|Commenced in January 2007||Frequency: Monthly||Edition: International||Paper Count: 22|
Many modern synchronous generators in power systems are extremely weakly damped. The reasons are cost optimization of the machine building and introduction of the additional control equipment into power systems. Oscillations of the synchronous generators and related stability problems of the power systems are harmful and can lead to failures in operation and to damages. The only useful solution to increase damping of the unwanted oscillations represents the implementation of the power system stabilizers. Power system stabilizers generate the additional control signal which changes synchronous generator field excitation voltage. Modern power system stabilizers are integrated into static excitation systems of the synchronous generators. Available commercial power system stabilizers are based on linear control theory. Due to the nonlinear dynamics of the synchronous generator, current stabilizers do not assure optimal damping of the synchronous generator’s oscillations in the entire operating range. For that reason the use of the robust power system stabilizers which are convenient for the entire operating range is reasonable. There are numerous robust techniques applicable for the power system stabilizers. In this paper the use of sliding mode control for synchronous generator stability improvement is studied. On the basis of the sliding mode theory, the robust power system stabilizer was developed. The main advantages of the sliding mode controller are simple realization of the control algorithm, robustness to parameter variations and elimination of disturbances. The advantage of the proposed sliding mode controller against conventional linear controller was tested for damping of the synchronous generator oscillations in the entire operating range. Obtained results show the improved damping in the entire operating range of the synchronous generator and the increase of the power system stability. The proposed study contributes to the progress in the development of the advanced stabilizer, which will replace conventional linear stabilizers and improve damping of the synchronous generators.
In this paper, the concept of a non-dominated sorting multi-objective particle swarm optimization with local search (NSPSO-LS) is presented for the optimal design of multimachine power system stabilizers (PSSs). The controller design is formulated as an optimization problem in order to shift the system electromechanical modes in a pre-specified region in the s-plan. A composite set of objective functions comprising the damping factor and the damping ratio of the undamped and lightly damped electromechanical modes is considered. The performance of the proposed optimization algorithm is verified for the 3-machine 9-bus system. Simulation results based on eigenvalue analysis and nonlinear time-domain simulation show the potential and superiority of the NSPSO-LS algorithm in tuning PSSs over a wide range of loading conditions and large disturbance compared to the classic PSO technique and genetic algorithms.
Available commercial applications of power system stabilizers assure optimal damping of synchronous generator’s oscillations only in a small part of operating range. Parameters of the power system stabilizer are usually tuned for the selected operating point. Extensive variations of the synchronous generator’s operation result in changed dynamic characteristics. This is the reason that the power system stabilizer tuned for the nominal operating point does not satisfy preferred damping in the overall operation area. The small-signal stability and the transient stability of the synchronous generators have represented an attractive problem for testing different concepts of the modern control theory. Of all the methods, the adaptive control has proved to be the most suitable for the design of the power system stabilizers. The adaptive control has been used in order to assure the optimal damping through the entire synchronous generator’s operating range. The use of the adaptive control is possible because the loading variations and consequently the variations of the synchronous generator’s dynamic characteristics are, in most cases, essentially slower than the adaptation mechanism. The paper shows the development and the application of the self-tuning power system stabilizer based on recursive least square identification method and linear quadratic regulator. Identification method is used to calculate the parameters of the Heffron-Phillips model of the synchronous generator. On the basis of the calculated parameters of the synchronous generator’s mathematical model, the synthesis of the linear quadratic regulator is carried-out. The identification and the synthesis are implemented on-line. In this way, the self-tuning power system stabilizer adapts to the different operating conditions. A purpose of this paper is to contribute to development of the more effective power system stabilizers, which would replace currently used linear stabilizers. The presented self-tuning power system stabilizer makes the tuning of the controller parameters easier and assures damping improvement in the complete operating range. The results of simulations and experiments show essential improvement of the synchronous generator’s damping and power system stability.
The phase compensation method was proposed based on the concept of the damping torque analysis (DTA). It is a method for the design of a PSS (power system stabilizer) to suppress local-mode power oscillations in a single-machine infinite-bus power system. This paper presents the application of the phase compensation method for the design of a PSS in a multi-machine power system. The application is achieved by examining the direct damping contribution of the stabilizer to the power oscillations. By using linearized equal area criterion, a theoretical proof to the application for the PSS design is presented. Hence PSS design in the paper is an example of stable tending control by localized method.
This paper proposes a swarm intelligence method that yields optimal Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) Controller parameters of a power system stabilizer (PSS) in a single machine infinite bus system. The proposed method utilizes the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm approach to generate the optimal tuning parameters. The paper is modeled in the MATLAB Simulink Environment to analyze the performance of a synchronous machine under several load conditions. At the same operating point, the PID-PSS parameters are also tuned by Ziegler-Nichols method. The dynamic performance of proposed controller is compared with the conventional Ziegler-Nichols method of PID tuning controller to demonstrate its advantage. The analysis reveals the effectiveness of the proposed PSO based PID controller.
In this article, coordinated tuning of power system stabilizer (PSS) with static var compensator (SVC) and thyristor controlled series capacitor (TCSC) in multi-machine power system is proposed. The design of proposed coordinated damping controller is formulated as an optimization problem and the controller gains are optimized instantaneously using advanced adaptive particle swarm optimization (AAPSO). The objective function is framed with the inter-area speed deviations of the generators and it is minimized using AAPSO to improve the dynamic stability of power system under severe disturbance. The proposed coordinated controller performance is evaluated under a wide range of system operating conditions with three-phase fault disturbance. Using time domain simulations the damping characteristics of proposed controller is compared with individually tuned PSS, SVC and TCSC controllers. Finally, the real-time simulations are carried out in Opal-RT hardware simulator to synchronize the proposed controller performance in the real world.
In this paper the application of a hierarchical fuzzy system (HFS) based on MPSS and SVC in multi-machine environment is studied. Also the effect of communication lines active power variance signal between two ΔPTie-line regions, as one of the inputs of hierarchical fuzzy multi-input PSS and SVC (HFMPSS & SVC), on the increase of low frequency oscillation damping is examined. In the MPSS, to have better efficiency an auxiliary signal of reactive power deviation (ΔQ) is added with ΔP+ Δω input type PSS. The number of rules grows exponentially with the number of variables in a classic fuzzy system. To reduce the number of rules the HFS consists of a number of low-dimensional fuzzy systems in a hierarchical structure. Phasor model of SVC is described and used in this paper. The performances of MPSS and ΔPTie-line based HFMPSS and also the proposed method in damping inter-area mode of oscillation are examined in response to disturbances. The efficiency of the proposed model is examined by simulating a four-machine power system. Results show that the proposed method is performing satisfactorily within the whole range of disturbances and reduces the cost of system.
Power-system stability improvement by simultaneous tuning of power system stabilizer (PSS) and a Static Var Compensator (SVC) based damping controller is thoroughly investigated in this paper. Both local and remote signals with associated time delays are considered in the present study. The design problem of the proposed controller is formulated as an optimization problem, and differential evolution (DE) algorithm is employed to search for the optimal controller parameters. The performances of the proposed controllers are evaluated under different disturbances for both single-machine infinite bus power system and multi-machine power system. The performance of the proposed controllers with variations in the signal transmission delays has also been investigated. The proposed stabilizers are tested on a weakly connected power system subjected to different disturbances. Nonlinear simulation results are presented to show the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed control schemes over a wide range of loading conditions and disturbances. Further, the proposed design approach is found to be robust and improves stability effectively even under small disturbance conditions.
Optimal supplementary damping controller design for Thyristor Controlled Series Compensator (TCSC) is presented in this paper. For the proposed controller design, a multi-objective fitness function consisting of both damping factors and real part of system electromachanical eigenvalue is used and Real- Coded Genetic Algorithm (RCGA) is employed for the optimal supplementary controller parameters. The performance of the designed supplementary TCSC-based damping controller is tested on a weakly connected power system with different disturbances and loading conditions with parameter variations. Simulation results are presented and compared with a conventional power system stabilizer and also with the TCSC-based supplementary controller when the controller parameters are not optimized to show the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed approach over a wide range of loading conditions and disturbances.
This paper proposes the application of a hierarchical fuzzy system (HFS) based on multi-input power system stabilizer (MPSS) and also Static Var Compensator (SVC) in multi-machine environment.The number of rules grows exponentially with the number of variables in a conventional fuzzy logic system. The proposed HFS method is developed to solve this problem. To reduce the number of rules the HFS consists of a number of low-dimensional fuzzy systems in a hierarchical structure. In fact, by using HFS the total number of involved rules increases only linearly with the number of input variables. In the MPSS, to have better efficiency an auxiliary signal of reactive power deviation (ΔQ) is added with ΔP+ Δω input type Power system stabilizer (PSS). Phasor model of SVC is described and used in this paper. The performances of MPSS, Conventional power system stabilizer (CPSS), hierarchical Fuzzy Multi-input Power System Stabilizer (HFMPSS) and the proposed method in damping inter-area mode of oscillation are examined in response to disturbances. By using digital simulations the comparative study is illustrated. It can be seen that the proposed PSS is performing satisfactorily within the whole range of disturbances.
This paper presents PSS (Power system stabilizer) design based on optimal fuzzy PID (OFPID). OFPID based PSS design is considered for single-machine power systems. The main motivation for this design is to stabilize or to control low-frequency oscillation on power systems. Firstly, describing the linear PID control then to combine this PID control with fuzzy logic control mechanism. Finally, Fuzzy PID parameters (Kp. Kd, KI, Kupd, Kui) are tuned by Genetic Algorthm (GA) to reach optimal global stability. The effectiveness of the proposed PSS in increasing the damping of system electromechanical oscillation is demonstrated in a one-machine-infinite-bus system
Power system stabilizers (PSS) are now routinely used in the industry to damp out power system oscillations. In this paper, particle swarm optimization (PSO) technique is applied to design a robust power system stabilizer (PSS). The design problem of the proposed controller is formulated as an optimization problem and PSO is employed to search for optimal controller parameters. By minimizing the time-domain based objective function, in which the deviation in the oscillatory rotor speed of the generator is involved; stability performance of the system is improved. The non-linear simulation results are presented under wide range of operating conditions; disturbances at different locations as well as for various fault clearing sequences to show the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed controller and their ability to provide efficient damping of low frequency oscillations. Further, all the simulations results are compared with a conventionally designed power system stabilizer to show the superiority of the proposed design approach.
Power system stability enhancement by simultaneous tuning of a Power System Stabilizer (PSS) and a Static Var Compensator (SVC)-based controller is thoroughly investigated in this paper. The coordination among the proposed damping stabilizers and the SVC internal voltage regulators has also been taken into consideration. The design problem is formulated as an optimization problem with a time-domain simulation-based objective function and Real-Coded Genetic Algorithm (RCGA) is employed to search for optimal controller parameters. The proposed stabilizers are tested on a weakly connected power system with different disturbances and loading conditions. The nonlinear simulation results are presented to show the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed control schemes over a wide range of loading conditions and disturbances. Further, the proposed design approach is found to be robust and improves stability effectively even under small disturbance and unbalanced fault conditions.
This paper presents a systematic procedure for modelling and simulation of a power system installed with a power system stabilizer (PSS) and a flexible ac transmission system (FACTS)-based controller. For the design purpose, the model of example power system which is a single-machine infinite-bus power system installed with the proposed controllers is developed in MATLAB/SIMULINK. In the developed model synchronous generator is represented by model 1.1. which includes both the generator main field winding and the damper winding in q-axis so as to evaluate the impact of PSS and FACTS-based controller on power system stability. The model can be can be used for teaching the power system stability phenomena, and also for research works especially to develop generator controllers using advanced technologies. Further, to avoid adverse interactions, PSS and FACTS-based controller are simultaneously designed employing genetic algorithm (GA). The non-linear simulation results are presented for the example power system under various disturbance conditions to validate the effectiveness of the proposed modelling and simultaneous design approach.