentration of the dissolved CO2 in post Sc-CO2 mixed electrolyte with the elapsed time, it was believed that the residue of dissolved CO2 bubbles should closely relate to the improvement in hardness and surface roughness over its conventional plating counterpart. Therefore, shortening the duration of electroplating with the raise of current density up to 0.5 A/cm2 could effectively retain more post Sc-CO2 mixing effect. This study not only confirms the roles of dissolved CO2 bubbles in electrolyte but also provides a potential process to overcome most issues associated with the cost in building high-pressure chamber for large size products and continuous plating using supercritical method.

Leaching Behaviour of a Low-grade South African Nickel Laterite
The morphology, mineralogical and chemical composition of a low-grade nickel ore from Mpumalanga, South Africa, were studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF), respectively. The ore was subjected to atmospheric agitation leaching using sulphuric acid to investigate the effects of acid concentration, leaching temperature, leaching time and particle size on extraction of nickel and cobalt. Analyses results indicated the ore to be a saprolitic nickel laterite belonging to the serpentine group of minerals. Sulphuric acid was found to be able to extract nickel from the ore. Increased acid concentration and temperature only produced low amounts of nickel but improved cobalt extraction. As high as 77.44% Ni was achieved when leaching a -106+75μm fraction with 4.0M acid concentration at 25oC. The kinetics of nickel leaching from the saprolitic ore were studied and the activation energy was determined to be 18.16kJ/mol. This indicated that nickel leaching reaction was diffusion controlled.
Porous Ni and Ni-Co Electrodeposits for Alkaline Water Electrolysis – Energy Saving
Hydrogen is considered to be the most promising candidate as a future energy carrier. One of the most used technologies for the electrolytic hydrogen production is alkaline water electrolysis. However, due to the high energy requirements, the cost of hydrogen produced in such a way is high. In continuous search to improve this process using advanced electrocatalytic materials for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), Ni type Raney and macro-porous Ni-Co electrodes were prepared on AISI 304 stainless steel substrates by electrodeposition. The developed electrodes were characterized by SEM and confocal laser scanning microscopy. HER on these electrodes was evaluated in 30 wt.% KOH solution by means of hydrogen discharge curves and galvanostatic tests. Results show that the developed electrodes present a most efficient behaviour for HER when comparing with the smooth Ni cathode. It has been reported a reduction in the energy consumption of the electrolysis cell of about 25% by using the developed coatings as cathodes.
New Complexes of Nickel (II) Using 4-Hydroxy-2-Oxo-2H-Chromene-3-Carboxamide as Ligand

New complexes of nickel (II) have been synthesized in the reaction mixture of nickel (II) acetate and 4-hydroxy-2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carboxamide. Bis(4-hydroxy-2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carboxamidato-O,O)nickel (II) and diaquabis(4-hydroxy-2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carboxamidato-O,O)nickel (II) were characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy and ESI mass spectrometry. Elemental analysis and mass spectrometry data of the complexes suggests the stoichiometry of 1:2 (metal-ligand).

Assessment of Nickel Concentration in Surface and Ground Water of the Kowsar Dam Basin
The Kowsar dam supply water for different usages such as drinking, industrial, agricultural and aquaculture farms usages and located next to the city of Dehdashat in Kohgiluye and Boyerahmad province in southern Iran. There are some towns and villages on the Kowsar dam watersheds, which Dehdasht and Choram are the most important and populated cities in this area. The study was undertaken to assess the status of water quality in the urban areas of the Kowsar dam. A total of 28 water samples were collected from 6 stations on surface water and 1 station from groundwater on the watershed of the Kowsar dam. All the samples were analyzed for Ni concentration using standard procedures. The results were compared with other national and international standards. Among the analyzed samples, as the maximum value of Nickel (0.01 mg/L) was observed on the station 2 at the autumn 2010, all the samples analyzed were within the maximum admissible limits by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, EU, WHO and the Iranian. In general results of the present study have shown that a Ni mean value of station No. 2 with 0.006 mg/L is higher than the other stations. Ni level of all samples and stations have had normal values and this is an indication of pollution potential and hazards because of human activity and waste water of towns in the areas, which can effect on human health implications in future. This research, therefore, recommends the government and other responsible authorities to take suitable improving measures in the Kowsar dam watersheds.
La promoted Ni/α-Al2O3 Catalysts for Syngas Methanation
The Ni/α-Al2O3 catalysts with different amounts of La as promoter from 0 to 4 wt % were prepared, characterized and their catalytic activity was investigated in syngas methanation reaction. Effects of reaction temperature and lanthanum loading on carbon oxides conversion and methane selectivity were also studied. Adding certain amount of lanthanum to 10Ni /α-Al2O3 catalysts can decrease the average NiO crystallite diameter which leads to higher activity and stability while excessive addition would cause deactivation quickly. Stability on stream towards deactivation was observed up to 800 min at 500 °C, 0.1MPa and 600000 mL·g-1·h-1.
Nickel on Inner Surface and Stainless Steel on Outer Surface for Functionally Graded Cylindrical Shell

Study is on the vibration of thin cylindrical shells made of a functionally gradient material (FGM) composed of stainless steel and nickel is presented. The effects of the FGM configuration are studied by studying the frequencies of FG cylindrical shells. In this case FG cylindrical shell has Nickel on its inner surface and stainless steel on its outer surface. The study is carried out based on third order shear deformation shell theory. The objective is to study the natural frequencies, the influence of constituent volume fractions and the effects of configurations of the constituent materials on the frequencies. The properties are graded in the thickness direction according to the volume fraction power-law distribution. Results are presented on the frequency characteristics, the influence of the constituent various volume fractions on the frequencies.

Volume Fraction Law for Stainless Steel on Inner Surface and Nickel on Outer Surface For FGM Cylindrical Shell
Vibration of thin cylindrical shells made of a functionally gradient material composed of stainless steel and nickel is presented. The effects of the FGM configuration are studied by studying the frequencies of FG cylindrical shells. In this case FG cylindrical shell has Nickel on its outer surface and stainless steel on its inner surface. The study is carried out based on third order shear deformation shell theory. The objective is to study the natural frequencies, the influence of constituent volume fractions and the effects of configurations of the constituent materials on the frequencies. The properties are graded in the thickness direction according to the volume fraction power-law distribution. Results are presented on the frequency characteristics, the influence of the constituent various volume fractions on the frequencies.
An Investigation of the Cu-Ni Compound Cathode Materials Affecting on Transient Recovery Voltage

The purpose of this research was to analyze and compare the instability of a contact surface between Copper and Nickel an alloy cathode in vacuum, the different ratio of Copper and Copper were conducted at 1%, 2% and 4% by using the cathode spot model. The transient recovery voltage is predicted. The cathode spot region is recognized as the collisionless space charge sheath connected with singly ionized collisional plasma. It was found that the transient voltage is decreased with increasing the percentage of an amount of Nickel in cathode materials.

Use of Agricultural Waste for the Removal of Nickel Ions from Aqueous Solutions: Equilibrium and Kinetics Studies
The potential of economically cheaper cellulose containing natural materials like rice husk was assessed for nickel adsorption from aqueous solutions. The effects of pH, contact time, sorbent dose, initial metal ion concentration and temperature on the uptake of nickel were studied in batch process. The removal of nickel was dependent on the physico-chemical characteristics of the adsorbent, adsorbate concentration and other studied process parameters. The sorption data has been correlated with Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radush kevich (D-R) adsorption models. It was found that Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms fitted well to the data. Maximum nickel removal was observed at pH 6.0. The efficiency of rice husk for nickel removal was 51.8% for dilute solutions at 20 g L-1 adsorbent dose. FTIR, SEM and EDAX were recorded before and after adsorption to explore the number and position of the functional groups available for nickel binding on to the studied adsorbent and changes in surface morphology and elemental constitution of the adsorbent. Pseudo-second order model explains the nickel kinetics more effectively. Reusability of the adsorbent was examined by desorption in which HCl eluted 78.93% nickel. The results revealed that nickel is considerably adsorbed on rice husk and it could be and economic method for the removal of nickel from aqueous solutions.
Manufacture of Electroless Nickel/YSZ Composite Coatings

The paper discusses optimising work on a method of processing ceramic / metal composite coatings for various applications and is based on preliminary work on processing anodes for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The composite coating is manufactured by the electroless co-deposition of nickel and yttria stabilised zirconia (YSZ) simultaneously on to a ceramic substrate. The effect on coating characteristics of substrate surface treatments and electroless nickel bath parameters such as pH and agitation methods are also investigated. Characterisation of the resulting deposit by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA) is also discussed.

Fabrication and Study of Nickel Phthalocyanine based Surface Type Capacitive Sensors
Thin films of Nickel phthalocynine (NiPc) of different thicknesses (100, 150 and 200 nm) were deposited by thermal evaporator on glass substrates with preliminary deposited aluminum electrodes to form Al/NiPc/Al surface-type capacitive humidity sensors. The capacitance-humidity relationships of the sensors were investigated at humidity levels from 35 to 90% RH. It was observed that the capacitance value increases nonlinearly with increasing humidity level. All measurements were taken at room temperature.
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