DC-Link Voltage Control of DC-DC Boost Converter-Inverter System with PI Controller
In this paper, the DC-link voltage control of DC-DC boost converter–inverter system is proposed. The mathematical model is developed from four different sub-circuits that depended on the switch positions. The developed differential equations are combined to develop the dynamic model. Transfer function is generated from the switched function model. Fluctuation of DC-link voltage causes connected loads malfunction. For this problem, a kind of traditional controller, the PI controller is applied to achieve constant DC-link voltage. The PI controller gains are obtained based on transfer function step response. The simulation work has been studied by using MATLAB/Simulink software and hardware prototype is implemented with a low-cost microcontroller Arduino Nano. Experimental results are collected by using ArduinoIO library package. Closed-loop DC-link voltage control system is tested with various line and load disturbances. It is found that the experimental results give equal responses with the simulation results.
Double Loop Control of H-Bridge DC Chopper Fed Permanent Magnet DC Motor Drives Using Low Cost Hardware
This paper presents the two loop proportional integral (PI) controller for speed control of permanent magnet DC motor (PMDC) motor drive with H-bridge DC chopper. PMDC motors are widely used in many applications because of having a good performance and it is easy to apply the speed control. The speed can be adjusted by using armature voltage control as it had only the armature circuit. H-bridge DC chopper circuit is used to obtain the desired speed in any direction. In this system, the two loop PI controller is designed by using pole-zero cancellation method. The speed and current controller gains are considered depending on the sampling frequency of the microcontroller. An Arduino IO package is used to implement the control algorithm. Both simulation and experimental results are presented to prove the correctness of the mathematical model.
Implementation the Average Input Current Mode Control of Two-Phase Interleaved Boost Converter Using Low-Cost Microcontroller
In this paper, the average input current mode control is proposed for two-phase interleaved boost converter with two separate input inductors operating in continuous conduction mode (CCM). The required mathematical model is obtained from the equivalent circuits of its different four modes of operation. The small ripple approximation is derived to find the transfer functions from dynamic model using switching function. In average input current mode control, the inner current loop and outer voltage loop are designed with PI controller using bode analysis. Anti-windup structure is applied for PI controllers in control system. Moreover, the simulation work is carried out by MATLAB/Simulink. And, the hardware prototype is implemented by using low-cost microcontroller Arduino Nano. Finally, the laboratory prototype, available from the local market, is constructed to validate the mathematical model. The results show that the output voltage response is the faster rise time and settling time with acceptable overshoot.
Direct Power Control Applied on 5-Level Diode Clamped Inverter Powered by a Renewable Energy Source
This paper presents an improved Direct Power Control (DPC) scheme applied to the multilevel inverter that forms a Distributed Generation Unit (DGU). This paper demonstrates the performance of active and reactive power injected by the DGU to the smart grid. The DPC is traditionally operated by the hysteresis controller with the Space Vector Modulation (SVM) which is applied on the 2-level inverters or 3-level inverters. In this paper, the DPC is operated by the PI controller with the Phase-Disposition Pulse Width Modulation (PD-PWM) applied to the 5-level diode clamped inverter. The new combination of the DPC, PI controller, PD-PWM and multilevel inverter proves that its performance is much better than the conventional hysteresis-SVM based DPC. Simulations results have been presented to validate the performance of the suggested control scheme in the grid-connected mode.
Optimization of the Control Scheme for Human Extremity Exoskeleton
In order to design a suitable control scheme for human extremity exoskeleton, the interaction force control scheme with traditional PI controller was presented, and the simulation study of the electromechanical system of the human extremity exoskeleton was carried out by using a MATLAB/Simulink module. By analyzing the simulation calculation results, it was shown that the traditional PI controller is not very suitable for every movement speed of human body. So, at last the fuzzy self-adaptive PI controller was presented to solve this problem. Eventually, the superiority and feasibility of the fuzzy self-adaptive PI controller was proved by the simulation results and experimental results.
Optimal Voltage and Frequency Control of a Microgrid Using the Harmony Search Algorithm
The stability is an important topic to plan and manage the energy in the microgrids as the same as the conventional power systems. The voltage and frequency stability is one of the most important issues recently studied in microgrids. The objectives of this paper are the modelling and designing of the components and optimal controllers for the voltage and frequency control of the AC/DC hybrid microgrid under the different disturbances. Since the PI controllers have the advantages of simple structure and easy implementation, so they are designed and modeled in this paper. The harmony search (HS) algorithm is used to optimize the controllers’ parameters. According to the achieved results, the PI controllers have a good performance in voltage and frequency control of the microgrid.
Enhance the Modeling of BLDC Motor Based on Fuzzy Logic
This paper describes a simple way to control the speed
of PMBLDC motor using Fuzzy logic control method. In the
conventional PI controller the performance of the motor system is
simulated and the speed is regulated by using PI controller. These
methods used to improve the performance of PMSM drives, but in
some cases at different operating conditions when the dynamics of
the system also vary over time and it can change the reference speed,
parameter variations and the load disturbance. The simulation is
powered with the MATLAB program to get a reliable and flexible
simulation. In order to highlight the effectiveness of the speed control
method the FLC method is used. The proposed method targeted in
achieving the improved dynamic performance and avoids the
variations of the motor drive. This drive has high accuracy, robust
operation from near zero to high speed. The effectiveness and
flexibility of the individual techniques of the speed control method
will be thoroughly discussed for merits and demerits and finally
verified through simulation and experimental results for comparative
Matrix Converter Fed Brushless DC Motor Using Field Programmable Gate Array
Brushless DC motors (BLDC) are widely used in
industrial areas. The BLDC motors are driven either by indirect ACAC
converters or by direct AC-AC converters. Direct AC-AC
converters i.e. matrix converters are used in this paper to drive the
three phase BLDC motor and it eliminates the bulky DC link energy
storage element. A matrix converter converts the AC power supply to
an AC voltage of variable amplitude and variable frequency. A
control technique is designed to generate the switching pulses for the
three phase matrix converter. For the control of speed of the BLDC
motor a separate PI controller and Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) are
designed and a hysteresis current controller is also designed for the
control of motor torque. The control schemes are designed and tested
separately. The simulation results of both the schemes are compared
and contrasted in this paper. The results show that the fuzzy logic
control scheme outperforms the PI control scheme in terms of
dynamic performance of the BLDC motor. Simulation results are
validated with the experimental results.
Modeling, Analysis and Simulation of 4-Phase Boost Converter
This paper designs the four-phase Boost Converter
which overcomes the problem of high input ripple current and output
ripple voltage. Digital control is more convenient for such a topology
on basis of synchronization, phase shift operation, etc. Simulation
results are presented for open-loop and closed-loop for four phase
boost converter. This control scheme is applicable for PFC rectifiers
as well. Thus a comparative analysis based on the obtained results is
Power Quality Improvement Using PI and Fuzzy Logic Controllers Based Shunt Active Filter
In recent years the large scale use of the power electronic equipment has led to an increase of harmonics in the power system. The harmonics results into a poor power quality and have great adverse economical impact on the utilities and customers. Current harmonics are one of the most common power quality problems and are usually resolved by using shunt active filter (SHAF). The main objective of this work is to develop PI and Fuzzy logic controllers (FLC) to analyze the performance of Shunt Active Filter for mitigating current harmonics under balanced and unbalanced sinusoidal source voltage conditions for normal load and increased load. When the supply voltages are ideal (balanced), both PI and FLC are converging to the same compensation characteristics. However, the supply voltages are non-ideal (unbalanced), FLC offers outstanding results. Simulation results validate the superiority of FLC with triangular membership function over the PI controller.
A New Self-Tuning Fuzzy PD Controller of a BDFIG for Wind Energy Conversion
This paper presents a new control scheme to control a brushless doubly fed induction generator (BDFIG) using back-to-back PWM converters for wind power generation. The proposed control scheme is a New Self-Tuning Fuzzy Proportional-Derivative Controller (NSTFPDC). The goal of BDFIG control is to achieve a similar dynamic performance to the doubly fed induction generator (DFIG), exploiting the well-known induction machine vector control philosophy. The performance of NSTFPDC controller has been investigated and compared with the two controllers, called Proportional–Integral (PI) and PD-like Fuzzy Logic controller (PD-like FLC) based BDFIG. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness and the robustness of the NSTFPDC controller.
The Optimized Cascade PI Controllers of the Generator Control Unit in the Aircraft Power System
This paper presents the optimal controller design of
the generator control unit in the aircraft power system. The adaptive
tabu search technique is applied to tune the controller parameters
until the best terminal output voltage of generator is achieved. The
output response from the system with the controllers designed by the
proposed technique is compared with those from the conventional
method. The transient simulations using the commercial software
package show that the controllers designed from the adaptive tabu
search algorithm can provide the better output performance compared
with the result from the classical method. The proposed design
technique is very flexible and useful for electrical aircraft engineers.
A Study of Wind Speed Characteristic in PI Controller based DFIG Wind Turbine
The Wind Turbine Modeling in Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS) using Doubly-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) PI Controller based design is presented. To study about the variable wind speed. The PI controller performs responding to the dynamic performance. The objective is to study the characteristic of wind turbine and finding the optimum wind speed suitable for wind turbine performance. This system will allow the specification setting (2.5MW). The output active power also corresponding same the input is given. And the reactive power produced by the wind turbine is regulated at 0 Mvar. Variable wind speed is optimum for drive train performance at 12.5 m/s (at maximum power coefficient point) from the simulation of DFIG by Simulink is described.
PI Controller for Automatic Generation Control Based on Performance Indices
The optimal design of PI controller for Automatic Generation Control in two area is presented in this paper. The concept of Dual mode control is applied in the PI controller, such that the proportional mode is made active when the rate of change of the error is sufficiently larger than a specified limit otherwise switched to the integral mode. A digital simulation is used in conjunction with the Hooke-Jeeve’s optimization technique to determine the optimum parameters (individual gain of proportional and integral controller) of the PI controller. Integrated Square of the Error (ISE), Integrated Time multiplied by Absolute Error(ITAE) , and Integrated Absolute Error(IAE) performance indices are considered to measure the appropriateness of the designed controller. The proposed controller are tested for a two area single nonreheat thermal system considering the practical aspect of the problem such as Deadband and Generation Rate Constraint(GRC). Simulation results show that dual mode with optimized values of the gains improved the control performance than the commonly used Variable Structure .
Design and Simulation of Air-Fuel Ratio Control System for Distributorless CNG Engine
This paper puts forward one kind of air-fuel ratio
control method with PI controller. With the help of
MATLAB/SIMULINK software, the mathematical model of air-fuel
ratio control system for distributorless CNG engine is constructed.
The objective is to maintain cylinder-to-cylinder air-fuel ratio at a
prescribed set point, determined primarily by the state of the Three-
Way-Catalyst (TWC), so that the pollutants in the exhaust are
removed with the highest efficiency. The concurrent control of airfuel
under transient conditions could be implemented by Proportional
and Integral (PI) controller. The simulation result indicates that the
control methods can easily eliminate the air/fuel maldistribution and
maintain the air/fuel ratio at the stochiometry within minimum
Design of PI Controller Using MRAC Techniques For Couple-Tanks Process
The typical coupled-tanks process that is TITO
plant has the difficulty in controller design because changing
of system dynamics and interacting of process. This paper
presents design methodology of auto-adjustable PI controller
using MRAC technique. The proposed method can adjust the
controller parameters in response to changes in plant and
disturbance real time by referring to the reference model that
specifies properties of the desired control system.
Nonlinear Control of a Continuous Bioreactor Based on Cell Population Model
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker-s yeast) can exhibit
sustained oscillations during the operation in a continuous bioreactor
that adversely affects its stability and productivity. Because of
heterogeneous nature of cell populations, the cell population balance
models can be used to capture the dynamic behavior of such cultures.
In this paper an unstructured, segregated model is used which is
based on population balance equation(PBE) and then in order to
simulation, the 4th order Rung-Kutta is used for time dimension and
three methods, finite difference, orthogonal collocation on finite
elements and Galerkin finite element are used for discretization of the
cell mass domain. The results indicate that the orthogonal collocation
on finite element not only is able to predict the oscillating behavior of
the cell culture but also needs much little time for calculations.
Therefore this method is preferred in comparison with other methods.
In the next step two controllers, a globally linearizing control (GLC)
and a conventional proportional-integral (PI) controller are designed
for controlling the total cell mass per unit volume, and performances
of these controllers are compared through simulation. The results
show that although the PI controller has simpler structure, the GLC
has better performance.
PI Control for Second Order Delay System with Tuning Parameter Optimization
In this paper, we consider the control of time delay system
by Proportional-Integral (PI) controller. By Using the Hermite-
Biehler theorem, which is applicable to quasi-polynomials, we seek
a stability region of the controller for first order delay systems. The
essence of this work resides in the extension of this approach to
second order delay system, in the determination of its stability region
and the computation of the PI optimum parameters. We have used
the genetic algorithms to lead the complexity of the optimization
T-DOF PI Controller Design for a Speed Control of Induction Motor
This paper presents design and implements the
T-DOF PI controller design for a speed control of induction motor.
The voltage source inverter type space vector pulse width modulation
technique is used the drive system. This scheme leads to be able to
adjust the speed of the motor by control the frequency and amplitude
of the input voltage. The ratio of input stator voltage to frequency
should be kept constant. The T-DOF PI controller design by root
locus technique is also introduced to the system for regulates and
tracking speed response. The experimental results in testing the 120
watt induction motor from no-load condition to rated condition show
the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.