Designing a Robust Controller for a 6 Linkage Robot
One of the main points of application of the mechanisms of the series and parallel is the subject of managing them. The control of this mechanism and similar mechanisms is one that has always been the intention of the scholars. On the other hand, modeling the behavior of the system is difficult due to the large number of its parameters, and it leads to complex equations that are difficult to solve and eventually difficult to control. In this paper, a six-linkage robot has been presented that could be used in different areas such as medical robots. Using these robots needs a robust control. In this paper, the system equations are first found, and then the system conversion function is written. A new controller has been designed for this robot which could be used in other parallel robots and could be very useful. Parallel robots are so important in robotics because of their stability, so methods for control of them are important and the robust controller, especially in parallel robots, makes a sense.
Theoretical Study on the Forced Vibration of One Degree of Freedom System, Equipped with Inerter, under Load-Type or Displacement-Type Excitation
In this paper, a theoretical study on the forced vibration of one degree of freedom system equipped with inerter, working under load-type or displacement-type excitation, is presented. Differential equations of movement are solved under cosinusoidal excitation, and explicit relations for the magnitude, resonant magnitude, phase angle, resonant frequency, and critical frequency are obtained. Influence of the inertance and damping on these dynamic characteristics is clarified. From the obtained results, one concludes that the inerter increases the magnitude of vibration and the phase angle of the damped mechanical system. Moreover, the magnitude ratio and difference of phase angles are not depending on the actual type of excitation. Consequently, such kind of similitude allows for the comparison of various theoretical and experimental results, which can be broadly found in the literature.
Performance Evaluation of Parallel Surface Modeling and Generation on Actual and Virtual Multicore Systems
Even though past, current and future trends suggest that multicore and cloud computing systems are increasingly prevalent/ubiquitous, this class of parallel systems is nonetheless underutilized, in general, and barely used for research on employing parallel Delaunay triangulation for parallel surface modeling and generation, in particular. The performances, of actual/physical and virtual/cloud multicore systems/machines, at executing various algorithms, which implement various parallelization strategies of the incremental insertion technique of the Delaunay triangulation algorithm, were evaluated. T-tests were run on the data collected, in order to determine whether various performance metrics differences (including execution time, speedup and efficiency) were statistically significant. Results show that the actual machine is approximately twice faster than the virtual machine at executing the same programs for the various parallelization strategies. Results, which furnish the scalability behaviors of the various parallelization strategies, also show that some of the differences between the performances of these systems, during different runs of the algorithms on the systems, were statistically significant. A few pseudo superlinear speedup results, which were computed from the raw data collected, are not true superlinear speedup values. These pseudo superlinear speedup values, which arise as a result of one way of computing speedups, disappear and give way to asymmetric speedups, which are the accurate kind of speedups that occur in the experiments performed.
Conditions for Fault Recovery of Interconnected Asynchronous Sequential Machines with State Feedback
In this paper, fault recovery for parallel interconnected
asynchronous sequential machines is studied. An adversarial input
can infiltrate into one of two submachines comprising parallel
composition of the considered asynchronous sequential machine,
causing an unauthorized state transition. The control objective is to
elucidate the condition for the existence of a corrective controller
that makes the closed-loop system immune against any occurrence
of adversarial inputs. In particular, an efficient existence condition
is presented that does not need the complete modeling of the
interconnected asynchronous sequential machine.
Reversible Binary Arithmetic for Integrated Circuit Design
Application of reversible logic in integrated circuits results in the improved optimization of power consumption. This technology can be put into use in a variety of low power applications such as quantum computing, optical computing, nano-technology, and Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) Very Large Scale Integrated (VLSI) design etc. Logic gates are the basic building blocks in the design of any logic network and thus integrated circuits. In this paper, reversible Dual Key Gate (DKG) and Dual key Gate Pair (DKGP) gates that work singly as full adder/full subtractor are used to realize the basic building blocks of logic circuits. Reversible full adder/subtractor and parallel adder/ subtractor are designed using other reversible gates available in the literature and compared with that of DKG & DKGP gates. Efficient performance of reversible logic circuits relies on the optimization of the key parameters viz number of constant inputs, garbage outputs and number of reversible gates. The full adder/subtractor and parallel adder/subtractor design with reversible DKGP and DKG gates results in least number of constant inputs, garbage outputs, and number of reversible gates compared to the other designs. Thus, this paper provides a threshold to build more complex arithmetic systems using these reversible logic gates, leading to the enhanced performance of computing systems.
A Parallel Implementation of k-Means in MATLAB
The aim of this work is the parallel implementation
of k-means in MATLAB, in order to reduce the execution time.
Specifically, a new function in MATLAB for serial k-means algorithm
is developed, which meets all the requirements for the conversion to a
function in MATLAB with parallel computations. Additionally, two
different variants for the definition of initial values are presented.
In the sequel, the parallel approach is presented. Finally, the
performance tests for the computation times respect to the numbers
of features and classes are illustrated.
Simulation and Analytical Investigation of Different Combination of Single Phase Power Transformers
In this paper, the equivalent circuit of the ideal single-phase power transformer with its appropriate voltage current measurement was presented. The calculated values of the voltages and currents of the different connections single phase normal transformer and the results of the simulation process are compared. As it can be seen, the calculated results are the same as the simulated results. This paper includes eight possible different transformer connections. Depending on the desired voltage level, step-down and step-up application transformer is considered. Modelling and analysis of a system consisting of an equivalent source, transformer (primary and secondary), and loads are performed to investigate the combinations. The obtained values are simulated in PSpice environment and then how the currents, voltages and phase angle are distributed between them is explained based on calculation.
On Fault Diagnosis of Asynchronous Sequential Machines with Parallel Composition
Fault diagnosis of composite asynchronous sequential
machines with parallel composition is addressed in this paper. An
adversarial input can infiltrate one of two submachines comprising
the composite asynchronous machine, causing an unauthorized state
transition. The objective is to characterize the condition under
which the controller can diagnose any fault occurrence. Two control
configurations, state feedback and output feedback, are considered in
this paper. In the case of output feedback, the exact estimation of
the state is impossible since the current state is inaccessible and the
output feedback is given as the form of burst. A simple example is
provided to demonstrate the proposed methodology.
Damage Strain Analysis of Parallel Fiber Eutectic
According to isotropy of parallel fiber eutectic, the no- damage strain field in parallel fiber eutectic is obtained from the flexibility tensor of parallel fiber eutectic. Considering the damage behavior of parallel fiber eutectic, damage variables are introduced to determine the strain field of parallel fiber eutectic. The damage strains in the matrix, interphase, and fiber of parallel fiber eutectic are quantitatively analyzed. Results show that damage strains are not only associated with the fiber volume fraction of parallel fiber eutectic, but also with the damage degree.
Improved Pattern Matching Applied to Surface Mounting Devices Components Localization on Automated Optical Inspection
Automated Optical Inspection (AOI) Systems are commonly used on Printed Circuit Boards (PCB) manufacturing. The use of this technology has been proven as highly efficient for process improvements and quality achievements. The correct extraction of the component for posterior analysis is a critical step of the AOI process. Nowadays, the Pattern Matching Algorithm is commonly used, although this algorithm requires extensive calculations and is time consuming. This paper will present an improved algorithm for the component localization process, with the capability of implementation in a parallel execution system.
Experimental Investigation of Plane Jets Exiting Five Parallel Channels with Large Aspect Ratio
The paper aims to extend the knowledge about jet behavior and jet interaction between five plane unventilated jets with large aspect ratio (AR). The distance between the single plane jets is two times the channel height. The experimental investigation applies 2D Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and static pressure measurements. Our study focuses on the influence of two different outlet nozzle geometries (triangular shape with 2 x 7.5° and blunt geometry) with respect to variation of Reynolds number from 5500 - 12000. It is shown that the outlet geometry has a major influence on the jet formation in terms of uniformity of velocity profiles downstream of the sudden expansion. Furthermore, we describe characteristic regions like converging region, merging region and combined region. The triangular outlet geometry generates most uniform velocity distributions in comparison to a blunt outlet nozzle geometry. The blunt outlet geometry shows an unstable behavior where the jets tend to attach to one side of the walls (ceiling) generating a large recirculation region on the opposite side. Static pressure measurements confirm the observation and indicate that the recirculation region is connected to larger pressure drop.
Theoretical Investigation on the Dynamic Characteristics of One Degree of Freedom Vibration System Equipped with Inerter of Variable Inertance
In this paper, a theoretical investigation on the dynamic characteristics of one degree of freedom vibration system equipped with inerter of variable inertance, is presented. Differential equation of movement was solved under proper initial conditions in the case of free undamped/damped vibration, considered in the absence/presence of the inerter in the mechanical system. Influence of inertance on the amplitude of vibration, phase angle, natural frequency, damping ratio, and logarithmic decrement was clarified. It was mainly found that the inerter decreases the natural frequency of the undamped system and also of the damped system if the damping ratio is below 0.707. On the other hand, the inerter increases the natural frequency of the damped system if the damping ratio exceeds 0.707. Results obtained in this work are useful for the adequate design of inerters.
Parallel Vector Processing Using Multi Level Orbital DATA
Many applications use vector operations by applying
single instruction to multiple data that map to different locations
in conventional memory. Transferring data from memory is limited
by access latency and bandwidth affecting the performance gain of
vector processing. We present a memory system that makes all of
its content available to processors in time so that processors need
not to access the memory, we force each location to be available to
all processors at a specific time. The data move in different orbits
to become available to other processors in higher orbits at different
time. We use this memory to apply parallel vector operations to data
streams at first orbit level. Data processed in the first level move
to upper orbit one data element at a time, allowing a processor in
that orbit to apply another vector operation to deal with serial code
limitations inherited in all parallel applications and interleaved it with
lower level vector operations.
Collision Detection Algorithm Based on Data Parallelism
Modern computing technology enters the era of parallel computing with the trend of sustainable and scalable parallelism. Single Instruction Multiple Data (SIMD) is an important way to go along with the trend. It is able to gather more and more computing ability by increasing the number of processor cores without the need of modifying the program. Meanwhile, in the field of scientific computing and engineering design, many computation intensive applications are facing the challenge of increasingly large amount of data. Data parallel computing will be an important way to further improve the performance of these applications. In this paper, we take the accurate collision detection in building information modeling as an example. We demonstrate a model for constructing a data parallel algorithm. According to the model, a complex object is decomposed into the sets of simple objects; collision detection among complex objects is converted into those among simple objects. The resulting algorithm is a typical SIMD algorithm, and its advantages in parallelism and scalability is unparalleled in respect to the traditional algorithms.
Parallel 2-Opt Local Search on GPU
To accelerate the solution for large scale traveling
salesman problems (TSP), a parallel 2-opt local search algorithm
with simple implementation based on Graphics Processing Unit
(GPU) is presented and tested in this paper. The parallel scheme is
based on technique of data decomposition by dynamically assigning
multiple K processors on the integral tour to treat K edges’ 2-opt
local optimization simultaneously on independent sub-tours, where
K can be user-defined or have a function relationship with input size
N. We implement this algorithm with doubly linked list on GPU.
The implementation only requires O(N) memory. We compare this
parallel 2-opt local optimization against sequential exhaustive 2-opt
search along integral tour on TSP instances from TSPLIB with more
than 10000 cities.
A Genetic Algorithm Based Permutation and Non-Permutation Scheduling Heuristics for Finite Capacity Material Requirement Planning Problem
This paper presents a genetic algorithm based permutation and non-permutation scheduling heuristics (GAPNP) to solve a multi-stage finite capacity material requirement planning (FCMRP) problem in automotive assembly flow shop with unrelated parallel machines. In the algorithm, the sequences of orders are iteratively improved by the GA characteristics, whereas the required operations are scheduled based on the presented permutation and non-permutation heuristics. Finally, a linear programming is applied to minimize the total cost. The presented GAPNP algorithm is evaluated by using real datasets from automotive companies. The required parameters for GAPNP are intently tuned to obtain a common parameter setting for all case studies. The results show that GAPNP significantly outperforms the benchmark algorithm about 30% on average.
Dynamic Analysis of Offshore 2-HUS/U Parallel Platform
For the stability and control demand of offshore small floating platform, a 2-HUS/U parallel mechanism was presented as offshore platform. Inverse kinematics was obtained by institutional constraint equation, and the dynamic model of offshore 2-HUS/U parallel platform was derived based on rigid body’s Lagrangian method. The equivalent moment of inertia, damping and driving force/torque variation of offshore 2-HUS/U parallel platform were analyzed. A numerical example shows that, for parallel platform of given motion, system’s equivalent inertia changes 1.25 times maximally. During the movement of platform, they change dramatically with the system configuration and have coupling characteristics. The maximum equivalent drive torque is 800 N. At the same time, the curve of platform’s driving force/torque is smooth and has good sine features. The control system needs to be adjusted according to kinetic equation during stability and control and it provides a basis for the optimization of control system.
Simulation of Dynamic Behavior of Seismic Isolators Using a Parallel Elasto-Plastic Model
In this paper, a one-dimensional (1d) Parallel Elasto-
Plastic Model (PEPM), able to simulate the uniaxial dynamic
behavior of seismic isolators having a continuously decreasing
tangent stiffness with increasing displacement, is presented. The
parallel modeling concept is applied to discretize the continuously
decreasing tangent stiffness function, thus allowing to simulate the
dynamic behavior of seismic isolation bearings by putting linear
elastic and nonlinear elastic-perfectly plastic elements in parallel. The
mathematical model has been validated by comparing the
experimental force-displacement hysteresis loops, obtained testing a
helical wire rope isolator and a recycled rubber-fiber reinforced
bearing, with those predicted numerically. Good agreement between
the simulated and experimental results shows that the proposed
model can be an effective numerical tool to predict the forcedisplacement
relationship of seismic isolators within relatively large
displacements. Compared to the widely used Bouc-Wen model, the
proposed one allows to avoid the numerical solution of a first order
ordinary nonlinear differential equation for each time step of a
nonlinear time history analysis, thus reducing the computation effort,
and requires the evaluation of only three model parameters from
experimental tests, namely the initial tangent stiffness, the asymptotic
tangent stiffness, and a parameter defining the transition from the
initial to the asymptotic tangent stiffness.
Workspace Analysis of 6–6 Cable-Suspended Parallel Robots
In this paper, the effect of the moving platform size on the workspace volume of 6–6 cable-suspended parallel robots is investigated in details for different geometric configurations and orientations of the moving platform. The obtained hints can be used as a rule of thumb in designing this type of robot.
Exchange Rate Volatility, Its Determinants and Effects on the Manufacturing Sector in Nigeria
This study evaluated the effect of exchange rate volatility on the manufacturing sector of Nigeria. The flow and stock market theories of exchange rate determination was adopted considering macroeconomic determinants such as balance of trade, trade openness, and net international investment. Furthermore, the influence of changes in parallel exchange rate, official exchange rate and real effective exchange rate was modeled on the manufacturing sector output. Vector autoregression techniques and vector error correction mechanism were adopted to explore the macroeconomic determinants of exchange rate fluctuation in Nigeria and to examine the influence of exchange rate volatility on the manufacturing sector output in Nigeria. The exchange rate showed an unstable and volatile movement in Nigeria. Official exchange rate significantly impacted on the manufacturing sector of Nigeria and shock to previous manufacturing sector output caused 60.76% of the fluctuation in the manufacturing sector output in Nigeria. Trade balance, trade openness and net international investments did not significantly determine exchange rate in Nigeria. However, own shock accounted for about 95% of the variation of exchange rate fluctuation in the short-run and long-run. Among other macroeconomic variables, net international investment accounted for about 2.85% variation of the real effective exchange rate fluctuation in the short-run and in the long-run. Monetary authorities should maintain stability of the exchange rates through proper management so as to encourage local production and government should formulate and implement policies that will develop other sectors of the economy as this will widen the country’s revenue base, reduce our over reliance on oil sector for our foreign exchange earnings and in turn reduce the shocks on our domestic economy.
Alternative Computational Arrangements on g-Group (g > 2) Profile Analysis
Alternative and simple computational arrangements in carrying out multivariate profile analysis when more than two groups (populations) are involved are presented. These arrangements have been demonstrated to not only yield equivalent results for the test statistics (the Wilks lambdas), but they have less computational efforts relative to other arrangements so far presented in the literature; in addition to being quite simple and easy to apply.
Improvement of Parallel Compressor Model in Dealing Outlet Unequal Pressure Distribution
Parallel Compressor Model (PCM) is a simplified approach to predict compressor performance with inlet distortions. In PCM calculation, it is assumed that the sub-compressors’ outlet static pressure is uniform and therefore simplifies PCM calculation procedure. However, if the compressor’s outlet duct is not long and straight, such assumption frequently induces error ranging from 10% to 15%. This paper provides a revised calculation method of PCM that can correct the error. The revised method employs energy equation, momentum equation and continuity equation to acquire needed parameters and replace the equal static pressure assumption. Based on the revised method, PCM is applied on two compression system with different blades types. The predictions of their performance in non-uniform inlet conditions are yielded through the revised calculation method and are employed to evaluate the method’s efficiency. Validating the results by experimental data, it is found that although little deviation occurs, calculated result agrees well with experiment data whose error ranges from 0.1% to 3%. Therefore, this proves the revised calculation method of PCM possesses great advantages in predicting the performance of the distorted compressor with limited exhaust duct.
Exploring SSD Suitable Allocation Schemes Incompliance with Workload Patterns
In the Solid-State-Drive (SSD) performance, whether
the data has been well parallelized is an important factor. SSD
parallelization is affected by allocation scheme and it is directly
connected to SSD performance. There are dynamic allocation and
static allocation in representative allocation schemes. Dynamic
allocation is more adaptive in exploiting write operation parallelism,
while static allocation is better in read operation parallelism.
Therefore, it is hard to select the appropriate allocation scheme when
the workload is mixed read and write operations. We simulated
conditions on a few mixed data patterns and analyzed the results to
help the right choice for better performance. As the results, if data
arrival interval is long enough prior operations to be finished and
continuous read intensive data environment static allocation is more
suitable. Dynamic allocation performs the best on write performance
and random data patterns.
Self-Propelled Intelligent Robotic Vehicle Based on Octahedral Dodekapod to Move in Active Branched Pipelines with Variable Cross-Sections
Comparative analysis of robotic vehicles for pipe inspection is presented in this paper. The promising concept of self-propelled intelligent robotic vehicle (SPIRV) based on octahedral dodekapod for inspection and operation in active branched pipelines with variable cross-sections is reasoned. SPIRV is able to move in pipeline, regardless of its spatial orientation. SPIRV can also be used to move along the outside of the pipelines as well as in space between surfaces of annular tubes. Every one of faces of the octahedral dodekapod can clamp/unclamp a thing with a closed loop surface of various forms as well as put pressure on environmental surface of contact. These properties open new possibilities for its applications in SPIRV. We examine design principles of octahedral dodekapod as future intelligent building blocks for various robotic vehicles that can self-move and self-reconfigure.
Modified Scaling-Free CORDIC Based Pipelined Parallel MDC FFT and IFFT Architecture for Radix 2^2 Algorithm
An innovative approach to develop modified scaling free CORDIC based two parallel pipelined Multipath Delay Commutator (MDC) FFT and IFFT architectures for radix 22 FFT algorithm is presented. Multipliers and adders are the most important data paths in FFT and IFFT architectures. Multipliers occupy high area and consume more power. In order to optimize the area and power overhead, modified scaling-free CORDIC based complex multiplier is utilized in the proposed design. In general twiddle factor values are stored in RAM block. In the proposed work, modified scaling-free CORDIC based twiddle factor generator unit is used to generate the twiddle factor and efficient switching units are used. In addition to this, four point FFT operations are performed without complex multiplication which helps to reduce area and power in the last two stages of the pipelined architectures. The design proposed in this paper is based on multipath delay commutator method. The proposed design can be extended to any radix 2n based FFT/IFFT algorithm to improve the throughput. The work is synthesized using Synopsys design Compiler using TSMC 90-nm library. The proposed method proves to be better compared to the reference design in terms of area, throughput and power consumption. The comparative analysis of the proposed design with Xilinx FPGA platform is also discussed in the paper.
A Comparative Understanding of Critical Problems Faced by Pakistani and Indian Transportation Industry
It is very important for a developing nation to
developing their infrastructure on the prime priority because their
infrastructure particularly their roads and transportation functions as a
blood in the system. Almost 1.1 billion populations share the travel
and transportation industry in India. On the other hand, the Pakistan
transportation industry is also extensive and elevating about 170
million users of transportation. Indian and Pakistani specifically
within bus industry are well connected within and between the urban
and rural areas. The transportation industry is radically helping the
economic alleviation of both countries. Due to high economic
instability, unemployment and poverty rate both countries
governments are very serious and committed to help for boosting
their economy. They believe that any form of transportation
development would play a vital role in the development of land,
infrastructure which could indirectly support many other industries’
developments, such as tourism, freighting and shipping businesses,
just to mention a few. However, it seems that their previous
transportation planning in the due course has failed to meet the fast
growing demand. As with the span of time, both the countries are
looking forward to a long-term, and economical solutions, because
the demand is from time to time keep appreciating and reacting
according to other key economic drivers. Content analysis method
and case study approach is used in this paper and secondary data
from the bureau of statistic is used for case analysis. The paper
focused on the mobility concerns of the lower and middle-income
people in India and Pakistan. The paper is aimed to highlight the
weaknesses, opportunities and limitations resulting from low priority
industry for a government, which is making the either country's
public suffer. The paper has concluded that the main issue is
identified as the slow, inappropriate, and unfavorable decisions which
are not in favor of long-term country’s economic development and
public interest. The paper also recommends to future research
avenues for public and private transportation, which is continuously
failing to meet the public expectations.
An Ultra-Low Output Impedance Power Amplifier for Tx Array in 7-Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging
In Ultra high-field MRI scanners (3T and higher),
parallel RF transmission techniques using multiple RF chains with
multiple transmit elements are a promising approach to overcome
the high-field MRI challenges in terms of inhomogeneity in the RF
magnetic field and SAR. However, mutual coupling between the
transmit array elements disturbs the desirable independent control of
the RF waveforms for each element. This contribution demonstrates
a 18 dB improvement of decoupling (isolation) performance due to
the very low output impedance of our 1 kW power amplifier.
k-Neighborhood Template A-Type Three-Dimensional Bounded Cellular Acceptor
This paper presents a four-dimensional computational
model, k-neighborhood template A-type three-dimensional bounded
cellular acceptor (abbreviated as A-3BCA(k)), and discusses the
hierarchical properties. An A-3BCA(k) is a four-dimensional
automaton which consists of a pair of a converter and a
configuration-reader. The former converts the given four-dimensional
tape to the three- and two- dimensional configuration and
the latter determines the acceptance or nonacceptance of given
four-dimensional tape whether or not the derived two-dimensional
configuration is accepted. We mainly investigate the difference of the
accepting power based on the difference of the configuration-reader.
It is shown that the difference of the accepting power of the
configuration-reader tends to affect directly that of the A-3BCA(k)
for the case when the converter is deterministic. On the other hand,
results are not analogous for the nondeterministic case.
Using High Performance Computing for Online Flood Monitoring and Prediction
The main goal of this article is to describe the online
flood monitoring and prediction system Floreon+ primarily developed
for the Moravian-Silesian region in the Czech Republic and the basic
process it uses for running automatic rainfall-runoff and
hydrodynamic simulations along with their calibration and
uncertainty modeling. It takes a long time to execute such process
sequentially, which is not acceptable in the online scenario, so the use
of a high performance computing environment is proposed for all
parts of the process to shorten their duration. Finally, a case study on
the Ostravice River catchment is presented that shows actual
durations and their gain from the parallel implementation.
A Parallel Approach for 3D-Variational Data Assimilation on GPUs in Ocean Circulation Models
This work is the first dowel in a rather wide research
activity in collaboration with Euro Mediterranean Center for Climate
Changes, aimed at introducing scalable approaches in Ocean
Circulation Models. We discuss designing and implementation of
a parallel algorithm for solving the Variational Data Assimilation
(DA) problem on Graphics Processing Units (GPUs). The algorithm
is based on the fully scalable 3DVar DA model, previously proposed
by the authors, which uses a Domain Decomposition approach
(we refer to this model as the DD-DA model). We proceed with
an incremental porting process consisting of 3 distinct stages:
requirements and source code analysis, incremental development of
CUDA kernels, testing and optimization. Experiments confirm the
theoretic performance analysis based on the so-called scale up factor
demonstrating that the DD-DA model can be suitably mapped on