Sliding Mode Control of an Internet Teleoperated PUMA 600 Robot
In this paper, we have developed a sliding mode
controller for PUMA 600 manipulator robot, to control the remote
robot a teleoperation system was developed. This system includes
two sites, local and remote. The sliding mode controller is installed
at the remote site. The client asks for a position through an interface
and receives the real positions after running of the task by the remote
robot. Both sites are interconnected via the Internet. In order to verify
the effectiveness of the sliding mode controller, that is compared with
a classic PID controller. The developed approach is tested on a virtual
robot. The results confirmed the high performance of this approach.
Reliability Analysis of Heat Exchanger Cycle Using Non-Parametric Method
Non-parametric reliability technique is useful for assessment of reliability of systems for which failure rates are not available. This is useful when detection of malfunctioning of any component is the key purpose during ongoing operation of the system. The main purpose of the Heat Exchanger Cycle discussed in this paper is to provide hot water at a constant temperature for longer periods of time. In such a cycle, certain components play a crucial role and this paper presents an effective way to predict the malfunctioning of the components by determination of system reliability. The method discussed in the paper is feasible and this is clarified with the help of various test cases.
Summing ANFIS PID Control of Passenger Seat Vibrations in Active Quarter Car Model
In this paper, passenger seat vibration control of an active quarter car model under random road excitations is considered. The designed ANFIS and Summing ANFIS PID controllers are assembled in primary suspension system of quarter car model. Simulation work is performed in time and frequency domain to obtain passenger seat acceleration and displacement responses. Simulation results show that Summing ANFIS PID based controller is highly suitable to suppress the road induced vibrations in quarter car model to achieve desired passenger ride comfort and safety compared to ANFIS and passive system.
Improving Load Frequency Control of Multi-Area Power System by Considering Uncertainty by Using Optimized Type 2 Fuzzy Pid Controller with the Harmony Search Algorithm
This paper presents the method of designing the type 2 fuzzy PID controllers in order to solve the problem of Load Frequency Control (LFC). The Harmony Search (HS) algorithm is used to regulate the measurement factors and the effect of uncertainty of membership functions of Interval Type 2 Fuzzy Proportional Integral Differential (IT2FPID) controllers in order to reduce the frequency deviation resulted from the load oscillations. The simulation results implicitly show that the performance of the proposed IT2FPID LFC in terms of error, settling time and resistance against different load oscillations is more appropriate and preferred than PID and Type 1 Fuzzy Proportional Integral Differential (T1FPID) controllers.
Analytical Design of IMC-PID Controller for Ideal Decoupling Embedded in Multivariable Smith Predictor Control System
In this paper, the analytical tuning rules of IMC-PID controller are presented for the multivariable Smith predictor that involved the ideal decoupling. Accordingly, the decoupler is first introduced into the multivariable Smith predictor control system by a well-known approach of ideal decoupling, which is compactly extended for general nxn multivariable processes and the multivariable Smith predictor controller is then obtained in terms of the multiple single-loop Smith predictor controllers. The tuning rules of PID controller in series with filter are found by using Maclaurin approximation. Many multivariable industrial processes are employed to demonstrate the simplicity and effectiveness of the presented method. The simulation results show the superior performances of presented method in compared with the other methods.
Design of IMC-PID Controller Cascaded Filter for Simplified Decoupling Control System
In this work, the IMC-PID controller cascaded filter based on Internal Model Control (IMC) scheme is systematically proposed for the simplified decoupling control system. The simplified decoupling is firstly introduced for multivariable processes by using coefficient matching to obtain a stable, proper, and causal simplified decoupler. Accordingly, transfer functions of decoupled apparent processes can be expressed as a set of n equivalent independent processes and then derived as a ratio of the original open-loop transfer function to the diagonal element of the dynamic relative gain array. The IMC-PID controller in series with filter is then directly employed to enhance the overall performance of the decoupling control system while avoiding difficulties arising from properties inherent to simplified decoupling. Some simulation studies are considered to demonstrate the simplicity and effectiveness of the proposed method. Simulations were conducted by tuning various controllers of the multivariate processes with multiple time delays. The results indicate that the proposed method consistently performs well with fast and well-balanced closed-loop time responses.
Black Box Model and Evolutionary Fuzzy Control Methods of Coupled-Tank System
In this study, a black box modeling of the coupled-tank system is obtained by using fuzzy sets. The derived model is tested via adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). In order to achieve a better control performance, the parameters of three different controller types, classical proportional integral controller (PID), fuzzy PID and function tuner method, are tuned by one of the evolutionary computation method, genetic algorithm. All tuned controllers are applied to the fuzzy model of the coupled-tank experimental setup and analyzed under the different reference input values. According to the results, it is seen that function tuner method demonstrates better robust control performance and guarantees the closed loop stability.
Design of Optimal Proportional Integral Derivative Attitude Controller for an Uncoupled Flexible Satellite Using Particle Swarm Optimization
Flexible satellites are equipped with various appendages which vibrate under the influence of any excitation and make the attitude of the satellite to be unstable. Therefore, the system must be able to adjust to balance the effect of these appendages in order to point accurately and satisfactorily which is one of the most important problems in satellite design. Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) Controller is simple to design and computationally efficient to implement which is used to stabilize the effect of these flexible appendages. However, manual turning of the PID is time consuming, waste energy and money. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is used to tune the parameters of PID Controller. Simulation results obtained show that PSO tuned PID Controller is able to re-orient the spacecraft attitude as well as dampen the effect of mechanical resonance and yields better performance when compared with manually tuned PID Controller.
Adaptive Fuzzy Control of a Nonlinear Tank Process
Liquid level control of conical tank system is known to be a great challenge in many industries such as food processing, hydrometallurgical industries and wastewater treatment plant due to its highly nonlinear characteristics. In this research, an adaptive fuzzy PID control scheme is applied to the problem of liquid level control in a nonlinear tank process. A conical tank process is first modeled and primarily simulated. A PID controller is then applied to the plant model as a suitable benchmark for comparison and the dynamic responses of the control system to different step inputs were investigated. It is found that the conventional PID controller is not able to fulfill the controller design criteria such as desired time constant due to highly nonlinear characteristics of the plant model. Consequently, a nonlinear control strategy based on gain-scheduling adaptive control incorporating a fuzzy logic observer is proposed to accurately control the nonlinear tank system. The simulation results clearly demonstrated the superiority of the proposed adaptive fuzzy control method over the conventional PID controller.
Controlling the Angle of Attack of an Aircraft Using Genetic Algorithm Based Flight Controller
In this paper, the unstable angle of attack of a
FOXTROT aircraft is controlled by using Genetic Algorithm based
flight controller and the result is compared with the conventional
techniques like Tyreus-Luyben (TL), Ziegler-Nichols (ZN) and
Interpolation Rule (IR) for tuning the PID controller. In addition, the
performance indices like Mean Square Error (MSE), Integral Square
Error (ISE), and Integral Absolute Time Error (IATE) etc. are
improved by using Genetic Algorithm. It was established that the
error by using GA is very less as compared to the conventional
techniques thereby improving the performance indices of the
PSO Based Optimal Design of Fractional Order Controller for Industrial Application
In this paper, a PSO based fractional order PID (FOPID) controller is proposed for concentration control of an isothermal Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) problem. CSTR is used to carry out chemical reactions in industries, which possesses complex nonlinear dynamic characteristics. Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm technique, which is an evolutionary optimization technique based on the movement and intelligence of swarm is proposed for tuning of the controller for this system. Comparisons of proposed controller with conventional and fuzzy based controller illustrate the superiority of proposed PSO-FOPID controller.
Optimizing PID Parameters Using Harmony Search
Optimizing the parameters in the controller plays a
vital role in the control theory and its applications. Optimizing the
PID parameters is finding out the best value from the feasible
solutions. Finding the optimal value is an optimization problem.
Inverted Pendulum is a very good platform for control engineers to
verify and apply different logics in the field of control theory. It is
necessary to find an optimization technique for the controller to tune
the values automatically in order to minimize the error within the
given bounds. In this paper, the algorithmic concepts of Harmony
search (HS) and Genetic Algorithm (GA) have been analyzed for the
given range of values. The experimental results show that HS
performs well than GA.
LQR Based PID Controller Design for 3-DOF Helicopter System
In this article, LQR based PID controller design for
3DOF helicopter system is investigated. The 3-DOF helicopter
system is a benchmark laboratory model having strongly nonlinear
characteristics and unstable dynamics which make the control of such
system a challenging task. This article first presents the mathematical
model of the 3DOF helicopter system and then illustrates the basic
idea and technical formulation for controller design. The paper
explains the simple approach for the approximation of PID design
parameters from the LQR controller gain matrix. The simulation
results show that the investigated controller has both static and
dynamic performance, therefore the stability and the quick control
effect can be obtained simultaneously for the 3DOF helicopter
Model Predictive 2DOF PID Slip Suppression Control of Electric Vehicle under Braking
In this paper, a 2DOF (two degrees of freedom) PID (Proportional-Integral-Derivative) controller based on MPC (Model predictive control) algorithm fo slip suppression of EV (Electric Vehicle) under braking is proposed. The proposed method aims to improve the safety and the stability of EVs under braking by controlling the wheel slip ration. There also include numerical simulation results to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method.
Lego Mindstorms as a Simulation of Robotic Systems
In this paper we deal with using Lego Mindstorms in
simulation of robotic systems with respect to cost reduction. Lego
Mindstorms kit contains broad variety of hardware components
which are required to simulate, program and test the robotics systems
in practice. Algorithm programming went in development
environment supplied together with Lego kit as in programming
language C# as well. Algorithm following the line, which we dealt
with in this paper, uses theoretical findings from area of controlling
circuits. PID controller has been chosen as controlling circuit whose
individual components were experimentally adjusted for optimal
motion of robot tracking the line. Data which are determined to
process by algorithm are collected by sensors which scan the
interface between black and white surfaces followed by robot. Based
on discovered facts Lego Mindstorms can be considered for low-cost
and capable kit to simulate real robotics systems.
Particle Swarm Optimization Based PID Power System Stabilizer for a Synchronous Machine
This paper proposes a swarm intelligence method that yields optimal Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) Controller parameters of a power system stabilizer (PSS) in a single machine infinite bus system. The proposed method utilizes the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm approach to generate the optimal tuning parameters. The paper is modeled in the MATLAB Simulink Environment to analyze the performance of a synchronous machine under several load conditions. At the same operating point, the PID-PSS parameters are also tuned by Ziegler-Nichols method. The dynamic performance of proposed controller is compared with the conventional Ziegler-Nichols method of PID tuning controller to demonstrate its advantage. The analysis reveals the effectiveness of the proposed PSO based PID controller.
Robust Fractional-Order PI Controller with Ziegler-Nichols Rules
In process control applications, above 90% of the
controllers are of PID type. This paper proposed a robust PI
controller with fractional-order integrator. The PI parameters were
obtained using classical Ziegler-Nichols rules but enhanced with the
application of error filter cascaded to the fractional-order PI. The
controller was applied on steam temperature process that was
described by FOPDT transfer function. The process can be classified
as lag dominating process with very small relative dead-time. The
proposed control scheme was compared with other PI controller
tuned using Ziegler-Nichols and AMIGO rules. Other PI controller
with fractional-order integrator known as F-MIGO was also
considered. All the controllers were subjected to set point change and
load disturbance tests. The performance was measured using Integral
of Squared Error (ISE) and Integral of Control Signal (ICO). The
proposed controller produced best performance for all the tests with
the least ISE index.
Performance Evaluation of Hybrid Intelligent Controllers in Load Frequency Control of Multi Area Interconnected Power Systems
This paper deals with the application of artificial
neural network (ANN) and fuzzy based Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy
Inference System(ANFIS) approach to Load Frequency Control
(LFC) of multi unequal area hydro-thermal interconnected power
system. The proposed ANFIS controller combines the advantages of
fuzzy controller as well as quick response and adaptability nature of
ANN. Area-1 and area-2 consists of thermal reheat power plant
whereas area-3 and area-4 consists of hydro power plant with electric
governor. Performance evaluation is carried out by using intelligent
controller like ANFIS, ANN and Fuzzy controllers and conventional
PI and PID control approaches. To enhance the performance of
intelligent and conventional controller sliding surface is included.
The performances of the controllers are simulated using
MATLAB/SIMULINK package. A comparison of ANFIS, ANN,
Fuzzy, PI and PID based approaches shows the superiority of
proposed ANFIS over ANN & fuzzy, PI and PID controller for 1%
step load variation.
A Genetic Algorithm for Optimum Design of PID Controller in Load Frequency Control
In this paper, determining the optimal proportionalintegral-
derivative (PID) controller gains of an single-area load
frequency control (LFC) system using genetic algorithm (GA) is
presented. The LFC is notoriously difficult to control optimally using
conventionally tuning a PID controller because the system parameters
are constantly changing. It is for this reason the GA as tuning strategy
was applied. The simulation has been conducted in MATLAB
Simulink package for single area power system. the simulation results
shows the effectiveness performance of under various disturbance.
System Identification and Control the Azimuth Angle of the Platform of MLRS by PID Controller
This paper presents the system identification by
physical-s law method and designs the controller for the Azimuth
Angle Control of the Platform of the Multi-Launcher Rocket System
(MLRS) by Root Locus technique. The plant mathematical model
was approximated using MATLAB for simulation and analyze the
system. The controller proposes the implementation of PID
Controller using Programmable Logic Control (PLC) for control the
plant. PID Controllers are widely applicable in industrial sectors and
can be set up easily and operate optimally for enhanced productivity,
improved quality and reduce maintenance requirement. The results
from simulation and experiments show that the proposed a PID
Controller to control the elevation angle that has superior control
performance by the setting time less than 12 sec, the rise time less
than 1.6 sec., and zero steady state. Furthermore, the system has a
high over shoot that will be continue development.
Intelligent Temperature Controller for Water-Bath System
Conventional controller’s usually required a prior knowledge of mathematical modelling of the process. The inaccuracy of mathematical modelling degrades the performance of the process, especially for non-linear and complex control problem. The process used is Water-Bath system, which is most widely used and nonlinear to some extent. For Water-Bath system, it is necessary to attain desired temperature within a specified period of time to avoid the overshoot and absolute error, with better temperature tracking capability, else the process is disturbed.
To overcome above difficulties intelligent controllers, Fuzzy Logic (FL) and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS), are proposed in this paper. The Fuzzy controller is designed to work with knowledge in the form of linguistic control rules. But the translation of these linguistic rules into the framework of fuzzy set theory depends on the choice of certain parameters, for which no formal method is known. To design ANFIS, Fuzzy-Inference-System is combined with learning capability of Neural-Network.
It is analyzed that ANFIS is best suitable for adaptive temperature control of above system. As compared to PID and FLC, ANFIS produces a stable control signal. It has much better temperature tracking capability with almost zero overshoot and minimum absolute error.
Slip Suppression of Electric Vehicles using Model Predictive PID Controller
In this paper, a new model predictive PID controller
design method for the slip suppression control of EVs (electric
vehicles) is proposed. The proposed method aims to improve the
maneuverability and the stability of EVs by controlling the wheel
slip ratio. The optimal control gains of PID framework are derived
by the model predictive control (MPC) algorithm. There also include
numerical simulation results to demonstrate the effectiveness of the
MPSO based Model Order Formulation Scheme for Discrete PID Controller Design
This paper proposes the novel model order
formulation scheme to design a discrete PID controller for higher
order linear time invariant discrete systems. Modified PSO (MPSO)
based model order formulation technique has used to obtain the
successful formulated second order system. PID controller is tuned to
meet the desired performance specification by using pole-zero
cancellation and proposed design procedures. Proposed PID
controller is attached with both higher order system and formulated
second order system. System specifications are tabulated and closed
loop response is observed for stabilization process. The proposed
method is illustrated through numerical examples from literature.
Evolutionary Design of Polynomial Controller
In the control theory one attempts to find a controller
that provides the best possible performance with respect to some
given measures of performance. There are many sorts of controllers
e.g. a typical PID controller, LQR controller, Fuzzy controller etc. In
the paper will be introduced polynomial controller with novel tuning
method which is based on the special pole placement encoding
scheme and optimization by Genetic Algorithms (GA). The examples
will show the performance of the novel designed polynomial
controller with comparison to common PID controller.
Design of PID Controller for Higher Order Continuous Systems using MPSO based Model Formulation Technique
This paper proposes a new algebraic scheme to design a PID controller for higher order linear time invariant continuous systems. Modified PSO (MPSO) based model order formulation techniques have applied to obtain the effective formulated second order system. A controller is tuned to meet the desired performance specification by using pole-zero cancellation method. Proposed PID controller is attached with both higher order system and formulated second order system. The closed loop response is observed for stabilization process and compared with general PSO based formulated second order system. The proposed method is illustrated through numerical example from literature.
A New Nonlinear PID Controller and its Parameter Design
A new nonlinear PID controller and its stability
analysis are presented in this paper. A nonlinear function is deduced
from the similarities between the control effort and the electric-field
effect of a capacitor. The conventional linear PID controller can be
modified into a nonlinear one by this function. To analyze the stability
of the nonlinear PID controlled system, an idea of energy equivalence
is adapted to avoid the conservativeness which is usually arisen from
some traditional theorems and Criterions. The energy equivalence is
naturally related with the conceptions of Passivity and T-Passivity. As
a result, an engineering guideline for the parameter design of the
nonlinear PID controller is obtained. An inverted pendulum system is
tested to verify the nonlinear PID control scheme.
Multiple Model and Neural based Adaptive Multi-loop PID Controller for a CSTR Process
Multi-loop (De-centralized) Proportional-Integral-
Derivative (PID) controllers have been used extensively in process
industries due to their simple structure for control of multivariable
processes. The objective of this work is to design multiple-model
adaptive multi-loop PID strategy (Multiple Model Adaptive-PID)
and neural network based multi-loop PID strategy (Neural Net
Adaptive-PID) for the control of multivariable system. The first
method combines the output of multiple linear PID controllers,
each describing process dynamics at a specific level of operation.
The global output is an interpolation of the individual multi-loop
PID controller outputs weighted based on the current value of the
measured process variable. In the second method, neural network
is used to calculate the PID controller parameters based on the
scheduling variable that corresponds to major shift in the process
dynamics. The proposed control schemes are simple in structure with
less computational complexity. The effectiveness of the proposed
control schemes have been demonstrated on the CSTR process,
which exhibits dynamic non-linearity.
Independent Design of Multi-loop PI/PID Controllers for Multi-delay Processes
The interactions between input/output variables are a very common phenomenon encountered in the design of multi-loop controllers for interacting multivariable processes, which can be a serious obstacle for achieving a good overall performance of multiloop control system. To overcome this impediment, the decomposed dynamic interaction analysis is proposed by decomposing the multiloop control system into a set of n independent SISO systems with the corresponding effective open-loop transfer function (EOTF) within the dynamic interactions embedded explicitly. For each EOTF, the reduced model is independently formulated by using the proposed reduction design strategy, and then the paired multi-loop proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller is derived quite simply and straightforwardly by using internal model control (IMC) theory. This design method can easily be implemented for various industrial processes because of its effectiveness. Several case studies are considered to demonstrate the superior of the proposed method.
Fuzzy Logic PID Control of Automatic Voltage Regulator System
The application of a simple microcontroller to deal
with a three variable input and a single output fuzzy logic controller,
with Proportional – Integral – Derivative (PID) response control
built-in has been tested for an automatic voltage regulator. The
fuzzifiers are based on fixed range of the variables of output voltage.
The control output is used to control the wiper motor of the auto
transformer to adjust the voltage, using fuzzy logic principles, so that
the voltage is stabilized. In this report, the author will demonstrate
how fuzzy logic might provide elegant and efficient solutions in the
design of multivariable control based on experimental results rather
than on mathematical models.
Auto Tuning PID Controller based on Improved Genetic Algorithm for Reverse Osmosis Plant
An optimal control of Reverse Osmosis (RO) plant is
studied in this paper utilizing the auto tuning concept in conjunction
with PID controller. A control scheme composing an auto tuning
stochastic technique based on an improved Genetic Algorithm (GA) is
proposed. For better evaluation of the process in GA, objective
function defined newly in sense of root mean square error has been
used. Also in order to achieve better performance of GA, more
pureness and longer period of random number generation in operation
are sought. The main improvement is made by replacing the uniform
distribution random number generator in conventional GA technique
to newly designed hybrid random generator composed of Cauchy
distribution and linear congruential generator, which provides
independent and different random numbers at each individual steps in
Genetic operation. The performance of newly proposed GA tuned
controller is compared with those of conventional ones via simulation.