Threshold Based Region Incrementing Secret Sharing Scheme for Color Images
In this era of online communication, which transacts data in 0s and 1s, confidentiality is a priced commodity. Ensuring safe transmission of encrypted data and their uncorrupted recovery is a matter of prime concern. Among the several techniques for secure sharing of images, this paper proposes a k out of n region incrementing image sharing scheme for color images. The highlight of this scheme is the use of simple Boolean and arithmetic operations for generating shares and the Lagrange interpolation polynomial for authenticating shares. Additionally, this scheme addresses problems faced by existing algorithms such as color reversal and pixel expansion. This paper regenerates the original secret image whereas the existing systems regenerates only the half toned secret image.
Color Image Segmentation Using SVM Pixel Classification Image
The goal of image segmentation is to cluster pixels
into salient image regions. Segmentation could be used for object
recognition, occlusion boundary estimation within motion or stereo
systems, image compression, image editing, or image database lookup.
In this paper, we present a color image segmentation using
support vector machine (SVM) pixel classification. Firstly, the pixel
level color and texture features of the image are extracted and they
are used as input to the SVM classifier. These features are extracted
using the homogeneity model and Gabor Filter. With the extracted
pixel level features, the SVM Classifier is trained by using FCM
(Fuzzy C-Means).The image segmentation takes the advantage of
both the pixel level information of the image and also the ability of
the SVM Classifier. The Experiments show that the proposed method
has a very good segmentation result and a better efficiency, increases
the quality of the image segmentation compared with the other
segmentation methods proposed in the literature.
A Robust Image Steganography Method Using PMM in Bit Plane Domain
Steganography is the art and science that hides the information in an appropriate cover carrier like image, text, audio and video media. In this work the authors propose a new image based steganographic method for hiding information within the complex bit planes of the image. After slicing into bit planes the cover image is analyzed to extract the most complex planes in decreasing order based on their bit plane complexity. The complexity function next determines the complex noisy blocks of the chosen bit plane and finally pixel mapping method (PMM) has been used to embed secret bits into those regions of the bit plane. The novel approach of using pixel mapping method (PMM) in bit plane domain adaptively embeds data on most complex regions of image, provides high embedding capacity, better imperceptibility and resistance to steganalysis attack.
Simulation Based VLSI Implementation of Fast Efficient Lossless Image Compression System Using Adjusted Binary Code & Golumb Rice Code
The Simulation based VLSI Implementation of
FELICS (Fast Efficient Lossless Image Compression System)
Algorithm is proposed to provide the lossless image compression and
is implemented in simulation oriented VLSI (Very Large Scale
Integrated). To analysis the performance of Lossless image
compression and to reduce the image without losing image quality
and then implemented in VLSI based FELICS algorithm. In FELICS
algorithm, which consists of simplified adjusted binary code for
Image compression and these compression image is converted in
pixel and then implemented in VLSI domain. This parameter is used
to achieve high processing speed and minimize the area and power.
The simplified adjusted binary code reduces the number of arithmetic
operation and achieved high processing speed. The color difference
preprocessing is also proposed to improve coding efficiency with
simple arithmetic operation. Although VLSI based FELICS
Algorithm provides effective solution for hardware architecture
design for regular pipelining data flow parallelism with four stages.
With two level parallelisms, consecutive pixels can be classified into
even and odd samples and the individual hardware engine is
dedicated for each one. This method can be further enhanced by
On Phase Based Stereo Matching and Its Related Issues
The paper focuses on the problem of the point
correspondence matching in stereo images. The proposed matching
algorithm is based on the combination of simpler methods such as
normalized sum of squared differences (NSSD) and a more complex
phase correlation based approach, by considering the noise and other
factors, as well. The speed of NSSD and the preciseness of the
phase correlation together yield an efficient approach to find the best
candidate point with sub-pixel accuracy in stereo image pairs. The
task of the NSSD in this case is to approach the candidate pixel
roughly. Afterwards the location of the candidate is refined by an
enhanced phase correlation based method which in contrast to the
NSSD has to run only once for each selected pixel.
An Approximation of Daily Rainfall by Using a Pixel Value Data Approach
The research aims to approximate the amount of daily rainfall by using a pixel value data approach. The daily rainfall maps from the Thailand Meteorological Department in period of time from January to December 2013 were the data used in this study. The results showed that this approach can approximate the amount of daily rainfall with RMSE=3.343.
Enhance Image Transmission Based on DWT with Pixel Interleaver
The recent growth of using multimedia transmission
over wireless communication systems, have challenges to protect the
data from lost due to wireless channel effect. Images are corrupted
due to the noise and fading when transmitted over wireless channel,
in wireless channel the image is transmitted block by block, Due to
severe fading, entire image blocks can be damaged. The aim of this
paper comes out from need to enhance the digital images at the
wireless receiver side. Proposed Boundary Interpolation (BI)
Algorithm using wavelet, have been adapted here used to
reconstruction the lost block in the image at the receiver depend on
the correlation between the lost block and its neighbors. New
Proposed technique by using Boundary Interpolation (BI) Algorithm
using wavelet with Pixel interleaver has been implemented. Pixel
interleaver work on distribute the pixel to new pixel position of
original image before transmitting the image. The block lost through
wireless channel is only effects individual pixel. The lost pixels at the
receiver side can be recovered by using Boundary Interpolation (BI)
Algorithm using wavelet. The results showed that the New proposed
algorithm boundary interpolation (BI) using wavelet with pixel
interleaver is better in term of MSE and PSNR.
Theoretical Considerations of the Influence of Mechanical Uniaxial Stress on Pixel Readout Circuits
In this work the effects of uniaxial mechanical stress on a pixel readout circuit are theoretically analyzed. It is the effects of mechanical stress on the in-pixel transistors do not arise at the output, when a correlated double sampling circuit is used. However, mechanical stress effects on the photodiode will directly appear at the readout chain output. Therefore, compensation techniques are needed to overcome this situation. Moreover simulation technique of mechanical stress is proposed and diverse layout as well as design recommendations are put forward, in order to minimize stress related effects on the output of a circuit. he shown, that wever, Moreover, a out
Color Constancy using Superpixel
Color constancy algorithms are generally based on the
simplified assumption about the spectral distribution or the reflection
attributes of the scene surface. However, in reality, these assumptions
are too restrictive. The methodology is proposed to extend existing
algorithm to applying color constancy locally to image patches rather
than globally to the entire images.
In this paper, a method based on low-level image features using
superpixels is proposed. Superpixel segmentation partition an image
into regions that are approximately uniform in size and shape. Instead
of using entire pixel set for estimating the illuminant, only superpixels
with the most valuable information are used. Based on large scale
experiments on real-world scenes, it can be derived that the estimation
is more accurate using superpixels than when using the entire image.
An Improved Fast Video Clip Search Algorithm for Copy Detection using Histogram-based Features
In this paper, we present an improved fast and robust
search algorithm for copy detection using histogram-based features for
short MPEG video clips from large video database. There are two
types of histogram features used to generate more robust features. The
first one is based on the adjacent pixel intensity difference quantization
(APIDQ) algorithm, which had been reliably applied to human face
recognition previously. An APIDQ histogram is utilized as the feature
vector of the frame image. Another one is ordinal histogram feature
which is robust to color distortion. Furthermore, by Combining with a
temporal division method, the spatial and temporal features of the
video sequence are integrated to realize fast and robust video search
for copy detection. Experimental results show the proposed algorithm
can detect the similar video clip more accurately and robust than
conventional fast video search algorithm.
A Comparative Study of Various Tone Mapping Methods
In the recent years, high dynamic range imaging has
gain popularity with the advancement in digital photography. In this
contribution we present a subjective evaluation of various tone
production and tone mapping techniques by a number of participants.
Firstly, standard HDR images were used and the participants were
asked to rate them based on a given rating scheme. After that, the
participant was asked to rate HDR image generated using linear and
nonlinear combination approach of multiple exposure images. The
experimental results showed that linearly generated HDR images
have better visualization than the nonlinear combined ones. In
addition, Reinhard et al. and the exponential tone mapping operators
have shown better results compared to logarithmic and the Garrett et
al. tone mapping operators.
Implementing Adaptive Steganography by Exploring the Ycbcr Color Model Characteristics
Stegnography is a new way of secret
communication the most widely used mechanism on account
of its simplicity is the use of the least significant bit. We have
used the least significant bit (2 LSB and 4 LSB) substitution
method. Depending upon the characteristics of the individual
portions of cover image we decide whether to use 2 LSB or 4
LSB thus it is an adaptive stegnography technique. We used
one of the three channels to behave as indicator to indicate the
presence of hidden data in other two channels. The module
showed impressive results in terms of capacity to hide the
data. In proposed method, instead of using RGB color space
directly, YCbCr color space is used to make use of human
visual system characteristic.
Fast Search Method for Large Video Database Using Histogram Features and Temporal Division
In this paper, we propose an improved fast search
algorithm using combined histogram features and temporal division
method for short MPEG video clips from large video database. There
are two types of histogram features used to generate more robust
features. The first one is based on the adjacent pixel intensity
difference quantization (APIDQ) algorithm, which had been reliably
applied to human face recognition previously. An APIDQ histogram is
utilized as the feature vector of the frame image. Another one is
ordinal feature which is robust to color distortion. Combined with
active search , a temporal pruning algorithm, fast and robust video
search can be realized. The proposed search algorithm has been
evaluated by 6 hours of video to search for given 200 MPEG video
clips which each length is 30 seconds. Experimental results show the
proposed algorithm can detect the similar video clip in merely 120ms,
and Equal Error Rate (ERR) of 1% is achieved, which is more
accurately and robust than conventional fast video search algorithm.
A Sub Pixel Resolution Method
One of the main limitations for the resolution of
optical instruments is the size of the sensor-s pixels. In this paper we
introduce a new sub pixel resolution algorithm to enhance the
resolution of images. This method is based on the analysis of multiimages
which are fast recorded during the fine relative motion of
image and pixel arrays of CCDs. It is shown that by applying this
method for a sample noise free image one will enhance the resolution
with 10-14 order of error.
A Data Hiding Model with High Security Features Combining Finite State Machines and PMM method
Recent years have witnessed the rapid development of
the Internet and telecommunication techniques. Information security
is becoming more and more important. Applications such as covert
communication, copyright protection, etc, stimulate the research of
information hiding techniques. Traditionally, encryption is used to
realize the communication security. However, important information
is not protected once decoded. Steganography is the art and science
of communicating in a way which hides the existence of the communication.
Important information is firstly hidden in a host data, such
as digital image, video or audio, etc, and then transmitted secretly
to the receiver.In this paper a data hiding model with high security
features combining both cryptography using finite state sequential
machine and image based steganography technique for communicating
information more securely between two locations is proposed.
The authors incorporated the idea of secret key for authentication
at both ends in order to achieve high level of security. Before the
embedding operation the secret information has been encrypted with
the help of finite-state sequential machine and segmented in different
parts. The cover image is also segmented in different objects through
normalized cut.Each part of the encoded secret information has been
embedded with the help of a novel image steganographic method
(PMM) on different cuts of the cover image to form different stego
objects. Finally stego image is formed by combining different stego
objects and transmit to the receiver side. At the receiving end different
opposite processes should run to get the back the original secret
Data Hiding in Images in Discrete Wavelet Domain Using PMM
Over last two decades, due to hostilities of environment
over the internet the concerns about confidentiality of information
have increased at phenomenal rate. Therefore to safeguard the information
from attacks, number of data/information hiding methods have
evolved mostly in spatial and transformation domain.In spatial domain
data hiding techniques,the information is embedded directly on
the image plane itself. In transform domain data hiding techniques the
image is first changed from spatial domain to some other domain and
then the secret information is embedded so that the secret information
remains more secure from any attack. Information hiding algorithms
in time domain or spatial domain have high capacity and relatively
lower robustness. In contrast, the algorithms in transform domain,
such as DCT, DWT have certain robustness against some multimedia
processing.In this work the authors propose a novel steganographic
method for hiding information in the transform domain of the gray
scale image.The proposed approach works by converting the gray
level image in transform domain using discrete integer wavelet
technique through lifting scheme.This approach performs a 2-D
lifting wavelet decomposition through Haar lifted wavelet of the cover
image and computes the approximation coefficients matrix CA and
detail coefficients matrices CH, CV, and CD.Next step is to apply the
PMM technique in those coefficients to form the stego image. The
aim of this paper is to propose a high-capacity image steganography
technique that uses pixel mapping method in integer wavelet domain
with acceptable levels of imperceptibility and distortion in the cover
image and high level of overall security. This solution is independent
of the nature of the data to be hidden and produces a stego image
with minimum degradation.
Signal-to-Noise Ratio Improvement of EMCCD Cameras
Over the past years, the EMCCD has had a profound
influence on photon starved imaging applications relying on its unique
multiplication register based on the impact ionization effect in the
silicon. High signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) means high image quality.
Thus, SNR improvement is important for the EMCCD. This work
analyzes the SNR performance of an EMCCD with gain off and on. In
each mode, simplified SNR models are established for different
integration times. The SNR curves are divided into readout noise (or
CIC) region and shot noise region by integration time. Theoretical
SNR values comparing long frame integration and frame adding in
each region are presented and discussed to figure out which method is
more effective. In order to further improve the SNR performance,
pixel binning is introduced into the EMCCD. The results show that
pixel binning does obviously improve the SNR performance, but at the
expensive of the spatial resolution.
Hardware Centric Machine Vision for High Precision Center of Gravity Calculation
We present a hardware oriented method for real-time
measurements of object-s position in video. The targeted application
area is light spots used as references for robotic navigation. Different
algorithms for dynamic thresholding are explored in combination
with component labeling and Center Of Gravity (COG) for highest
possible precision versus Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR). This method
was developed with a low hardware cost in focus having only one
convolution operation required for preprocessing of data.
Subpixel Detection of Circular Objects Using Geometric Property
In this paper, we propose a method for detecting
circular shapes with subpixel accuracy. First, the geometric properties
of circles have been used to find the diameters as well as the
circumference pixels. The center and radius are then estimated by the
circumference pixels. Both synthetic and real images have been tested
by the proposed method. The experimental results show that the new
method is efficient.
Fast Search for MPEG Video Clips Using Adjacent Pixel Intensity Difference Quantization Histogram Feature
In this paper, we propose a novel fast search algorithm for short MPEG video clips from video database. This algorithm is based on the adjacent pixel intensity difference quantization (APIDQ) algorithm, which had been reliably applied to human face recognition previously. An APIDQ histogram is utilized as the feature vector of the frame image. Instead of fully decompressed video frames, partially decoded data, namely DC images are utilized. Combined with active search , a temporal pruning algorithm, fast and robust video search can be realized. The proposed search algorithm has been evaluated by 6 hours of video to search for given 200 MPEG video clips which each length is 15 seconds. Experimental results show the proposed algorithm can detect the similar video clip in merely 80ms, and Equal Error Rate (ERR) of 3 % is achieved, which is more accurately and robust than conventional fast video search algorithm.
Hiding Data in Images Using PCP
In recent years, everything is trending toward digitalization
and with the rapid development of the Internet technologies,
digital media needs to be transmitted conveniently over the network.
Attacks, misuse or unauthorized access of information is of great
concern today which makes the protection of documents through
digital media a priority problem. This urges us to devise new data
hiding techniques to protect and secure the data of vital significance.
In this respect, steganography often comes to the fore as a tool for
hiding information. Steganography is a process that involves hiding
a message in an appropriate carrier like image or audio. It is of
Greek origin and means "covered or hidden writing". The goal of
steganography is covert communication. Here the carrier can be sent
to a receiver without any one except the authenticated receiver only
knows existence of the information. Considerable amount of work
has been carried out by different researchers on steganography. In this
work the authors propose a novel Steganographic method for hiding
information within the spatial domain of the gray scale image. The
proposed approach works by selecting the embedding pixels using
some mathematical function and then finds the 8 neighborhood of
the each selected pixel and map each bit of the secret message in
each of the neighbor pixel coordinate position in a specified manner.
Before embedding a checking has been done to find out whether the
selected pixel or its neighbor lies at the boundary of the image or not.
This solution is independent of the nature of the data to be hidden
and produces a stego image with minimum degradation.
Automatic Authentication of Handwritten Documents via Low Density Pixel Measurements
We introduce an effective approach for automatic offline au- thentication of handwritten samples where the forgeries are skillfully done, i.e., the true and forgery sample appearances are almost alike. Subtle details of temporal information used in online verification are not available offline and are also hard to recover robustly. Thus the spatial dynamic information like the pen-tip pressure characteristics are considered, emphasizing on the extraction of low density pixels. The points result from the ballistic rhythm of a genuine signature which a forgery, however skillful that may be, always lacks. Ten effective features, including these low density points and den- sity ratio, are proposed to make the distinction between a true and a forgery sample. An adaptive decision criteria is also derived for better verification judgements.
Color Image Edge Detection using Pseudo-Complement and Matrix Operations
A color image edge detection algorithm is proposed in
this paper using Pseudo-complement and matrix rotation operations.
First, pseudo-complement method is applied on the image for each
channel. Then, matrix operations are applied on the output image of
the first stage. Dominant pixels are obtained by image differencing
between the pseudo-complement image and the matrix operated
image. Median filtering is carried out to smoothen the image thereby
removing the isolated pixels. Finally, the dominant or core pixels
occurring in at least two channels are selected. On plotting the
selected edge pixels, the final edge map of the given color image is
obtained. The algorithm is also tested in HSV and YCbCr color
spaces. Experimental results on both synthetic and real world images
show that the accuracy of the proposed method is comparable to
other color edge detectors. All the proposed procedures can be
applied to any image domain and runs in polynomial time.
A Sub-Pixel Image Registration Technique with Applications to Defect Detection
This paper presents a useful sub-pixel image
registration method using line segments and a sub-pixel edge detector.
In this approach, straight line segments are first extracted from gray
images at the pixel level before applying the sub-pixel edge detector.
Next, all sub-pixel line edges are mapped onto the orientation-distance
parameter space to solve for line correspondence between images.
Finally, the registration parameters with sub-pixel accuracy are
analytically solved via two linear least-square problems. The present
approach can be applied to various fields where fast registration with
sub-pixel accuracy is required. To illustrate, the present approach is
applied to the inspection of printed circuits on a flat panel. Numerical
example shows that the present approach is effective and accurate
when target images contain a sufficient number of line segments,
which is true in many industrial problems.
Precise Measurement of Displacement using Pixels
Manufacturing processes demand tight dimensional
tolerances. The paper concerns a transducer for precise measurement
of displacement, based on a camera containing a linescan chip.
When tests were conducted using a track of black and white stripes
with a 2mm pitch, errors in measuring on individual cycle amounted
to 1.75%, suggesting that a precision of 35 microns is achievable.
The Pixel Value Data Approach for Rainfall Forecasting Based on GOES-9 Satellite Image Sequence Analysis
To develop a process of extracting pixel values over the using of satellite remote sensing image data in Thailand. It is a very important and effective method of forecasting rainfall. This paper presents an approach for forecasting a possible rainfall area based on pixel values from remote sensing satellite images. First, a method uses an automatic extraction process of the pixel value data from the satellite image sequence. Then, a data process is designed to enable the inference of correlations between pixel value and possible rainfall occurrences. The result, when we have a high averaged pixel value of daily water vapor data, we will also have a high amount of daily rainfall. This suggests that the amount of averaged pixel values can be used as an indicator of raining events. There are some positive associations between pixel values of daily water vapor images and the amount of daily rainfall at each rain-gauge station throughout Thailand. The proposed approach was proven to be a helpful manual for rainfall forecasting from meteorologists by which using automated analyzing and interpreting process of meteorological remote sensing data.
Edge-end Pixel Extraction for Edge-based Image Segmentation
Extraction of edge-end-pixels is an important step for the edge linking process to achieve edge-based image segmentation. This paper presents an algorithm to extract edge-end pixels together with their directional sensitivities as an augmentation to the currently available mathematical models. The algorithm is implemented in the Java environment because of its inherent compatibility with web interfaces since its main use is envisaged to be for remote image analysis on a virtual instrumentation platform.
Multiresolution Approach to Subpixel Registration by Linear Approximation of PSF
Linear approximation of point spread function (PSF) is a new method for determining subpixel translations between images. The problem with the actual algorithm is the inability of determining translations larger than 1 pixel. In this paper a multiresolution technique is proposed to deal with the problem. Its performance is evaluated by comparison with two other well known registration method. In the proposed technique the images are downsampled in order to have a wider view. Progressively decreasing the downsampling rate up to the initial resolution and using linear approximation technique at each step, the algorithm is able to determine translations of several pixels in subpixel levels.