Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 84

Generalized π-Armendariz Authentication Cryptosystem

Algebra is one of the important fields of mathematics. It concerns with the study and manipulation of mathematical symbols. It also concerns with the study of abstractions such as groups, rings, and fields. Due to the development of these abstractions, it is extended to consider other structures, such as vectors, matrices, and polynomials, which are non-numerical objects. Computer algebra is the implementation of algebraic methods as algorithms and computer programs. Recently, many algebraic cryptosystem protocols are based on non-commutative algebraic structures, such as authentication, key exchange, and encryption-decryption processes are adopted. Cryptography is the science that aimed at sending the information through public channels in such a way that only an authorized recipient can read it. Ring theory is the most attractive category of algebra in the area of cryptography. In this paper, we employ the algebraic structure called skew -Armendariz rings to design a neoteric algorithm for zero knowledge proof. The proposed protocol is established and illustrated through numerical example, and its soundness and completeness are proved.

A Comparative Study of Additive and Nonparametric Regression Estimators and Variable Selection Procedures
One of the biggest challenges in nonparametric regression is the curse of dimensionality. Additive models are known to overcome this problem by estimating only the individual additive effects of each covariate. However, if the model is misspecified, the accuracy of the estimator compared to the fully nonparametric one is unknown. In this work the efficiency of completely nonparametric regression estimators such as the Loess is compared to the estimators that assume additivity in several situations, including additive and non-additive regression scenarios. The comparison is done by computing the oracle mean square error of the estimators with regards to the true nonparametric regression function. Then, a backward elimination selection procedure based on the Akaike Information Criteria is proposed, which is computed from either the additive or the nonparametric model. Simulations show that if the additive model is misspecified, the percentage of time it fails to select important variables can be higher than that of the fully nonparametric approach. A dimension reduction step is included when nonparametric estimator cannot be computed due to the curse of dimensionality. Finally, the Boston housing dataset is analyzed using the proposed backward elimination procedure and the selected variables are identified.
The BGMRES Method for Generalized Sylvester Matrix Equation AXB − X = C and Preconditioning
In this paper, we present the block generalized minimal residual (BGMRES) method in order to solve the generalized Sylvester matrix equation. However, this method may not be converged in some problems. We construct a polynomial preconditioner based on BGMRES which shows why polynomial preconditioner is superior to some block solvers. Finally, numerical experiments report the effectiveness of this method.
Quintic Spline Solution of Fourth-Order Parabolic Equations Arising in Beam Theory
We develop a method based on polynomial quintic spline for numerical solution of fourth-order non-homogeneous parabolic partial differential equation with variable coefficient. By using polynomial quintic spline in off-step points in space and finite difference in time directions, we obtained two three level implicit methods. Stability analysis of the presented method has been carried out. We solve four test problems numerically to validate the derived method. Numerical comparison with other methods shows the superiority of presented scheme.
A Generalization of Planar Pascal’s Triangle to Polynomial Expansion and Connection with Sierpinski Patterns
The very well-known stacked sets of numbers referred to as Pascal’s triangle present the coefficients of the binomial expansion of the form (x+y)n. This paper presents an approach (the Staircase Horizontal Vertical, SHV-method) to the generalization of planar Pascal’s triangle for polynomial expansion of the form (x+y+z+w+r+⋯)n. The presented generalization of Pascal’s triangle is different from other generalizations of Pascal’s triangles given in the literature. The coefficients of the generalized Pascal’s triangles, presented in this work, are generated by inspection, using embedded Pascal’s triangles. The coefficients of I-variables expansion are generated by horizontally laying out the Pascal’s elements of (I-1) variables expansion, in a staircase manner, and multiplying them with the relevant columns of vertically laid out classical Pascal’s elements, hence avoiding factorial calculations for generating the coefficients of the polynomial expansion. Furthermore, the classical Pascal’s triangle has some pattern built into it regarding its odd and even numbers. Such pattern is known as the Sierpinski’s triangle. In this study, a presentation of Sierpinski-like patterns of the generalized Pascal’s triangles is given. Applications related to those coefficients of the binomial expansion (Pascal’s triangle), or polynomial expansion (generalized Pascal’s triangles) can be in areas of combinatorics, and probabilities.
Optimal Image Representation for Linear Canonical Transform Multiplexing
Digital images are widely used in computer applications. To store or transmit the uncompressed images requires considerable storage capacity and transmission bandwidth. Image compression is a means to perform transmission or storage of visual data in the most economical way. This paper explains about how images can be encoded to be transmitted in a multiplexing time-frequency domain channel. Multiplexing involves packing signals together whose representations are compact in the working domain. In order to optimize transmission resources each 4 × 4 pixel block of the image is transformed by a suitable polynomial approximation, into a minimal number of coefficients. Less than 4 × 4 coefficients in one block spares a significant amount of transmitted information, but some information is lost. Different approximations for image transformation have been evaluated as polynomial representation (Vandermonde matrix), least squares + gradient descent, 1-D Chebyshev polynomials, 2-D Chebyshev polynomials or singular value decomposition (SVD). Results have been compared in terms of nominal compression rate (NCR), compression ratio (CR) and peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) in order to minimize the error function defined as the difference between the original pixel gray levels and the approximated polynomial output. Polynomial coefficients have been later encoded and handled for generating chirps in a target rate of about two chirps per 4 × 4 pixel block and then submitted to a transmission multiplexing operation in the time-frequency domain.
Comparison of Polynomial and Radial Basis Kernel Functions based SVR and MLR in Modeling Mass Transfer by Vertical and Inclined Multiple Plunging Jets
Presently various computational techniques are used in modeling and analyzing environmental engineering data. In the present study, an intra-comparison of polynomial and radial basis kernel functions based on Support Vector Regression and, in turn, an inter-comparison with Multi Linear Regression has been attempted in modeling mass transfer capacity of vertical (θ = 90O) and inclined (θ multiple plunging jets (varying from 1 to 16 numbers). The data set used in this study consists of four input parameters with a total of eighty eight cases, forty four each for vertical and inclined multiple plunging jets. For testing, tenfold cross validation was used. Correlation coefficient values of 0.971 and 0.981 along with corresponding root mean square error values of 0.0025 and 0.0020 were achieved by using polynomial and radial basis kernel functions based Support Vector Regression respectively. An intra-comparison suggests improved performance by radial basis function in comparison to polynomial kernel based Support Vector Regression. Further, an inter-comparison with Multi Linear Regression (correlation coefficient = 0.973 and root mean square error = 0.0024) reveals that radial basis kernel functions based Support Vector Regression performs better in modeling and estimating mass transfer by multiple plunging jets.
Numerical Inverse Laplace Transform Using Chebyshev Polynomial

In this paper, numerical approximate Laplace transform inversion algorithm based on Chebyshev polynomial of second kind is developed using odd cosine series. The technique has been tested for three different functions to work efficiently. The illustrations show that the new developed numerical inverse Laplace transform is very much close to the classical analytic inverse Laplace transform.

Some Results on the Generalized Higher Rank Numerical Ranges
In this paper, the notion of rank−k numerical range of rectangular complex matrix polynomials are introduced. Some algebraic and geometrical properties are investigated. Moreover, for Є > 0, the notion of Birkhoff-James approximate orthogonality sets for Є−higher rank numerical ranges of rectangular matrix polynomials is also introduced and studied. The proposed definitions yield a natural generalization of the standard higher rank numerical ranges.
Estimating the Technological Deviation Impact on the Value of the Output Parameter of the Induction Converter

Based on the experimental data, the impact of resistance and reactance of the winding, as well as the magnetic permeability of the magnetic circuit steel material on the value of the electromotive force of the induction converter is investigated. The obtained results allow estimating the main technological spreads and determining the maximum level of the electromotive force change. By the method of experiment planning, the expression of a polynomial for the electromotive force which can be used to estimate the adequacy of mathematical models to be used at the investigation and design of induction converters is obtained.

A Modified Decoupled Semi-Analytical Approach Based On SBFEM for Solving 2D Elastodynamic Problems

In this paper, a new trend for improvement in semianalytical method based on scale boundaries in order to solve the 2D elastodynamic problems is provided. In this regard, only the boundaries of the problem domain discretization are by specific subparametric elements. Mapping functions are uses as a class of higherorder Lagrange polynomials, special shape functions, Gauss-Lobatto- Legendre numerical integration, and the integral form of the weighted residual method, the matrix is diagonal coefficients in the equations of elastodynamic issues. Differences between study conducted and prior research in this paper is in geometry production procedure of the interpolation function and integration of the different is selected. Validity and accuracy of the present method are fully demonstrated through two benchmark problems which are successfully modeled using a few numbers of DOFs. The numerical results agree very well with the analytical solutions and the results from other numerical methods.

On a New Inverse Polynomial Numerical Scheme for the Solution of Initial Value Problems in Ordinary Differential Equations
This paper presents the development, analysis and implementation of an inverse polynomial numerical method which is well suitable for solving initial value problems in first order ordinary differential equations with applications to sample problems. We also present some basic concepts and fundamental theories which are vital to the analysis of the scheme. We analyzed the consistency, convergence, and stability properties of the scheme. Numerical experiments were carried out and the results compared with the theoretical or exact solution and the algorithm was later coded using MATLAB programming language.
Edge Detection in Low Contrast Images

The edges of low contrast images are not clearly distinguishable to human eye. It is difficult to find the edges and boundaries in it. The present work encompasses a new approach for low contrast images. The Chebyshev polynomial based fractional order filter has been used for filtering operation on an image. The preprocessing has been performed by this filter on the input image. Laplacian of Gaussian method has been applied on preprocessed image for edge detection. The algorithm has been tested on two test images.

Generalized Chebyshev Collocation Method

In this paper, we introduce a generalized Chebyshev collocation method (GCCM) based on the generalized Chebyshev polynomials for solving stiff systems. For employing a technique of the embedded Runge-Kutta method used in explicit schemes, the property of the generalized Chebyshev polynomials is used, in which the nodes for the higher degree polynomial are overlapped with those for the lower degree polynomial. The constructed algorithm controls both the error and the time step size simultaneously and further the errors at each integration step are embedded in the algorithm itself, which provides the efficiency of the computational cost. For the assessment of the effectiveness, numerical results obtained by the proposed method and the Radau IIA are presented and compared.

Transformations between Bivariate Polynomial Bases

It is well known, that any interpolating polynomial p (x, y) on the vector space Pn,m of two-variable polynomials with degree less than n in terms of x and less than m in terms of y, has various representations that depends on the basis of Pn,m that we select i.e. monomial, Newton and Lagrange basis e.t.c.. The aim of this short note is twofold : a) to present transformations between the coordinates of the polynomial p (x, y) in the aforementioned basis and b) to present transformations between these bases.

Bilinear and Bilateral Generating Functions for the Gauss’ Hypergeometric Polynomials

The object of the present paper is to investigate several general families of bilinear and bilateral generating functions with different argument for the Gauss’ hypergeometric polynomials.

On Chromaticity of Wheels

Let the vertices of a graph such that every two adjacent vertices have different color is a very common problem in the graph theory. This is known as proper coloring of graphs. The possible number of different proper colorings on a graph with a given number of colors can be represented by a function called the chromatic polynomial. Two graphs G and H are said to be chromatically equivalent, if they share the same chromatic polynomial. A Graph G is chromatically unique, if G is isomorphic to H for any graph H such that G is chromatically equivalent to H. The study of chromatically equivalent and chromatically unique problems is called chromaticity. This paper shows that a wheel W12 is chromatically unique.

Stress Solitary Waves Generated by a Second-Order Polynomial Constitutive Equation

In this paper, a nonlinear constitutive law and a curve fitting, two relationships between the stress-strain and the shear stress-strain for sandstone material were used to obtain a second-order polynomial constitutive equation. Based on the established polynomial constitutive equations and Newton’s second law, a mathematical model of the non-homogeneous nonlinear wave equation under an external pressure was derived. The external pressure can be assumed as an impulse function to simulate a real earthquake source. A displacement response under nonlinear two-dimensional wave equation was determined by a numerical method and computer-aided software. The results show that a suit pressure in the sandstone generates the phenomenon of stress solitary waves.

Scalable Systolic Multiplier over Binary Extension Fields Based on Two-Level Karatsuba Decomposition

Shifted polynomial basis (SPB) is a variation of polynomial basis representation. SPB has potential for efficient bit level and digi -level implementations of multiplication over binary extension fields with subquadratic space complexity. For efficient implementation of pairing computation with large finite fields, this paper presents a new SPB multiplication algorithm based on Karatsuba schemes, and used that to derive a novel scalable multiplier architecture. Analytical results show that the proposed multiplier provides a trade-off between space and time complexities. Our proposed multiplier is modular, regular, and suitable for very large scale integration (VLSI) implementations. It involves less area complexity compared to the multipliers based on traditional decomposition methods. It is therefore, more suitable for efficient hardware implementation of pairing based cryptography and elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) in constraint driven applications.

Biometric Steganography Using Variable Length Embedding

Recent growth in digital multimedia technologies has presented a lot of facilities in information transmission, reproduction and manipulation. Therefore, the concept of information security is one of the superior articles in the present day situation. The biometric information security is one of the information security mechanisms. It has the advantages as well as disadvantages. The biometric system is at risk to a range of attacks. These attacks are anticipated to bypass the security system or to suspend the normal functioning. Various hazards have been discovered while using biometric system. Proper use of steganography greatly reduces the risks in biometric systems from the hackers. Steganography is one of the fashionable information hiding technique. The goal of steganography is to hide information inside a cover medium like text, image, audio, video etc. through which it is not possible to detect the existence of the secret information. Here in this paper a new security concept has been established by making the system more secure with the help of steganography along with biometric security. Here the biometric information has been embedded to a skin tone portion of an image with the help of proposed steganographic technique.

An Interval Type-2 Dual Fuzzy Polynomial Equations and Ranking Method of Fuzzy Numbers

According to fuzzy arithmetic, dual fuzzy polynomials cannot be replaced by fuzzy polynomials. Hence, the concept of ranking method is used to find real roots of dual fuzzy polynomial equations. Therefore, in this study we want to propose an interval type-2 dual fuzzy polynomial equation (IT2 DFPE). Then, the concept of ranking method also is used to find real roots of IT2 DFPE (if exists). We transform IT2 DFPE to system of crisp IT2 DFPE. This transformation performed with ranking method of fuzzy numbers based on three parameters namely value, ambiguity and fuzziness. At the end, we illustrate our approach by two numerical examples.

Bernstein-Galerkin Approach for Perturbed Constant-Coefficient Differential Equations, One-Dimensional Analysis

A numerical approach for solving constant-coefficient differential equations whose solutions exhibit boundary layer structure is built by inserting Bernstein Partition of Unity into Galerkin variational weak form. Due to the reproduction capability of Bernstein basis, such implementation shows excellent accuracy at boundaries and is able to capture sharp gradients of the field variable by p-refinement using regular distributions of equi-spaced evaluation points. The approximation is subjected to convergence experimentation and a procedure to assemble the discrete equations without a background integration mesh is proposed.

Synthesis of the Robust Regulators on the Basis of the Criterion of the Maximum Stability Degree

The robust control system objects with interval- undermined parameters is considers in this paper. Initial information about the system is its characteristic polynomial with interval coefficients. On the basis of coefficient estimations of quality indices and criterion of the maximum stability degree, the methods of synthesis of a robust regulator parametric is developed. The example of the robust stabilization system synthesis of the rope tension is given in this article.

Design and Implementation of Reed Solomon Encoder on FPGA

Error correcting codes are used for detection and correction of errors in digital communication system. Error correcting coding is based on appending of redundancy to the information message according to a prescribed algorithm. Reed Solomon codes are part of channel coding and withstand the effect of noise, interference and fading. Galois field arithmetic is used for encoding and decoding reed Solomon codes. Galois field multipliers and linear feedback shift registers are used for encoding the information data block. The design of Reed Solomon encoder is complex because of use of LFSR and Galois field arithmetic. The purpose of this paper is to design and implement Reed Solomon (255, 239) encoder with optimized and lesser number of Galois Field multipliers. Symmetric generator polynomial is used to reduce the number of GF multipliers. To increase the capability toward error correction, convolution interleaving will be used with RS encoder. The Design will be implemented on Xilinx FPGA Spartan II.

Conventional and PSO Based Approaches for Model Reduction of SISO Discrete Systems

Reduction of Single Input Single Output (SISO) discrete systems into lower order model, using a conventional and an evolutionary technique is presented in this paper. In the conventional technique, the mixed advantages of Modified Cauer Form (MCF) and differentiation are used. In this method the original discrete system is, first, converted into equivalent continuous system by applying bilinear transformation. The denominator of the equivalent continuous system and its reciprocal are differentiated successively, the reduced denominator of the desired order is obtained by combining the differentiated polynomials. The numerator is obtained by matching the quotients of MCF. The reduced continuous system is converted back into discrete system using inverse bilinear transformation. In the evolutionary technique method, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is employed to reduce the higher order model. PSO method is based on the minimization of the Integral Squared Error (ISE) between the transient responses of original higher order model and the reduced order model pertaining to a unit step input. Both the methods are illustrated through numerical example.

Numerical Solution of Volterra Integro-differential Equations of Fractional Order by Laplace Decomposition Method

In this paper the Laplace Decomposition method is developed to solve linear and nonlinear fractional integro- differential equations of Volterra type.The fractional derivative is described in the Caputo sense.The Laplace decomposition method is found to be fast and accurate.Illustrative examples  are included to demonstrate the validity and applicability of presented technique and comparasion is made with exacting results.

Some Preconditioners for Block Pentadiagonal Linear Systems Based on New Approximate Factorization Methods

In this paper, getting an high-efficiency parallel algorithm to solve sparse block pentadiagonal linear systems suitable for vectors and parallel processors, stair matrices are used to construct some parallel polynomial approximate inverse preconditioners. These preconditioners are appropriate when the desired target is to maximize parallelism. Moreover, some theoretical results about these preconditioners are presented and how to construct preconditioners effectively for any nonsingular block pentadiagonal H-matrices is also described. In addition, the availability of these preconditioners is illustrated with some numerical experiments arising from two dimensional biharmonic equation.

A Study of Thermal Convection in Two Porous Layers Governed by Brinkman's Model in Upper Layer and Darcy's Model in Lower Layer
This work examines thermal convection in two porous layers. Flow in the upper layer is governed by Brinkman-s equations model and in the lower layer is governed by Darcy-s model. Legendre polynomials are used to obtain numerical solution when the lower layer is heated from below.
Laplace Adomian Decomposition Method Applied to a Two-Dimensional Viscous Flow with Shrinking Sheet
Our aim in this piece of work is to demonstrate the power of the Laplace Adomian decomposition method (LADM) in approximating the solutions of nonlinear differential equations governing the two-dimensional viscous flow induced by a shrinking sheet.
Hybrid Function Method for Solving Nonlinear Fredholm Integral Equations of the Second Kind

A numerical method for solving nonlinear Fredholm integral equations of second kind is proposed. The Fredholm type equations which have many applications in mathematical physics are then considered. The method is based on hybrid function  approximations. The properties of hybrid of block-pulse functions and Chebyshev polynomials are presented and are utilized to reduce the computation of nonlinear Fredholm integral equations to a system of nonlinear. Some numerical examples are selected to illustrate the effectiveness and simplicity of the method.

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