Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 16

Low Complexity Hybrid Scheme for PAPR Reduction in OFDM Systems Based on SLM and Clipping
In this paper, we present a low complexity hybrid scheme using conventional selective mapping (C-SLM) and clipping algorithms to reduce the high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signal. In the proposed scheme, the input data sequence (X) is divided into two sub-blocks, then clipping algorithm is applied to the first sub-block, whereas C-SLM algorithm is applied to the second sub-block in order to reduce both computational complexity and PAPR. The resultant time domain OFDM signal is obtained by combining the output of two sub-blocks. The simulation results show that the proposed hybrid scheme provides 0.45 dB PAPR reduction gain at CCDF value of 10-2 and 52% of computational complexity reduction when compared to C-SLM scheme at the expense of slight degradation in bit error rate (BER) performance.
Food Safety Aspects of Pesticide Residues in Spice Paprika

Environmental and health safety of condiments used for spicing food products in food processing or by culinary means receive relatively low attention, even though possible contamination of spices may affect food quality and safety. Contamination surveys mostly focus on microbial contaminants or their secondary metabolites, mycotoxins. Chemical contaminants, particularly pesticide residues, however, are clearly substantial factors in the case of given condiments in the Capsicum family including spice paprika and chilli. To assess food safety and support the quality of the Hungaricum product spice paprika, the pesticide residue status of spice paprika and chilli is assessed on the basis of reported pesticide contamination cases and non-compliances in the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed of the European Union since 1998.

Quality Management in Spice Paprika Production as a Synergy of Internal and External Quality Measures
Spice paprika is a major spice commodity in the European Union (EU), produced locally and imported from non-EU countries, reported not only for chemical and microbiological contamination, but also for fraud. The effective interaction between producers’ quality management practices and government and EU activities is described on the example of spice paprika production and control in Hungary, a country of leading spice paprika producer and per capita consumer in Europe. To demonstrate the importance of various contamination factors in the Hungarian production and EU trade of spice paprika, several aspects concerning food safety of this commodity are presented. Alerts in the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF) of the EU between 2005 and 2013, as well as Hungarian state inspection results on spice paprika in 2004 are discussed, and quality non-compliance claims regarding spice paprika among EU member states are summarized in by means of network analysis. Quality assurance measures established along the spice paprika production technology chain at the leading Hungarian spice paprika manufacturer, Kalocsai Fűszerpaprika Zrt. are surveyed with main critical control points identified. The structure and operation of the Hungarian state food safety inspection system is described. Concerted performance of the latter two quality management systems illustrates the effective interaction between internal (manufacturer) and external (state) quality control measures.
Low Complexity Peak-to-Average Power Ratio Reduction in Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing System by Simultaneously Applying Partial Transmit Sequence and Clipping Algorithms

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) has been used in many advanced wireless communication systems due to its high spectral efficiency and robustness to frequency selective fading channels. However, the major concern with OFDM system is the high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) of the transmitted signal. Some of the popular techniques used for PAPR reduction in OFDM system are conventional partial transmit sequences (CPTS) and clipping. In this paper, a parallel combination/hybrid scheme of PAPR reduction using clipping and CPTS algorithms is proposed. The proposed method intelligently applies both the algorithms in order to reduce both PAPR as well as computational complexity. The proposed scheme slightly degrades bit error rate (BER) performance due to clipping operation and it can be reduced by selecting an appropriate value of the clipping ratio (CR). The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm achieves significant PAPR reduction with much reduced computational complexity.

Effect of Iterative Algorithm on the Performance of MC-CDMA System with Nonlinear Models of HPA

High Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR) of the transmitted signal is a serious problem in multicarrier systems (MC), such as Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM), or in Multi-Carrier Code Division Multiple Access (MC-CDMA) systems, due to large number of subcarriers. This effect is possible reduce with some PAPR reduction techniques. Spreading sequences at the presence of Saleh and Rapp models of high power amplifier (HPA) have big influence on the behavior of system. In this paper we investigate the bit-error-rate (BER) performance of MC-CDMA systems. Basically we can see from simulations that the MC-CDMA system with Iterative algorithm can be providing significantly better results than the MC-CDMA system. The results of our analyses are verified via simulation.

PAPR Reduction in OFDM Systems Using Orthogonal Eigenvector Matrix

OFDM systems are known to have a high PAPR (Peak-to-Average Power Ratio) compared with single-carrier systems. In fact, the high PAPR is one of the most detrimental aspects in the OFDM system, as it can cause power degradation (Inband distortion) and spectral spreading (Out-of-band radiation). In this paper, from the foundation of the PAPR analysis an effective method of PAPR reduction has been proposed based on Orthogonal Eigenvector Matrix (OEM) transform. Extensive computer simulations show that a PAPR reduction of up to 4.4 dB can be obtained without introducing in-band distortion or out-of-band radiation in the system.

M-ary Chaotic Sequence Based SLM-OFDM System for PAPR Reduction without Side-Information

Selected Mapping (SLM) is a PAPR reduction technique, which converts the OFDM signal into several independent signals by multiplication with the phase sequence set and transmits one of the signals with lowest PAPR. But it requires the index of the selected signal i.e. side information (SI) to be transmitted with each OFDM symbol. The PAPR reduction capability of the SLM scheme depends on the selection of phase sequence set. In this paper, we have proposed a new phase sequence set generation scheme based on M-ary chaotic sequence and a mapping scheme to map quaternary data to concentric circle constellation (CCC) is used. It is shown that this method does not require SI and provides better SER performance with good PAPR reduction capability as compared to existing SLMOFDM methods.

SLM Using Riemann Sequence Combined with DCT Transform for PAPR Reduction in OFDM Communication Systems
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is an efficient method of data transmission for high speed communication systems. However, the main drawback of OFDM systems is that, it suffers from the problem of high Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR) which causes inefficient use of the High Power Amplifier and could limit transmission efficiency. OFDM consist of large number of independent subcarriers, as a result of which the amplitude of such a signal can have high peak values. In this paper, we propose an effective reduction scheme that combines DCT and SLM techniques. The scheme is composed of the DCT followed by the SLM using the Riemann matrix to obtain phase sequences for the SLM technique. The simulation results show PAPR can be greatly reduced by applying the proposed scheme. In comparison with OFDM, while OFDM had high values of PAPR –about 10.4dB our proposed method achieved about 4.7dB reduction of the PAPR with low complexities computation. This approach also avoids randomness in phase sequence selection, which makes it simpler to decode at the receiver. As an added benefit, the matrices can be generated at the receiver end to obtain the data signal and hence it is not required to transmit side information (SI).
Adaptive Square-Rooting Companding Technique for PAPR Reduction in OFDM Systems
This paper addresses the problem of peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. It also introduces a new PAPR reduction technique based on adaptive square-rooting (SQRT) companding process. The SQRT process of the proposed technique changes the statistical characteristics of the OFDM output signals from Rayleigh distribution to Gaussian-like distribution. This change in statistical distribution results changes of both the peak and average power values of OFDM signals, and consequently reduces significantly the PAPR. For the 64QAM OFDM system using 512 subcarriers, up to 6 dB reduction in PAPR was achieved by square-rooting technique with fixed degradation in bit error rate (BER) equal to 3 dB. However, the PAPR is reduced at the expense of only -15 dB out-ofband spectral shoulder re-growth below the in-band signal level. The proposed adaptive SQRT technique is superior in terms of BER performance than the original, non-adaptive, square-rooting technique when the required reduction in PAPR is no more than 5 dB. Also, it provides fixed amount of PAPR reduction in which it is not available in the original SQRT technique.
Power Efficient OFDM Signals with Reduced Symbol's Aperiodic Autocorrelation

Three new algorithms based on minimization of autocorrelation of transmitted symbols and the SLM approach which are computationally less demanding have been proposed. In the first algorithm, autocorrelation of complex data sequence is minimized to a value of 1 that results in reduction of PAPR. Second algorithm generates multiple random sequences from the sequence generated in the first algorithm with same value of autocorrelation i.e. 1. Out of these, the sequence with minimum PAPR is transmitted. Third algorithm is an extension of the second algorithm and requires minimum side information to be transmitted. Multiple sequences are generated by modifying a fixed number of complex numbers in an OFDM data sequence using only one factor. The multiple sequences represent the same data sequence and the one giving minimum PAPR is transmitted. Simulation results for a 256 subcarrier OFDM system show that significant reduction in PAPR is achieved using the proposed algorithms.

Effect of Peak-to-Average Power Ratio Reduction on the Multicarrier Communication System Performance Parameters
Multicarrier transmission system such as Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is a promising technique for high bit rate transmission in wireless communication system. OFDM is a spectrally efficient modulation technique that can achieve high speed data transmission over multipath fading channels without the need for powerful equalization techniques. However the price paid for this high spectral efficiency and less intensive equalization is low power efficiency. OFDM signals are very sensitive to nonlinear effects due to the high Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR), which leads to the power inefficiency in the RF section of the transmitter. This paper investigates the effect of PAPR reduction on the performance parameter of multicarrier communication system. Performance parameters considered are power consumption of Power Amplifier (PA) and Digital-to-Analog Converter (DAC), power amplifier efficiency, SNR of DAC and BER performance of the system. From our analysis it is found that irrespective of PAPR reduction technique being employed, the power consumption of PA and DAC reduces and power amplifier efficiency increases due to reduction in PAPR. Moreover, it has been shown that for a given BER performance the requirement of Input-Backoff (IBO) reduces with reduction in PAPR.
Joint Microstatistic Multiuser Detection and Cancellation of Nonlinear Distortion Effects for the Uplink of MC-CDMA Systems Using Golay Codes
The study in this paper underlines the importance of correct joint selection of the spreading codes for uplink of multicarrier code division multiple access (MC-CDMA) at the transmitter side and detector at the receiver side in the presence of nonlinear distortion due to high power amplifier (HPA). The bit error rate (BER) of system for different spreading sequences (Walsh code, Gold code, orthogonal Gold code, Golay code and Zadoff-Chu code) and different kinds of receivers (minimum mean-square error receiver (MMSE-MUD) and microstatistic multi-user receiver (MSF-MUD)) is compared by means of simulations for MC-CDMA transmission system. Finally, the results of analysis will show, that the application of MSF-MUD in combination with Golay codes can outperform significantly the other tested spreading codes and receivers for all mostly used models of HPA.
A Performance Comparison of Golay and Reed-Muller Coded OFDM Signal for Peak-to-Average Power Ratio Reduction
Multicarrier transmission system such as Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is a promising technique for high bit rate transmission in wireless communication systems. OFDM is a spectrally efficient modulation technique that can achieve high speed data transmission over multipath fading channels without the need for powerful equalization techniques. A major drawback of OFDM is the high Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR) of the transmit signal which can significantly impact the performance of the power amplifier. In this paper we have compared the PAPR reduction performance of Golay and Reed-Muller coded OFDM signal. From our simulation it has been found that the PAPR reduction performance of Golay coded OFDM is better than the Reed-Muller coded OFDM signal. Moreover, for the optimum PAPR reduction performance, code configuration for Golay and Reed-Muller codes has been identified.
Fast Dummy Sequence Insertion Method for PAPR Reduction in WiMAX Systems
In literatures, many researches proposed various methods to reduce PAPR (Peak to Average Power Ratio). Among those, DSI (Dummy Sequence Insertion) is one of the most attractive methods for WiMAX systems because it does not require side information transmitted along with user data. However, the conventional DSI methods find dummy sequence by performing an iterative procedure until achieving PAPR under a desired threshold. This causes a significant delay on finding dummy sequence and also effects to the overall performances in WiMAX systems. In this paper, the new method based on DSI is proposed by finding dummy sequence without the need of iterative procedure. The fast DSI method can reduce PAPR without either delays or required side information. The simulation results confirm that the proposed method is able to carry out PAPR performances as similar to the other methods without any delays. In addition, the simulations of WiMAX system with adaptive modulations are also investigated to realize the use of proposed methods on various fading schemes. The results suggest the WiMAX designers to modify a new Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) criteria for adaptation.
A Blind SLM Scheme for Reduction of PAPR in OFDM Systems

In this paper we propose a blind algorithm for peakto- average power ratio (PAPR) reduction in OFDM systems, based on selected mapping (SLM) algorithm as a distortionless method. The main drawback of the conventional SLM technique is the need for transmission of several side information bits, for each data block, which results in loss in data rate transmission. In the proposed method some special number of carriers in the OFDM frame is reserved to be rotated with one of the possible phases according to the number of phase sequence blocks in SLM algorithm. Reserving some limited number of carriers wont effect the reduction in PAPR of OFDM signal. Simulation results show using ML criteria at the receiver will lead to the same system-performance as the conventional SLM algorithm, while there is no need to send any side information to the receiver.

PAPR Reduction Method for OFDM Signalby Using Dummy Sub-carriers
One of the disadvantages of using OFDM is the larger peak to averaged power ratio (PAPR) in its time domain signal. The larger PAPR signal would course the fatal degradation of bit error rate performance (BER) due to the inter-modulation noise in the nonlinear channel. This paper proposes an improved DSI (Dummy Sequence Insertion) method, which can achieve the better PAPR and BER performances. The feature of proposed method is to optimize the phase of each dummy sub-carrier so as to reduce the PAPR performance by changing all predetermined phase coefficients in the time domain signal, which is calculated for data sub-carriers and dummy sub-carriers separately. To achieve the better PAPR performance, this paper also proposes to employ the time-frequency domain swapping algorithm for fine adjustment of phase coefficient of the dummy subcarriers, which can achieve the less complexity of processing and achieves the better PAPR and BER performances than those for the conventional DSI method. This paper presents various computer simulation results to verify the effectiveness of proposed method as comparing with the conventional methods in the non-linear channel.
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