Simplified Space Vector Based Decoupled Switching Strategy for Indirect Vector Controlled Open-End Winding Induction Motor Drive
In this paper, a dual inverter configuration has been implemented for induction motor drive. This isolated dual inverter is capable to produce high quality of output voltage and minimize common mode voltage (CMV). To this isolated dual inverter a decoupled space vector based pulse width modulation (PWM) technique is proposed. Conventional space vector based PWM (SVPWM) techniques require reference voltage vector calculation and sector identification. The proposed decoupled SVPWM technique generates gating pulses from instantaneous phase voltages and gives a CMV of ±vdc/6. To evaluate proposed algorithm MATLAB based simulation studies are carried on indirect vector controlled open end winding induction motor drive.
Multi-Level Pulse Width Modulation to Boost the Power Efficiency of Switching Amplifiers for Analog Signals with Very High Crest Factor
The main goal of this paper is to develop a switching amplifier with optimized power efficiency for analog signals with a very high crest factor such as audio or DSL signals. Theoretical calculations show that a switching amplifier architecture based on multi-level pulse width modulation outperforms all other types of linear or switching amplifiers in that respect. Simulations on a 2 W multi-level switching audio amplifier, designed in a 50 V 0.35 mm IC technology, confirm its superior performance in terms of power efficiency. A real silicon implementation of this audio amplifier design is currently underway to provide experimental validation.
Bipolar PWM and LCL Filter Configuration to Reduce Leakage Currents in Transformerless PV System Connected to Utility Grid
This paper presents PV system without considering transformer connected to electric grid. This is considered more economic compared to present PV system. The problem that occurs when transformer is not considered appears with a leakage current near capacitor connected to ground. Bipolar Pulse Width Modulation (BPWM) technique along with filter L-C-L configuration in the circuit is modeled to shrink the leakage current in the circuit. The DC/AC inverter is modeled using H-bridge Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) module which is controlled using proposed Bipolar PWM control technique. To extract maximum power, Maximum Power Point Technique (MPPT) controller is used in this model. Voltage and current regulators are used to determine the reference voltage for the inverter from active and reactive current where reactive current is set to zero. The PLL is modeled to synchronize the measurements. The model is designed with MATLAB Simulation blocks and compared with the methods available in literature survey to show its effectiveness.
Direct Power Control Applied on 5-Level Diode Clamped Inverter Powered by a Renewable Energy Source
This paper presents an improved Direct Power Control (DPC) scheme applied to the multilevel inverter that forms a Distributed Generation Unit (DGU). This paper demonstrates the performance of active and reactive power injected by the DGU to the smart grid. The DPC is traditionally operated by the hysteresis controller with the Space Vector Modulation (SVM) which is applied on the 2-level inverters or 3-level inverters. In this paper, the DPC is operated by the PI controller with the Phase-Disposition Pulse Width Modulation (PD-PWM) applied to the 5-level diode clamped inverter. The new combination of the DPC, PI controller, PD-PWM and multilevel inverter proves that its performance is much better than the conventional hysteresis-SVM based DPC. Simulations results have been presented to validate the performance of the suggested control scheme in the grid-connected mode.
Nine-Level Shunt Active Power Filter Associated with a Photovoltaic Array Coupled to the Electrical Distribution Network
The use of more and more electronic power switches with a nonlinear behavior generates non-sinusoidal currents in distribution networks, which causes damage to domestic and industrial equipment. The multi-level shunt power active filter is subsequently shown to be an adequate solution to the problem raised. Nevertheless, the difficulty of adjusting the active filter DC supply voltage requires another technology to ensure it. In this article, a photovoltaic generator is associated with the DC bus power terminals of the active filter. The proposed system consists of a field of solar panels, three multi-level voltage inverters connected to the power grid and a non-linear load consisting of a six-diode rectifier bridge supplying a resistive-inductive load. Current control techniques of active and reactive power are used to compensate for both harmonic currents and reactive power as well as to inject active solar power into the distribution network. An algorithm of the search method of the maximum power point of type Perturb and observe is applied. Simulation results of the system proposed under the MATLAB/Simulink environment shows that the performance of control commands that reassure the solar power injection in the network, harmonic current compensation and power factor correction.
A High Time Resolution Digital Pulse Width Modulator Based on Field Programmable Gate Array’s Phase Locked Loop Megafunction
The digital pulse width modulator (DPWM) is the crucial building block for digitally-controlled DC-DC switching converter, which converts the digital duty ratio signal into its analog counterpart to control the power MOSFET transistors on or off. With the increase of switching frequency of digitally-controlled DC-DC converter, the DPWM with higher time resolution is required. In this paper, a 15-bits DPWM with three-level hybrid structure is presented; the first level is composed of a7-bits counter and a comparator, the second one is a 5-bits delay line, and the third one is a 3-bits digital dither. The presented DPWM is designed and implemented using the PLL megafunction of FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Arrays), and the required frequency of clock signal is 128 times of switching frequency. The simulation results show that, for the switching frequency of 2 MHz, a DPWM which has the time resolution of 15 ps is achieved using a maximum clock frequency of 256MHz. The designed DPWM in this paper is especially useful for high-frequency digitally-controlled DC-DC switching converters.
Zero Voltage Switched Full Bridge Converters for the Battery Charger of Electric Vehicle
This paper illustrates the study of three isolated zero
voltage switched (ZVS) PWM full bridge (FB) converters to charge
the high voltage battery in the charger of electric vehicle (EV).
EV battery chargers have several challenges such as high efficiency,
high reliability, low cost, isolation, and high power density. The
cost of magnetic and filter components in the battery charger is
reduced when switching frequency is increased. The increase in the
switching frequency increases switching losses. ZVS is used to reduce
switching losses and to operate the converter in the battery charger
at high frequency. The performance of each of the three converters
is evaluated on the basis of ZVS range, dead times of the switches,
conduction losses of switches, circulating current stress, circulating
energy, duty cycle loss, and efficiency. The limitations and merits of
each PWM FB converter are reviewed. The converter with broader
ZVS range, high efficiency and low switch stresses is selected for
battery charger applications in EV.
Interfacing Photovoltaic Systems to the Utility Grid: A Comparative Simulation Study to Mitigate the Impact of Unbalanced Voltage Dips
This paper presents the modeling and the control of a grid-connected photovoltaic system (PVS). Firstly, the MPPT control of the PVS and its associated DC/DC converter has been analyzed in order to extract the maximum of available power. Secondly, the control system of the grid side converter (GSC) which is a three-phase voltage source inverter (VSI) has been presented. A special attention has been paid to the control algorithms of the GSC converter during grid voltages imbalances. Especially, three different control objectives are to achieve; the mitigation of the grid imbalance adverse effects, at the point of common coupling (PCC), on the injected currents, the elimination of double frequency oscillations in active power flow, and the elimination of double frequency oscillations in reactive power flow. Simulation results of two control strategies have been performed via MATLAB software in order to demonstrate the particularities of each control strategy according to power quality standards.
Simulation and Analysis of Control System for a Solar Desalination System
Fresh water is one of the resources which is getting
depleted day by day. A wise method to address this issue is by the
application of renewable energy-sun irradiation and by means of
decentralized, cheap, energetically self-sufficient, robust and simple
to operate plants, distillates can be obtained from sea, river or even
sewage. Solar desalination is a technique used to desalinate water
using solar energy. The present work deals with the comprehensive
design and simulation of solar tracking system using LabVIEW,
temperature and mass flow rate control of the solar desalination plant
using LabVIEW and also analysis of single phase inverter circuit
with LC filters for solar pumping system in MATLAB. The main
objective of this work is to improve the performance of solar
desalination system using automatic tracking system, output control
using temperature and mass flow rate control system and also to
reduce the harmonic distortion in the solar pumping system by means
of LC filters. The simulation of single phase inverter was carried out
using MATLAB and the output waveforms were analyzed.
Simulations were performed for optimum output temperature control,
which in turn controls the mass flow rate of water in the thermal
collectors. Solar tracking system was accomplished using LABVIEW
and was tested successfully. The thermal collectors are tracked in
accordance with the sun’s irradiance levels, thereby increasing the
efficiency of the thermal collectors.
FPGA Based Implementation of Simplified Space Vector PWM Algorithm for Multilevel Inverter Fed Induction Motor Drives
Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation is popular for
variable frequency drives. The method has several advantages over
carried based PWM and is computation intensive. The
implementation of SVPWM for multilevel inverter requires special
attention and at the same time consumes considerable resources. Due
to faster processing power and reduced over all computational
burden, FPGAs are being investigated as an alternative for other
controllers. In this paper, a space vector PWM algorithm is
implemented using FPGA which requires less computational area and
is modular in structure. The algorithm is verified experimentally for
Neutral Point Clamped inverter using FPGA development board
Comparative Study between Classical P-Q Method and Modern Fuzzy Controller Method to Improve the Power Quality of an Electrical Network
This article presents two methods for the
compensation of harmonics generated by a nonlinear load. The first is
the classic method P-Q. The second is the controller by modern
method of artificial intelligence specifically fuzzy logic. Both
methods are applied to a shunt Active Power Filter (sAPF) based on a
three-phase voltage converter at five levels NPC topology. In
calculating the harmonic currents of reference, we use the algorithm
P-Q and pulse generation, we use the intersective PWM. For
flexibility and dynamics, we use fuzzy logic. The results give us clear
that the rate of Harmonic Distortion issued by fuzzy logic is better
Investigation of the Effects of Sampling Frequency on the THD of 3-Phase Inverters Using Space Vector Modulation
This paper presents the simulation results of the
effects of sampling frequency on the total harmonic distortion (THD)
of three-phase inverters using the space vector pulse width
modulation (SVPWM) and space vector control (SVC) algorithms.
The relationship between the variables was studied using curve fitting
techniques, and it has been shown that, for 50 Hz inverters, there is
an exponential relation between the sampling frequency and THD up
to around 8500 Hz, beyond which the performance of the model
becomes irregular, and there is an negative exponential relation
between the sampling frequency and the marginal improvement to
the THD. It has also been found that the performance of SVPWM is
better than that of SVC with the same sampling frequency in most
frequency range, including the range where the performance of the
former is irregular.
Comparison of Fundamental Frequency Model and PWM Based Model of UPFC
Among all FACTS devices, the unified power flow
controller (UPFC) is considered to be the most versatile device.
This is due to its capability to control all the transmission system
parameters (impedance, voltage magnitude, and phase angle). With
the growing interest in UPFC, the attention to develop a mathematical
model has increased. Several models were introduced for UPFC in
literature for different type of studies in power systems. In this paper
a novel comparison study between two dynamic models of UPFC
with their proposed control strategies.
Design and Analysis of Highly Efficient and Reliable Single-Phase Transformerless Inverter for PV Systems
Most of the PV systems are designed with transformer for safety purpose with galvanic isolation. However, the transformer is big, heavy and expensive. Also, it reduces the overall frequency of the conversion stage. Generally PV inverter with transformer is having efficiency around 92%–94% only. To overcome these problems, transformerless PV system is introduced. It is smaller, lighter, cheaper and higher in efficiency. However, dangerous leakage current will flow between PV array and the grid due to the stray capacitance. There are different types of configurations available for transformerless inverters like H5, H6, HERIC, oH5, and Dual paralleled buck inverter. But each configuration is suffering from its own disadvantages like high conduction losses, shoot-through issues of switches, dead-time requirements at zero crossing instants of grid voltage to avoid grid shoot-through faults and MOSFET reverse recovery issues. The main objective of the proposed transformerless inverter is to address two key issues: One key issue for a transformerless inverter is that it is necessary to achieve high efficiency compared to other existing inverter topologies. Another key issue is that the inverter configuration should not have any shoot-through issues for higher reliability.
Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation Technique Based Design and Simulation of a Three-Phase Voltage Source Converter Systems
A Space Vector based Pulse Width Modulation
control technique for the three-phase PWM converter is proposed in
this paper. The proposed control scheme is based on a synchronous
reference frame model. High performance and efficiency is obtained
with regards to the DC bus voltage and the power factor
considerations of the PWM rectifier thus leading to low losses.
MATLAB/SIMULINK are used as a platform for the simulations and
a SIMULINK model is presented in the paper. The results show that
the proposed model demonstrates better performance and properties
compared to the traditional SPWM method and the method improves
the dynamic performance of the closed loop drastically.
For the Space Vector based Pulse Width Modulation, Sine signal
is the reference waveform and triangle waveform is the carrier
waveform. When the value sine signal is large than triangle signal,
the pulse will start produce to high. And then when the triangular
signals higher than sine signal, the pulse will come to low. SPWM
output will changed by changing the value of the modulation index
and frequency used in this system to produce more pulse width. The
more pulse width produced, the output voltage will have lower
harmonics contents and the resolution increase.
A Novel Three Phase Hybrid Unidirectional Rectifier for High Power Factor Applications
This paper presents a hybrid three phase rectifier for
high power factor application. This rectifier is composed by zero
voltage transition (ZVT) and zero current transition (ZCT) boost
converter with three phase diode bridge rectifier, in parallel with a six
pulse three phase pulse width modulation (PWM) controlled rectifier.
The proposed topology is capable of high power factor with DC
output voltage regulation by providing sinusoidal input. Also, it
increases the overall efficiency of the new hybrid rectifier to 94.56%
and the total harmonic distortion of the hybrid structure varies from
0% to 16% at nominal output power. This topology was simulated in
MATLAB/SIMULINK environment and the output waveforms
presented with experimental result.
Hybrid Pulse Width Modulation Techniques for the Reduction of Switching Losses and Voltage Harmonics in Cascaded Multilevel Inverters
These days, the industrial trend is moving away from heavy and bulky passive components to power converter systems that use more and more semiconductor elements. Also, it is difficult to connect the traditional converters to the high and medium voltage. For these reasons, a new family of multilevel inverters has appeared as a solution for working with higher voltage levels. Different modulation topologies like Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (SPWM), Selective Harmonic Elimination Pulse Width Modulation (SHE-PWM) are available for multilevel inverters. In this work, different hybrid modulation techniques which are combination of fundamental frequency modulation and multilevel sinusoidal-modulation are compared. The main characteristic of these modulations are reduction of switching losses with good harmonic performance and balanced power loss dissipation among the device. The proposed hybrid modulation schemes are developed and simulated in Matlab/Simulink for cascaded H-bridge inverter. The results validate the applicability of the proposed schemes for cascaded multilevel inverter.
SVPWM Based Two Level VSI for Micro Grids
With advances in solid-state power electronic devices
and microprocessors, various pulse-width-modulation (PWM)
techniques have been developed for industrial applications. This
paper presents the comparison of two different PWM techniques, the
sinusoidal PWM (SPWM) technique and the space-vector PWM
(SVPWM) technique applied to two level VSI for micro grid
applications. These two methods are compared by discussing their
ease of implementation and by analyzing the output harmonic spectra
of various output voltages (line-to-neutral voltages, and line-to-line
voltages) and their total harmonic distortion (THD). The SVPWM
technique in the under-modulation region can increase the
fundamental output voltage by 15.5% over the SPWM technique.
Closed Loop Control of Bridgeless Cuk Converter Using Fuzzy Logic Controller for PFC Applications
This paper is based on the bridgeless single-phase Ac–Dc Power Factor Correction (PFC) converters with Fuzzy Logic Controller. High frequency isolated Cuk converters are used as a modular dc-dc converter in Discontinuous Conduction Mode (DCM) of operation of Power Factor Correction. The aim of this paper is to simplify the program complexity of the controller by reducing the number of fuzzy sets of the Membership Functions (MFs) and to improve the efficiency and to eliminate the power quality problems. The output of Fuzzy controller is compared with High frequency triangular wave to generate PWM gating signals of Cuk converter. The proposed topologies are designed to work in Discontinuous Conduction Mode (DCM) to achieve a unity power factor and low total harmonic distortion of the input current. The Fuzzy Logic Controller gives additional advantages such as accurate result, uncertainty and imprecision and automatic control circuitry. Performance comparisons between the proposed and conventional controllers and circuits are performed based on circuit simulations.
A New Self-Tuning Fuzzy PD Controller of a BDFIG for Wind Energy Conversion
This paper presents a new control scheme to control a brushless doubly fed induction generator (BDFIG) using back-to-back PWM converters for wind power generation. The proposed control scheme is a New Self-Tuning Fuzzy Proportional-Derivative Controller (NSTFPDC). The goal of BDFIG control is to achieve a similar dynamic performance to the doubly fed induction generator (DFIG), exploiting the well-known induction machine vector control philosophy. The performance of NSTFPDC controller has been investigated and compared with the two controllers, called Proportional–Integral (PI) and PD-like Fuzzy Logic controller (PD-like FLC) based BDFIG. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness and the robustness of the NSTFPDC controller.
A Comparative Analysis of Modulation Control Strategies for Cascade H-Bridge 11-Level Inverter
The range of the output power is a very important and evident limitation of two-level inverters. In order to overcome this disadvantage, multilevel inverters are introduced. Recently, Cascade H-Bridge inverters have emerged as one of the popular converter topologies used in numerous industrial applications. The modulation switching strategies such as phase shifted carrier based Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) technique and Stair case modulation with Selective Harmonic Elimination (SHE) PWM technique are generally used. NR method is used to solve highly non linear transcendental equations which are formed by SHEPWM method. Generally NR method has a drawback of requiring good initial guess but in this paper a new approach is implemented for NR method with any random initial guess. A three phase CHB 11-level inverter is chosen for analysis. MATLAB/SIMULINK programming environment and harmonic profiles are compared. Finally this paper presents a method at fundamental switching frequency with least % THDV.
Lower Order Harmonics Minimisation in CHB Inverter Using GA and Decomposition by WT
Nowadays Multilevel inverters are widely using in various applications. Modulation strategy at fundamental switching frequency like, SHEPWM is prominent technique to eliminate lower order of harmonics with less switching losses and better harmonic profile. The equations which are formed by SHE are highly nonlinear transcendental in nature, there may exist single, multiple or even no solutions for a particular MI. However, some loads such as electrical drives, it is required to operate in whole range of MI. In order to solve SHE equations for whole range of MI, intelligent techniques are well suited to solve equations so as to produce lest %THDV. Hence, this paper uses Continuous genetic algorithm for minimising harmonics. This paper also presents wavelet based analysis of harmonics. The developed algorithm is simulated and %THD from FFT analysis and Wavelet analysis are compared. MATLAB programming environment and SIMULINK models are used whenever necessary.
Precision Control of Single-Phase PWM Inverter Using M68HC11E Microcontroller
Induction motors are being used in greater numbers
throughout a wide variety of industrial and commercial applications
because it provides many benefits and reliable device to convert the
electrical energy into mechanical motion. In some application it-s
desired to control the speed of the induction motor. Because of the
physics of the induction motor the preferred method of controlling its
speed is to vary the frequency of the AC voltage driving the motor. In
recent years, with the microcontroller incorporated into an appliance
it becomes possible to use it to generate the variable frequency AC
voltage to control the speed of the induction motor.
This study investigates the microcontroller based variable
frequency power inverter. the microcontroller is provide the variable
frequency pulse width modulation (PWM) signal that control the
applied voltage on the gate drive, which is provides the required
PWM frequency with less harmonics at the output of the power
The fully controlled bridge voltage source inverter has been
implemented with semiconductors power devices isolated gate
bipolar transistor (IGBT), and the PWM technique has been
employed in this inverter to supply the motor with AC voltage.
The proposed drive system for three & single phase power inverter
is simulated using Matlab/Simulink. The Matlab Simulation Results
for the proposed system were achieved with different SPWM. From
the result a stable variable frequency inverter over wide range has
been obtained and a good agreement has been found between the
simulation and hardware of a microcontroller based single phase
Implementation and Comparison between Two Algorithms of Three-Level Neutral Point Clamped Voltage Source Inverter
This paper presents a comparison between two Pulse
Width Modulation (PWM) algorithms applied to a three-level Neutral
Point Clamped (NPC) Voltage Source Inverter (VSI). The first
algorithm applied is the triangular-sinusoidal strategy; the second is
the Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation (SVPWM) strategy. In the
first part, we present a topology of three-level NCP VSI. After that,
we develop the two PWM strategies to control this converter. At the
end the experimental results are presented.
Space Vector PWM Simulation for Three Phase DC/AC Inverter
Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation SVPWM is
one of the most used techniques to generate sinusoidal voltage and
current due to its facility and efficiency with low harmonics
distortion. This algorithm is specially used in power electronic
applications. This paper describes simulation algorithm of SVPWM
& SPWM using MatLab/simulink environment. It also implements a
closed loop three phases DC-AC converter controlling its outputs
voltages amplitude and frequency using MatLab. Also comparison
between SVPWM & SPWM results is given.
Optimal Space Vector Control for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor based on Nonrecursive Riccati Equation
In this paper the optimal control strategy for
Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) based drive system
is presented. The designed full optimal control is available for speed
operating range up to base speed. The optimal voltage space-vector
assures input energy reduction and stator loss minimization,
maintaining the output energy in the same limits with the
conventional PMSM electrical drive. The optimal control with three
components is based on the energetically criteria and it is applicable
in numerical version, being a nonrecursive solution. The simulation
results confirm the increased efficiency of the optimal PMSM drive.
The properties of the optimal voltage space vector are shown.
Influence of Number Parallels Paths of a Winding on Overvoltage in the Asynchronous Motors Fed by PWM- converters
This work is devoted to the calculation of the
undulatory parameters and the study of the influence of te number
parallel path of a winding on overvoltage compared to the frame and
between turns (sections) in a multiturn random winding of an
asynchronous motors supplied with PWM- converters.
Comparison of Different PWM Switching Modes of BLDC Motor as Drive Train of Electric Vehicles
Electric vehicle (EV) is one of the effective solutions to
control emission of greenhouses gases in the world. It is of interest
for future transportation due to its sustainability and efficiency by
automotive manufacturers. Various electrical motors have been used
for propulsion system of electric vehicles in last decades. In this
paper brushed DC motor, Induction motor (IM), switched reluctance
motor (SRM) and brushless DC motor (BLDC) are simulated and
compared. BLDC motor is recommended for high performance
electric vehicles. PWM switching technique is implemented for speed
control of BLDC motor. Behavior of different modes of PWM speed
controller of BLDC motor are simulated in MATLAB/SIMULINK.
BLDC motor characteristics are compared and discussed for various
PWM switching modes under normal and inverter fault conditions.
Comparisons and discussions are verified through simulation results.
Steady-State Performance of a New Model for UPFC Applied to Multi-Machines System with Nonlinear Load
In this paper, a new developed construction model of
the UPFC is proposed. The construction of this model consists of one
shunt compensation block and two series compensation blocks. In
this case, the UPFC with the new construction model will be
investigated when it is installed in multi-machine systems with nonlinear
load model. In addition, the steady–state performance of the
new model operating as impedance compensation will be presented
and compared with that obtained from the system without
Power Control in a Doubly Fed Induction Machine
This paper proposes a direct power control for
doubly-fed induction machine for variable speed wind power
generation. It provides decoupled regulation of the primary side
active and reactive power and it is suitable for both electric energy
generation and drive applications. In order to control the power
flowing between the stator of the DFIG and the network, a decoupled
control of active and reactive power is synthesized using PI
controllers.The obtained simulation results show the feasibility
and the effectiveness of the suggested method