Comparative Study of Equivalent Linear and Non-Linear Ground Response Analysis for Rapar District of Kutch, India
Earthquakes are considered to be the most destructive rapid-onset disasters human beings are exposed to. The amount of loss it brings in is sufficient to take careful considerations for designing of structures and facilities. Seismic Hazard Analysis is one such tool which can be used for earthquake resistant design. Ground Response Analysis is one of the most crucial and decisive steps for seismic hazard analysis. Rapar district of Kutch, Gujarat falls in Zone 5 of earthquake zone map of India and thus has high seismicity because of which it is selected for analysis. In total 8 bore-log data were studied at different locations in and around Rapar district. Different soil engineering properties were analyzed and relevant empirical correlations were used to calculate maximum shear modulus (Gmax) and shear wave velocity (Vs) for the soil layers. The soil was modeled using Pressure-Dependent Modified Kodner Zelasko (MKZ) model and the reference curve used for fitting was Seed and Idriss (1970) for sand and Darendeli (2001) for clay. Both Equivalent linear (EL), as well as Non-linear (NL) ground response analysis, has been carried out with Masing Hysteretic Re/Unloading formulation for comparison. Commercially available DEEPSOIL v. 7.0 software is used for this analysis. In this study an attempt is made to quantify ground response regarding generated acceleration time-history at top of the soil column, Response spectra calculation at 5 % damping and Fourier amplitude spectrum calculation. Moreover, the variation of Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA), Maximum Displacement, Maximum Strain (in %), Maximum Stress Ratio, Mobilized Shear Stress with depth is also calculated. From the study, PGA values estimated in rocky strata are nearly same as bedrock motion and marginal amplification is observed in sandy silt and silty clays by both analyses. The NL analysis gives conservative results of maximum displacement as compared to EL analysis. Maximum strain predicted by both studies is very close to each other. And overall NL analysis is more efficient and realistic because it follows the actual hyperbolic stress-strain relationship, considers stiffness degradation and mobilizes stresses generated due to pore water pressure.
Particle Swarm Optimization and Quantum Particle Swarm Optimization to Multidimensional Function Approximation
This work compares the results of multidimensional
function approximation using two algorithms: the classical Particle
Swarm Optimization (PSO) and the Quantum Particle Swarm
Optimization (QPSO). These algorithms were both tested on three
functions - The Rosenbrock, the Rastrigin, and the sphere functions
- with different characteristics by increasing their number of
dimensions. As a result, this study shows that the higher the function
space, i.e. the larger the function dimension, the more evident the
advantages of using the QPSO method compared to the PSO method
in terms of performance and number of necessary iterations to reach
the stop criterion.
Simulation of a Control System for an Adaptive Suspension System for Passenger Vehicles
In the process to cope with the challenges faced by the automobile industry in providing ride comfort, the electronics and control systems play a vital role. The control systems in an automobile monitor various parameters, controls the performances of the systems, thereby providing better handling characteristics. The automobile suspension system is one of the main systems that ensure the safety, stability and comfort of the passengers. The system is solely responsible for the isolation of the entire automobile from harmful road vibrations. Thus, integration of the control systems in the automobile suspension system would enhance its performance. The diverse road conditions of India demand the need of an efficient suspension system which can provide optimum ride comfort in all road conditions. For any passenger vehicle, the design of the suspension system plays a very important role in assuring the ride comfort and handling characteristics. In recent years, the air suspension system is preferred over the conventional suspension systems to ensure ride comfort. In this article, the ride comfort of the adaptive suspension system is compared with that of the passive suspension system. The schema is created in MATLAB/Simulink environment. The system is controlled by a proportional integral differential controller. Tuning of the controller was done with the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm, since it suited the problem best. Ziegler-Nichols and Modified Ziegler-Nichols tuning methods were also tried and compared. Both the static responses and dynamic responses of the systems were calculated. Various random road profiles as per ISO 8608 standard are modelled in the MATLAB environment and their responses plotted. Open-loop and closed loop responses of the random roads, various bumps and pot holes are also plotted. The simulation results of the proposed design are compared with the available passive suspension system. The obtained results show that the proposed adaptive suspension system is efficient in controlling the maximum over shoot and the settling time of the system is reduced enormously.
Optimal Tuning of Linear Quadratic Regulator Controller Using a Particle Swarm Optimization for Two-Rotor Aerodynamical System
This paper presents an optimal state feedback controller based on Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) for a two-rotor aero-dynamical system (TRAS). TRAS is a highly nonlinear multi-input multi-output (MIMO) system with two degrees of freedom and cross coupling. There are two parameters that define the behavior of LQR controller: state weighting matrix and control weighting matrix. The two parameters influence the performance of LQR. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is proposed to optimally tune weighting matrices of LQR. The major concern of using LQR controller is to stabilize the TRAS by making the beam move quickly and accurately for tracking a trajectory or to reach a desired altitude. The simulation results were carried out in MATLAB/Simulink. The system is decoupled into two single-input single-output (SISO) systems. Comparing the performance of the optimized proportional, integral and derivative (PID) controller provided by INTECO, results depict that LQR controller gives a better performance in terms of both transient and steady state responses when PSO is performed.
Determination of Optical Constants of Semiconductor Thin Films by Ellipsometry
Ellipsometry is an optical method based on the study of the behavior of polarized light. The light reflected on a surface induces a change in the polarization state which depends on the characteristics of the material (complex refractive index and thickness of the different layers constituting the device). The purpose of this work is to determine the optical properties of semiconductor thin films by ellipsometry. This paper describes the experimental aspects concerning the semiconductor samples, the SE400 ellipsometer principle, and the results obtained by direct measurements of ellipsometric parameters and modelling using appropriate software.
Fuzzy Based Particle Swarm Optimization Routing Technique for Load Balancing in Wireless Sensor Networks
Network lifetime improvement and uncertainty in multiple systems are the issues of wireless sensor network routing. This paper presents fuzzy based particle swarm optimization routing technique to improve the network scalability. Significantly, in the cluster formation procedure, fuzzy based system is used to solve the uncertainty and network balancing. Cluster heads play an important role to reduce the energy consumption using particle swarm optimization algorithm, the cluster head sends its information along data packets to the heads with link. The simulation results show that the presented routing protocol can perform load balancing effectively and reduce the energy consumption of cluster heads.
Medical Advances in Diagnosing Neurological and Genetic Disorders
Retinoblastoma is a rare type of childhood genetic cancer that affects children worldwide. The diagnosis is often missed due to lack of education and difficulty in presentation of the tumor. Frequently, the tumor on the retina is noticed by photography when the red-eye flash, commonly seen in normal eyes, is not produced. Instead, a yellow or white colored patch is seen or the child has a noticeable strabismus. Early detection can be life-saving though often results in removal of the affected eye. Remaining functioning in the healthy eye when the child is young has resulted in super-vision and high or above-average intelligence. Technological advancement of cameras has helped in early detection. Brain imaging has also made possible early detection of neurological diseases and, together with the monitoring of cortisol levels and yawning frequency, promises to be the next new early diagnostic tool for the detection of neurological diseases where cortisol insufficiency is particularly salient, such as multiple sclerosis and Cushing’s disease.
Saliva Cortisol and Yawning as a Predictor of Neurological Disease
Cortisol is important to our immune system, regulates our stress response, and is a factor in maintaining brain temperature. Saliva cortisol is a practical and useful non-invasive measurement that signifies the presence of the important hormone. Electrical activity in the jaw muscles typically rises when the muscles are moved during yawning and the electrical level is found to be correlated with the cortisol level. In two studies using identical paradigms, a total of 108 healthy subjects were exposed to yawning-provoking stimuli so that their cortisol levels and electrical nerve impulses from their jaw muscles was recorded. Electrical activity is highly correlated with cortisol levels in healthy people. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Yawning Susceptibility Scale, General Health Questionnaire, demographic, health details were collected and exclusion criteria applied for voluntary recruitment: chronic fatigue, diabetes, fibromyalgia, heart condition, high blood pressure, hormone replacement therapy, multiple sclerosis, and stroke. Significant differences were found between the saliva cortisol samples for the yawners as compared with the non-yawners between rest and post-stimuli. Significant evidence supports the Thompson Cortisol Hypothesis that suggests rises in cortisol levels are associated with yawning. Ethics approval granted and professional code of conduct, confidentiality, and safety issues are approved therein.
Design of a Pulse Generator Based on a Programmable System-on-Chip (PSoC) for Ultrasonic Applications
This paper describes the design of a pulse generator based on the Programmable System-on-Chip (PSoC) module. In this module, using programmable logic is possible to implement different pulses which are required for ultrasonic applications, either in a single channel or multiple channels. This module can operate with programmable frequencies from 3-74 MHz; its programming may be versatile covering a wide range of ultrasonic applications. It is ideal for low-power ultrasonic applications where PZT or PVDF transducers are used.
Manipulation of Image Segmentation Using Cleverness Artificial Bee Colony Approach
Image segmentation is the concept of splitting the images into several images. Image Segmentation algorithm is used to manipulate the process of image segmentation. The advantage of ABC is that it conducts every worldwide exploration and inhabitant exploration for iteration. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Evolutionary Particle Swarm Optimization (EPSO) encompass a number of search problems. Cleverness Artificial Bee Colony algorithm has been imposed to increase the performance of a neighborhood search. The simulation results clearly show that the presented ABC methods outperform the existing methods. The result shows that the algorithms can be used to implement the manipulator for grasping of colored objects. The efficiency of the presented method is improved a lot by comparing to other methods.
Using Jumping Particle Swarm Optimization for Optimal Operation of Pump in Water Distribution Networks
Carefully scheduling the operations of pumps can be
resulted to significant energy savings. Schedules can be defined
either implicit, in terms of other elements of the network such as tank
levels, or explicit by specifying the time during which each pump is
on/off. In this study, two new explicit representations based on timecontrolled
triggers were analyzed, where the maximum number of
pump switches was established beforehand, and the schedule may
contain fewer switches than the maximum. The optimal operation of
pumping stations was determined using a Jumping Particle Swarm
Optimization (JPSO) algorithm to achieve the minimum energy cost.
The model integrates JPSO optimizer and EPANET hydraulic
network solver. The optimal pump operation schedule of VanZyl
water distribution system was determined using the proposed model
and compared with those from Genetic and Ant Colony algorithms.
The results indicate that the proposed model utilizing the JPSO
algorithm is a versatile management model for the operation of realworld
water distribution system.
Developing New Algorithm and Its Application on Optimal Control of Pumps in Water Distribution Network
In recent years, new techniques for solving complex
problems in engineering are proposed. One of these techniques is
JPSO algorithm. With innovative changes in the nature of the jump
algorithm JPSO, it is possible to construct a graph-based solution
with a new algorithm called G-JPSO. In this paper, a new algorithm
to solve the optimal control problem Fletcher-Powell and optimal
control of pumps in water distribution network was evaluated.
Optimal control of pumps comprise of optimum timetable operation
(status on and off) for each of the pumps at the desired time interval.
Maximum number of status on and off for each pumps imposed to the
objective function as another constraint. To determine the optimal
operation of pumps, a model-based optimization-simulation
algorithm was developed based on G-JPSO and JPSO algorithms.
The proposed algorithm results were compared well with the ant
colony algorithm, genetic and JPSO results. This shows the
robustness of proposed algorithm in finding near optimum solutions
with reasonable computational cost.
Value Index, a Novel Decision Making Approach for Waste Load Allocation
Waste load allocation (WLA) policies may use multiobjective
optimization methods to find the most appropriate and
sustainable solutions. These usually intend to simultaneously
minimize two criteria, total abatement costs (TC) and environmental
violations (EV). If other criteria, such as inequity, need for
minimization as well, it requires introducing more binary
optimizations through different scenarios. In order to reduce the
calculation steps, this study presents value index as an innovative
decision making approach. Since the value index contains both the
environmental violation and treatment costs, it can be maximized
simultaneously with the equity index. It implies that the definition of
different scenarios for environmental violations is no longer required.
Furthermore, the solution is not necessarily the point with minimized
total costs or environmental violations. This idea is testified for Haraz
River, in north of Iran. Here, the dissolved oxygen (DO) level of river
is simulated by Streeter-Phelps equation in MATLAB software. The
WLA is determined for fish farms using multi-objective particle
swarm optimization (MOPSO) in two scenarios. At first, the trade-off
curves of TC-EV and TC-Inequity are plotted separately as the
conventional approach. In the second, the Value-Equity curve is
derived. The comparative results show that the solutions are in a
similar range of inequity with lower total costs. This is due to the
freedom of environmental violation attained in value index. As a
result, the conventional approach can well be replaced by the value
index particularly for problems optimizing these objectives. This
reduces the process to achieve the best solutions and may find better
classification for scenario definition. It is also concluded that decision
makers are better to focus on value index and weighting its contents
to find the most sustainable alternatives based on their requirements.
Water Quality Trading with Equitable Total Maximum Daily Loads
Waste Load Allocation (WLA) strategies usually
intend to find economic policies for water resource management.
Water quality trading (WQT) is an approach that uses discharge
permit market to reduce total environmental protection costs. This
primarily requires assigning discharge limits known as total
maximum daily loads (TMDLs). These are determined by monitoring
organizations with respect to the receiving water quality and
remediation capabilities. The purpose of this study is to compare two
approaches of TMDL assignment for WQT policy in small catchment
area of Haraz River, in north of Iran. At first, TMDLs are assigned
uniformly for the whole point sources to keep the concentrations of
BOD and dissolved oxygen (DO) at the standard level at checkpoint
(terminus point). This was simply simulated and controlled by
Qual2kw software. In the second scenario, TMDLs are assigned
using multi objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO) method
in which the environmental violation at river basin and total treatment
costs are minimized simultaneously. In both scenarios, the equity
index and the WLA based on trading discharge permits (TDP) are
calculated. The comparative results showed that using economically
optimized TMDLs (2nd scenario) has slightly more cost savings rather
than uniform TMDL approach (1st scenario). The former annually
costs about 1 M$ while the latter is 1.15 M$. WQT can decrease
these annual costs to 0.9 and 1.1 M$, respectively. In other word,
these approaches may save 35 and 45% economically in comparison
with command and control policy. It means that using multi objective
decision support systems (DSS) may find more economical WLA,
however its outcome is not necessarily significant in comparison with
uniform TMDLs. This may be due to the similar impact factors of
dischargers in small catchments. Conversely, using uniform TMDLs
for WQT brings more equity that makes stakeholders not feel that
much envious of difference between TMDL and WQT allocation. In
addition, for this case, determination of TMDLs uniformly would be
much easier for monitoring. Consequently, uniform TMDL for TDP
market is recommended as a sustainable approach. However,
economical TMDLs can be used for larger watersheds.
Multi-Layer Perceptron Neural Network Classifier with Binary Particle Swarm Optimization Based Feature Selection for Brain-Computer Interfaces
Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) measure brain
signals activity, intentionally and unintentionally induced by users,
and provides a communication channel without depending on the
brain’s normal peripheral nerves and muscles output pathway.
Feature Selection (FS) is a global optimization machine learning
problem that reduces features, removes irrelevant and noisy data
resulting in acceptable recognition accuracy. It is a vital step
affecting pattern recognition system performance. This study presents
a new Binary Particle Swarm Optimization (BPSO) based feature
selection algorithm. Multi-layer Perceptron Neural Network
(MLPNN) classifier with backpropagation training algorithm and
Levenberg-Marquardt training algorithm classify selected features.
Yawning and Cortisol as a Potential Biomarker for Early Detection of Multiple Sclerosis
Cortisol is essential to the regulation of the immune
system and yawning is a pathological symptom of multiple sclerosis
(MS). Electromyography activity (EMG) in the jaw muscles typically
rises when the muscles are moved and with yawning is highly
correlated with cortisol levels in healthy people. Saliva samples from
59 participants were collected at the start and after yawning, or at the
end of the presentation of yawning-provoking stimuli, in the absence
of a yawn, together with EMG data and questionnaire data: Hospital
Anxiety and Depression Scale, Yawning Susceptibility Scale,
General Health Questionnaire, demographic, health details. Exclusion
criteria: chronic fatigue, diabetes, fibromyalgia, heart condition, high
blood pressure, hormone replacement therapy, multiple sclerosis,
stroke. Significant differences were found between the saliva cortisol
samples for the yawners, t (23) = -4.263, p = 0.000, as compared with
the non-yawners between rest and post-stimuli, which was nonsignificant.
Significant evidence was found to support the Thompson
Cortisol Hypothesis suggesting that rises in cortisol levels are
associated with yawning. Further research is exploring the use of
cortisol as an early diagnostic tool for MS. Ethics approval granted
and professional code of conduct, confidentiality, and safety issues
are approved therein.
Optimized Weight Vector for QoS Aware Web Service Selection Algorithm Using Particle Swarm Optimization
Quality of Service (QoS) attributes as part of the
service description is an important factor for service attribute. It is not
easy to exactly quantify the weight of each QoS conditions since
human judgments based on their preference causes vagueness. As
web services selection requires optimization, evolutionary computing
based on heuristics to select an optimal solution is adopted. In this
work, the evolutionary computing technique Particle Swarm
Optimization (PSO) is used for selecting a suitable web services
based on the user’s weightage of each QoS values by optimizing the
QoS weight vector and thereby finding the best weight vectors for
best services that is being selected. Finally the results are compared
and analyzed using static inertia weight and deterministic inertia
weight of PSO.
Unsteady Flow of an Incompressible Elastico-Viscous Fluid of Second order Type in Tube of Ellipsoidal Cross Section on a Porous Boundary
Exact solution of an unsteady flow of elastico-viscous
fluid through a porous media in a tube of ellipsoidal cross section
under the influence of constant pressure gradient has been obtained in
this paper. Initially, the flow is generated by a constant pressure
gradient. After attaining the steady state, the pressure gradient is
suddenly withdrawn and the resulting fluid motion in a tube of
ellipsoidal cross section by taking into account of the porosity factor
of the bounding surface is investigated. The problem is solved in twostages
the first stage is a steady motion in tube under the influence of
a constant pressure gradient, the second stage concern with an
unsteady motion. The problem is solved employing separation of
variables technique. The results are expressed in terms of a nondimensional
porosity parameter (K) and elastico-viscosity parameter
(β), which depends on the Non-Newtonian coefficient. The flow
parameters are found to be identical with that of Newtonian case as
elastic-viscosity parameter tends to zero and porosity tends to
infinity. It is seen that the effect of elastico-viscosity parameter and
the porosity parameter of the bounding surface has significant effect
on the velocity parameter.
Feature Selection for Web Page Classification Using Swarm Optimization
The web’s increased popularity has included a huge
amount of information, due to which automated web page
classification systems are essential to improve search engines’
performance. Web pages have many features like HTML or XML
tags, hyperlinks, URLs and text contents which can be considered
during an automated classification process. It is known that Webpage
classification is enhanced by hyperlinks as it reflects Web page
linkages. The aim of this study is to reduce the number of features to
be used to improve the accuracy of the classification of web pages. In
this paper, a novel feature selection method using an improved
Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) using principle of evolution is
proposed. The extracted features were tested on the WebKB dataset
using a parallel Neural Network to reduce the computational cost.
Evolutionary Program Based Approach for Manipulator Grasping Color Objects
Image segmentation and color identification is an
important process used in various emerging fields like intelligent
robotics. A method is proposed for the manipulator to grasp and place
the color object into correct location. The existing methods such as
PSO, has problems like accelerating the convergence speed and
converging to a local minimum leading to sub optimal performance.
To improve the performance, we are using watershed algorithm and
for color identification, we are using EPSO. EPSO method is used to
reduce the probability of being stuck in the local minimum. The
proposed method offers the particles a more powerful global
exploration capability. EPSO methods can determine the particles
stuck in the local minimum and can also enhance learning speed as
the particle movement will be faster.
CSTR Control by Using Model Reference Adaptive Control and PSO
This paper presents a comparative analysis of
continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) control based on adaptive
control and optimal tuning of PID control based on particle swarm
optimization. In the design of adaptive control, Model reference
adaptive control (MRAC) scheme is used, in which the adaptation
law have been developed by MIT rule & Lyapunov’s rule. In PSO
control parameters of PID controller is tuned by using the concept of
particle swarm optimization to get optimized operating point for
minimum integral square error (ISE) condition. The results show the
adjustment of PID parameters converting into the optimal operating
point and the good control response can be obtained by the PSO
Heuristic for Accelerating Run-Time Task Mapping in NoC-Based Heterogeneous MPSoCs
In this paper, we propose a new packing strategy to
find a free resource for run-time mapping of application tasks to
NoC-based Heterogeneous MPSoC. The proposed strategy minimizes
the task mapping time in addition to placing the communicating tasks
close to each other. To evaluate our approach, a comparative study is
carried out for a platform containing single task supported PEs.
Experiments show that our strategy provides better results when
compared to latest dynamic mapping strategies reported in the
Fuzzy Based Visual Texture Feature for Psoriasis Image Analysis
This paper proposes a rotational invariant texture
feature based on the roughness property of the image for psoriasis
image analysis. In this work, we have applied this feature for image
classification and segmentation. The fuzzy concept is employed to
overcome the imprecision of roughness. Since the psoriasis lesion is
modeled by a rough surface, the feature is extended for calculating
the Psoriasis Area Severity Index value. For classification and
segmentation, the Nearest Neighbor algorithm is applied. We have
obtained promising results for identifying affected lesions by using
the roughness index and severity level estimation.
Particle Swarm Optimisation of a Terminal Synergetic Controllers for a DC-DC Converter
DC-DC converters are widely used as reliable power source for many industrial and military applications, computers and electronic devices. Several control methods were developed for DC-DC converters control mostly with asymptotic convergence. Synergetic control (SC) is a proven robust control approach and will be used here in a so called terminal scheme to achieve finite time convergence. Lyapounov synthesis is adopted to assure controlled system stability. Furthermore particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm, based on an integral time absolute of error (ITAE) criterion will be used to optimize controller parameters. Simulation of terminal synergetic control of a DC-DC converter is carried out for different operating conditions and results are compared to classic synergetic control performance, that which demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed control method.
Geospatial Network Analysis Using Particle Swarm Optimization
The shortest path (SP) problem concerns with finding the shortest path from a specific origin to a specified destination in a given network while minimizing the total cost associated with the path. This problem has widespread applications. Important applications of the SP problem include vehicle routing in transportation systems particularly in the field of in-vehicle Route Guidance System (RGS) and traffic assignment problem (in transportation planning). Well known applications of evolutionary methods like Genetic Algorithms (GA), Ant Colony Optimization, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) have come up to solve complex optimization problems to overcome the shortcomings of existing shortest path analysis methods. It has been reported by various researchers that PSO performs better than other evolutionary optimization algorithms in terms of success rate and solution quality. Further Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have emerged as key information systems for geospatial data analysis and visualization. This research paper is focused towards the application of PSO for solving the shortest path problem between multiple points of interest (POI) based on spatial data of Allahabad City and traffic speed data collected using GPS. Geovisualization of results of analysis is carried out in GIS.
A Hybrid Nature Inspired Algorithm for Generating Optimal Query Plan
The emergence of the Semantic Web technology
increases day by day due to the rapid growth of multiple web pages.
Many standard formats are available to store the semantic web data.
The most popular format is the Resource Description Framework
(RDF). Querying large RDF graphs becomes a tedious procedure
with a vast increase in the amount of data. The problem of query
optimization becomes an issue in querying large RDF graphs.
Choosing the best query plan reduces the amount of query execution
time. To address this problem, nature inspired algorithms can be used
as an alternative to the traditional query optimization techniques. In
this research, the optimal query plan is generated by the proposed
SAPSO algorithm which is a hybrid of Simulated Annealing (SA)
and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithms. The proposed
SAPSO algorithm has the ability to find the local optimistic result
and it avoids the problem of local minimum. Experiments were
performed on different datasets by changing the number of predicates
and the amount of data. The proposed algorithm gives improved
results compared to existing algorithms in terms of query execution
PSO Based Weight Selection and Fixed Structure Robust Loop Shaping Control for Pneumatic Servo System with 2DOF Controller
This paper proposes a new technique to design a
fixed-structure robust loop shaping controller for the pneumatic
servosystem. In this paper, a new method based on a particle swarm
optimization (PSO) algorithm for tuning the weighting function
parameters to design an H∞ controller is presented. The PSO
algorithm is used to minimize the infinity norm of the transfer
function of the nominal closed loop system to obtain the optimal
parameters of the weighting functions. The optimal stability margin is
used as an objective in PSO for selecting the optimal weighting
parameters; it is shown that the proposed method can simplify the
design procedure of H∞ control to obtain optimal robust controller for
pneumatic servosystem. In addition, the order of the proposed
controller is much lower than that of the conventional robust loop
shaping controller, making it easy to implement in practical works.
Also two-degree-of-freedom (2DOF) control design procedure is
proposed to improve tracking performance in the face of noise and
disturbance. Result of simulations demonstrates the advantages of the
proposed controller in terms of simple structure and robustness
against plant perturbations and disturbances.
Particle Swarm Optimization Based Interconnected Hydro-Thermal AGC System Considering GRC and TCPS
This paper represents performance of particle swarm
optimisation (PSO) algorithm based integral (I) controller and
proportional-integral controller (PI) for interconnected hydro-thermal
automatic generation control (AGC) with generation rate constraint
(GRC) and Thyristor controlled phase shifter (TCPS) in series with
tie line. The control strategy of TCPS provides active control of
system frequency. Conventional objective function integral square
error (ISE) and another objective function considering square of
derivative of change in frequencies of both areas and change in tie
line power are considered. The aim of designing the objective
function is to suppress oscillation in frequency deviations and change
in tie line power oscillation. The controller parameters are searched
by PSO algorithm by minimising the objective functions. The
dynamic performance of the controllers I and PI, for both the
objective functions, are compared with conventionally optimized I
Diagnosis of the Heart Rhythm Disorders by Using Hybrid Classifiers
In this study, it was tried to identify some heart rhythm disorders by electrocardiography (ECG) data that is taken from MIT-BIH arrhythmia database by subtracting the required features, presenting to artificial neural networks (ANN), artificial immune systems (AIS), artificial neural network based on artificial immune system (AIS-ANN) and particle swarm optimization based artificial neural network (PSO-NN) classifier systems. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance of hybrid AIS-ANN and PSO-ANN classifiers with regard to the ANN and AIS. For this purpose, the normal sinus rhythm (NSR), atrial premature contraction (APC), sinus arrhythmia (SA), ventricular trigeminy (VTI), ventricular tachycardia (VTK) and atrial fibrillation (AF) data for each of the RR intervals were found. Then these data in the form of pairs (NSR-APC, NSR-SA, NSR-VTI, NSR-VTK and NSR-AF) is created by combining discrete wavelet transform which is applied to each of these two groups of data and two different data sets with 9 and 27 features were obtained from each of them after data reduction. Afterwards, the data randomly was firstly mixed within themselves, and then 4-fold cross validation method was applied to create the training and testing data. The training and testing accuracy rates and training time are compared with each other.
As a result, performances of the hybrid classification systems, AIS-ANN and PSO-ANN were seen to be close to the performance of the ANN system. Also, the results of the hybrid systems were much better than AIS, too. However, ANN had much shorter period of training time than other systems. In terms of training times, ANN was followed by PSO-ANN, AIS-ANN and AIS systems respectively. Also, the features that extracted from the data affected the classification results significantly.
Comparison between the Conventional Methods and PSO Based MPPT Algorithm for Photovoltaic Systems
Since the output characteristics of photovoltaic (PV) system depends on the ambient temperature, solar radiation and load impedance, its maximum power point (MPP) is not constant. Under each condition PV module has a point at which it can produce its MPP. Therefore, a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) method is needed to uphold the PV panel operating at its MPP. This paper presents comparative study between the conventional MPPT methods used in (PV) system: Perturb and Observe (P&O), Incremental Conductance (IncCond), andParticle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithmfor (MPPT) of (PV) system. To evaluate the study, the proposed PSO MPPT is implemented on a DC-DC cuk converter and has been compared with P&O and INcond methods in terms of their tracking speed, accuracy and performance by using the Matlab tool Simulink. The simulation result shows that the proposed algorithm is simple, and is superior to the P&O and IncCond methods.