Scholarly Research Excellence

Digital Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 23

Estimation of Human Absorbed Dose Using Compartmental Model

Dosimetry is an indispensable and precious factor in patient treatment planning to minimize the absorbed dose in vital tissues. In this study, compartmental model was used in order to estimate the human absorbed dose of 177Lu-DOTATOC from the biodistribution data in wild type rats. For this purpose, 177Lu-DOTATOC was prepared under optimized conditions and its biodistribution was studied in male Syrian rats up to 168 h. Compartmental model was applied to mathematical description of the drug behaviour in tissue at different times. Dosimetric estimation of the complex was performed using radiation absorbed dose assessment resource (RADAR). The biodistribution data showed high accumulation in the adrenal and pancreas as the major expression sites for somatostatin receptor (SSTR). While kidneys as the major route of excretion receive 0.037 mSv/MBq, pancreas and adrenal also obtain 0.039 and 0.028 mSv/MBq. Due to the usage of this method, the points of accumulated activity data were enhanced, and further information of tissues uptake was collected that it will be followed by high (or improved) precision in dosimetric calculations.

Analytical Comparison of Conventional Algorithms with Vedic Algorithm for Digital Multiplier

In today’s scenario, the complexity of digital signal processing (DSP) applications and various microcontroller architectures have been increasing to such an extent that the traditional approaches to multiplier design in most processors are becoming outdated for being comparatively slow. Modern processing applications require suitable pipelined approaches, and therefore, algorithms that are friendlier with pipelined architectures. Traditional algorithms like Wallace Tree, Radix-4 Booth, Radix-8 Booth, Dadda architectures have been proven to be comparatively slow for pipelined architectures. These architectures, therefore, need to be optimized or combined with other architectures amongst them to enhance its performances and to be made suitable for pipelined hardware/architectures. Recently, Vedic algorithm mathematically has proven to be efficient by appearing to be less complex and with fewer steps for its output establishment and have assumed renewed importance. This paper describes and shows how the Vedic algorithm can be better suited for pipelined architectures and also can be combined with traditional architectures and algorithms for enhancing its ability even further. In this paper, we also established that for complex applications on DSP and other microcontroller architectures, using Vedic approach for multiplication proves to be the best available and efficient option.

In vivo Therapeutic Potential of Biologically Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles
Nowadays, nanoparticles are being used in pharmacological studies for their exclusive properties such as small size, more surface area, biocompatibility and enhanced solubility. In view of this, the present study aimed to evaluate the antihyperglycemic potential of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles (BSSNPs) and Gymnema sylvestre (GS) extract. The SEM and SEM analysis divulges that the BSSNPs were spherical in shape. EDAX spectrum exhibits peaks for the presence of silver, carbon, and oxygen atoms in the range of 1.0-3.1 keV. FT-IR reveals the binding properties of active bio-constituents responsible for capping and stabilizing BSSNPs. The results showed increased blood glucose, huge loss in body weight and downturn in plasma insulin. The GS extract (200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg), BSSNPs (100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg) and metformin 50 mg/kg were administered to the diabetic rats. BSSNPs at a dose level of 200 mg/kg (b.wt.p.o.) showed significant inhibition of (p<0.001) blood glucose levels as compared with GS extract treated group. The results obtained from study indicate that the BSSNP shows potent anti-diabetic activity.
Very Large Scale Integration Architecture of Finite Impulse Response Filter Implementation Using Retiming Technique
Recursive combination of an algorithm based on Karatsuba multiplication is exploited to design a generalized transpose and parallel Finite Impulse Response (FIR) Filter. Mid-range Karatsuba multiplication and Carry Save adder based on Karatsuba multiplication reduce time complexity for higher order multiplication implemented up to n-bit. As a result, we design modified N-tap Transpose and Parallel Symmetric FIR Filter Structure using Karatsuba algorithm. The mathematical formulation of the FFA Filter is derived. The proposed architecture involves significantly less area delay product (APD) then the existing block implementation. By adopting retiming technique, hardware cost is reduced further. The filter architecture is designed by using 90 nm technology library and is implemented by using cadence EDA Tool. The synthesized result shows better performance for different word length and block size. The design achieves switching activity reduction and low power consumption by applying with and without retiming for different combination of the circuit. The proposed structure achieves more than a half of the power reduction by adopting with and without retiming techniques compared to the earlier design structure. As a proof of the concept for block size 16 and filter length 64 for CKA method, it achieves a 51% as well as 70% less power by applying retiming technique, and for CSA method it achieves a 57% as well as 77% less power by applying retiming technique compared to the previously proposed design.
Toxicological and Histopathological Studies on the Effect of Tartrazine in Male Albino Rats

Tartrazine is an organic azo dyes food additive widely used in foods, drugs, and cosmetics. The present study aimed to investigate the toxic effects of tartrazine on kidneys and liver biomarkers in addition to the investigation of oxidative stress and change of histopathological structure of liver and kidneys in 30 male rats. Tartrazine was orally administrated daily at dose 200 mg/ kg bw (1/ 10 LD50) for sixty days. Serum and tissue samples were collected at the end of the experiment to investigate the underlying mechanism of tartrazine through assessment oxidative stress (Glutathione (GSH), Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) and biochemical markers (alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Total protein and Urea). Liver and kidneys tissue were collected and preserved in 10% formalin for histopathological examination. The obtained values were statistically analyzed by one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by multiple comparison test. Biochemical analysis revealed that tartrazine induced significant increase in serum ALT, AST, total protein, urea level compared to control group. Tartrazine showed significant decrease in liver GSH and SOD where their values when compared to control group. Tartrazine induced increase in liver MDA compared to control group. Histopathology of the liver showed diffuse vacuolar degeneration in hepatic parenchyma, the portal area showed sever changes sever in hepatoportal blood vessels and in the bile ducts. The kidneys showed degenerated tubules at the cortex together with mononuclear leucocytes inflammatory cells infiltration. There is perivascular edema with inflammatory cell infiltration surrounding the congested and hyalinized vascular wall of blood vessel. The present study indicates that the subchronic effects of tartrazine have a toxic effect on the liver and kidneys together with induction of oxidative stress by formation of free radicals. Therefore, people should avoid the hazards of consuming tartrazine.

Protective Effect of Thymoquinone against Nephrotoxicity Induced by Cadmium in Rats
The present study investigated the protective effect of thymoquinone (TQ), against cadmium-induced kidney injury in rats. Cadmium chloride (1.2 mg Cd/kg/day, s.c.), was given for nine weeks. TQ treatment (40 mg/kg/day, p.o.) started on the same day of cadmium administration and continued for nine weeks. TQ significantly decreased serum creatinine, renal malondialdehyde and nitric oxide, and significantly increased renal reduced glutathione in rats received cadmium. Histopathological examination showed that TQ markedly minimized renal tissue damage induced by cadmium. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that TQ markedly decreased the cadmium-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, tumor necrosis factor-α, cyclooxygenase-2, and caspase-3 in renal tissue. It was concluded that TQ significantly protected against cadmium nephrotoxicity in rats, through its antioxidant, antiinflammatory, and antiapoptotic actions.
Protective Effect of Melissa officinalis L. against Malathion Toxicity and Reproductive Impairment in Male Rats

Malathion (ML) is a well known pesticide commonly used in many agricultural and non-agricultural processes. Its toxicity has been attributed primarily to the accumulation of acetylcholine (Ach) at nerve junctions, due to the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The aim of the current research was to study the protective effect of the melissa plant extract against reproductive impairment induced by malathion in 32 male albino rats, and the biological experiment was divided into four groups (8 in each) that given malathion (27 mg/kg; 1/50 of the LD50 for an oral dose) and/or Melissa officinalis (MO) extract (200mg/kg/day) by gavages technique. The sperm counts, sperm motility, sperm morphology, FSH, LH, and testosterone levels had been determined in testes homogenate at the end of the experiment. It is worthy to report that, rats treated with melissa extract did not show a significant difference when compared with the control group, while rats given malathion alone had significantly lower sperm count, sperm motility, and significantly higher abnormal sperm numbers, than the untreated control rats as well as having significantly lower serum FSH, LH, and testosterone levels compared with the control group. Administrations of melissa extract restore all mentioned histological parameters towards the control group and the melissa extract had a strong positive protective effect against malathion toxicity. Results the of biological parameters were confirmed by the histological examination of rat testes and indicated that, both control and melissa groups showing normal seminiferous tubules, while malathion group testicular tissues had necrosis, edema in the seminiferous tubules and degeneration of spermatogonial cells lining the seminiferous tubules with incomplete spermatogenesis. The use of melissa against malathion improved the histological picture and showing normal seminiferous tubules with complete spermatogenesis and almost there was no histopathological changes could be noted.

Protective Effect of Hesperidin against Cyclophosphamide Hepatotoxicity in Rats

The protective effect of hesperidin was investigated in rats exposed to liver injury induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide (CYP) at a dose of 150 mg kg-1. Hesperidin treatment (100 mg kg-1/day, orally) was applied for seven days, starting five days before CYP administration. Hesperidin significantly decreased the CYP-induced elevations of serum alanine aminotransferase, and hepatic malondialdehyde and myeloperoxidase activity, significantly prevented the depletion of hepatic glutathione peroxidase activity resulted from CYP administration. Also, hesperidin ameliorated the CYP-induced liver tissue injury observed by histopathological examination. In addition, hesperidin decreased the CYP-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, tumor necrosis factor-α, cyclooxygenase-2, Fas ligand, and caspase-9 in liver tissue. It was concluded that hesperidin may represent a potential candidate to protect against CYP-induced hepatotoxicity.

Scalable Systolic Multiplier over Binary Extension Fields Based on Two-Level Karatsuba Decomposition

Shifted polynomial basis (SPB) is a variation of polynomial basis representation. SPB has potential for efficient bit level and digi -level implementations of multiplication over binary extension fields with subquadratic space complexity. For efficient implementation of pairing computation with large finite fields, this paper presents a new SPB multiplication algorithm based on Karatsuba schemes, and used that to derive a novel scalable multiplier architecture. Analytical results show that the proposed multiplier provides a trade-off between space and time complexities. Our proposed multiplier is modular, regular, and suitable for very large scale integration (VLSI) implementations. It involves less area complexity compared to the multipliers based on traditional decomposition methods. It is therefore, more suitable for efficient hardware implementation of pairing based cryptography and elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) in constraint driven applications.

Protective Effect of Thymoquinone against Arsenic-Induced Testicular Toxicity in Rats

The protective effect of thymoquinone (TQ) was investigated in rats exposed to testicular injury induced by sodium arsenite (10mg/kg/day, orally, for two days). TQ treatment (10mg/kg/day, intraperitoneal injection) was applied for five days, starting three day before arsenic administration. TQ significantly attenuated the arsenic-induced decreases of serum testosterone, and testicular reduced glutathione level, and significantly decreased the elevations of testicular malondialdehyde and nitric oxide levels resulted from arsenic administration. Also, TQ ameliorated the arsenic-induced testicular tissue injury observed by histopathological examination. In addition, TQ decreased the arsenic-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and caspase-3 in testicular tissue. It was concluded that TQ may represent a potential candidate to protect against arsenic-induced testicular injury. 

Anti-Diabetic Effect of Bryophyllum pinnatum Leaves

Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder that affects the quality of life in terms of physical health, social and psychological well-being. In spite of the enormous progress in the treatment of diabetes using existing commercial drugs, such as, insulin and oral hypoglycemic agents, the quest and search for new drugs is imperative due to several limitations of the commercial drugs. In addition, the existing diabetic drugs are expensive and unaffordable by the rural populace in the developing countries. The present study demonstrates the anti-diabetic property of aqueous extract of Bryophyllum pinnatum (BP) leaves using diabetic rats (albino rats) as models. At the same time, the anti-diabetic effect of the aqueous extract was compared to that of a sample containing a mixture of the extract and a commercial diabetic medicine, glibenclamide. A specified dosage of aqueous extract of Bryophyllum pinnatum (BP) leaves was administered on the experimental diabetic rats, and their BGL was measured and recorded. The results showed a significant drop in the BGL of the diabetic rats to a value close to normal blood glucose level within 120 minutes when only aqueous extract from BP leaves was used. When a sample containing a mixture of the aqueous extract and glibenclamide was administered, a further drop in BGL was observed. Therefore, the results reveal that aqueous extract of Bryophyllum pinnatum leaves have significant anti-diabetic properties, and that the performance of the existing drugs (glibenclamide) could be enhanced with the use of the aqueous extract.

Changes in Behavior and Learning Ability of Rats Intoxicated with Lead

Measuring the effect of perinatal lead exposure on learning ability of offspring is considered as a sensitive and selective index for providing an early marker for central nervous system damage produced by this toxic metal. A total of 35 Sprague-Dawley adult rats were used to investigate the effect of lead acetate toxicity on behavioral patterns of adult female rats and learning ability of offspring. Rats were allotted into 4 groups, group one received 1g/l lead acetate (n=10), group two received 1.5g/l lead acetate (n=10), group three received 2g/l lead acetate in drinking water (n=10) and control group did not receive lead acetate (n=5) from 8th day of pregnancy till weaning of pups.

The obtained results revealed a dose dependent increase in the feeding time, drinking frequency, licking frequency, scratching frequency, licking litters, nest building and retrieving frequencies, while standing time increased significantly in rats treated with 1.5g/l lead acetate than other treated groups and control, on contrary lying time decreased gradually in a dose dependent manner. Moreover, movement activities were higher in rats treated with 1g/l lead acetate than other treated groups and control. Furthermore, time spent in closed arms was significantly lower in rats given 2g/l lead acetate than other treated groups, while, they spent significantly much time spent in open arms than other treated groups which could be attributed to occurrence of adaptation. Furthermore, number of entries in open arms was dose dependent. However, the ratio between open/closed arms revealed a significant decrease in rats treated with 2g/l lead acetate than control group.

The Effect of Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) Groats Addition to the Lard Diet on Antioxidant Parameters of Plasma and Selected Tissues in Wistar Rats

Recent studies demonstrated that high-fat diet increases oxidative stress in plasma and in a variety of tissues. Many researchers have been looking for natural products, which can reverse the effect of high fat diet. Recently, buckwheat is becoming common ingredient in functional food because of it properties. In study on buckwheat, it is known that, this plant plays roles as anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-hypertensive. Nevertheless still little is known about buckwheat groats. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of addition of buckwheat groats to the fat diet (30% lard), on some antioxidant and oxidant stress parameters in plasma and selected tissues in Wistar rats. The experiment was carried out with three months old male Wistar rats ca. 250g of body weight fed for 5 weeks with either a high-fat (30% of lard) diet or control diet, with or without addition of buckwheat groats. In plasma biochemistry and the activities of the antioxidant enzymes were measured selected tissues: glutathione peroxidase (GPX), catalase (CAT) and the levels of total and reduced glutathione (GSH), free thiol groups (pSH), antioxidant potential of plasma (FRAP) and oxidant stress indices - proteins carbonyl groups (CO) and malonyldialdehyde concentration (MDA). Activity of catalase (CAT) in plasma of rats was significantly increased in buckwheat groats groups and activity of GPx3 in plasma of rats was decreased in buckwheat groups as compared to control group. The reduced glutathione (GSH) in plasma of rats was significantly increased and protein CO was significantly decreased in buckwheat groups as compared to controls. The lowered concentration of GSH was found in serum of rats fed buckwheat groats addition but it accompanied in 7-fold increase in reduced-to-oxidized glutatione ratio, significant increase in HDL and decrease in nonHDL concentration. Conclusions: Buckwheat groats indicate a beneficial effect in inhibiting protein and lipid peroxidation in rats and improved lipid profile. These results suggest that buckwheat groats exert a significant antioxidant potential and may be used as normal food constituent to ameliorate the oxidant-induced damage in organism. 

The Effect of Carboxymethyl Cellulose on the Stability of Emulsions Stabilized by Whey Proteins under Digestion in vitro and in vivo

In vitro gastro-duodenal digestion model was used to investigate the changes of emulsions under digestion conditions. Oil in water emulsions stabilized by whey proteins (2%) and stabilized by whey proteins (2%) with addition of carboxymethyl cellulose (0.75%) as gelling agent of continuous phase were prepared at pH7. Both emulsions were destabilized under gastric conditions; however the protective role of carboxymethyl cellulose was indicated by recording delay of fat digestibility of this emulsion. In the presence of carboxymethyl cellulose whey proteins on the interfacial surface of droplets were more resistant to gastric degradation causing limited hydrolysis of fat due to the poor acceptability of lipids for the enzymes. Studies of emulsions using in vivo model supported results from in vitro studies. Lower content of triglycerides in blood serum and higher amount of fecal fat of rats were determined when rats were fed by diet containing emulsion made with whey proteins and carboxymethyl cellulose. 

Cereals' Products with Red Grape and Walnut Extracts as Functional Foods for Prevention of Kidney Dysfunction

In the present research, two nutraceuticals made from red grape and walnut that showed previously to improve kidney dysfunction were incorporated separately into functional foods' bread made from barley and rice bran. The functional foods were evaluated in rats in which chronic renal failure was induced through feeding diet rich in adenine and phosphate (APD). The evaluation based on assessing kidney function, oxidative stress, inflammatory biomarkers and body weight gain. Results showed induction of chronic kidney failure reflected in significant increase in plasma urea, creatinine, malondialdehyde, tumor necrosis factor- α and low density lipoprotein cholesterol along with significant reduction of plasma albumin, and total antioxidant and creatinine clearance and body weight gain on feeding APD compared to control healthy group. Feeding the functional foods produced amelioration in the different biochemical parameters and body weight gain indicating improvement in kidney function.

Effect of Oral Administration of “Gadagi“ Tea on Liver Function in Rats
Effect of oral administration of “Gadagi" tea on liver function was assessed on 50 healthy male albino rats which were grouped and administered with different doses(mg/kg) i.e low dose (380mg/kg, 415mg/kg, 365mg/kg, 315mg/kg for “sak", “sada" and “magani" respectively), standard dose ( 760mg/kg, 830mg/kg, 730mg/kg for “sak-, “sada" and “magani" respectively) and high dose (1500mg/kg, 1700mg/kg and 1460mg/kg for “sak--,"sada" and “magani" groups respectively) for a period of four weeks. Animals that were not administered with the tea constituted the control group. At the end of fourth week, the animals were sacrificed and their serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), and globulins (GLO) were determined. Mean serum ALT and ALP activities were significantly higher (P
Effect of Ginger and L-Carnitine on the Reproductive Performance of Male Rats
In this study, we investigated the effects of ginger and L-carnitine on the reproductive performance of male rats with respect to semen parameters, male sex hormones and the testicular antioxidant system. A total of sixty mature male albino rats were divided into four groups of fifteen rats. The control group received saline, whereas the other three groups received ginger (100 mg kg-1 d- 1.), L-carnitine (150 mg kg-1 d-1.) or a combination of both ginger (100 mg kg-1 d-1.) and L-carnitine (150 mg kg-1 d-1.) via a stomach tube daily for one month. At the end of the treatment period, the rats were sacrificed, and their sperm characteristics (count, motility and viability), antioxidant enzyme factors levels (reduced glutathione, catalase, superoxide dismutase and total antioxidant capacity) and sex hormone levels (testosterone, Follicle stimulating hormone(FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) were analysed. Our results showed that the three experimental treatments improved sperm parameters, antioxidant enzyme activity and testosterone hormone levels; the most pronounced positive effects were observed in the group that received a combination of both ginger and L-carnitine. Therefore, the administration of a combination of ginger and L-carnitine may be beneficial for improving male sexual performance.
Some Physiological Effects of Momordica charantia and Trigonella foenum-graecum Extracts in Diabetic Rats as Compared with Cidophage®
This study was conducted to evaluate the anti-diabetic properties of ethanolic extract of two plants commonly used in folk medicine, Mormodica charantia (bitter melon) and Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek). The study was performed on STZinduced diabetic rats (DM type-I). Plant extracts of these two plants were given to STZ diabetic rats at the concentration of 500 mg/kg body weight ,50 mg/kg body weight respectively. Cidophage® (metformin HCl) were administered to another group to support the results at a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight, the ethanolic extracts and Cidophage administered orally once a day for four weeks using a stomach tube and; serum samples were obtained for biochemical analysis. The extracts caused significant decreases in glucose levels compared with diabetic control rats. Insulin secretions were increased after 4 weeks of treatment with Cidophage® compared with the control non-diabetic rats. Levels of AST and ALT liver enzymes were normalized by all treatments. Decreases in liver cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL in diabetic rats were observed with all treatments. HDL levels were increased by the treatments in the following order: bitter melon, Cidophage®, and fenugreek. Creatinine levels were reduced by all treatments. Serum nitric oxide and malonaldehyde levels were reduced by all extracts. GSH levels were increased by all extracts. Extravasation as measured by the Evans Blue test increased significantly in STZ-induced diabetic animals. This effect was reversed by ethanolic extracts of bitter melon or fenugreek.
Antioxidant Responses to Different Exposure Regimes of Kazakhstan Light Crude Oil in Livers of Male Albino Rats
Biochemical investigations were carried out to assess the effect of different exposure regimes of Kazakhstan crude oil (KCO) on hepatic antioxidant defense system in albino rats. Contaminants were delivered under two different dosing regimes, with all treatments receiving the same total contaminant load by the end of the exposure period. Rats in regime A injected with KCO once at a dose of 6 ml/kg bw while in regime B injected multiply at a dose of 1.5 ml/kg bw on day 1, 3, 5 and 8. Antioxidant biomarkers were measured in hepatic tissue after 1, 3, 5 and 8 days. Significant induction was observed in serum aminotransferases (ALT, AST) (p
Possible Protective Effect of Kombucha Tea Ferment on Cadmium Chloride Induced Liver and Kidney Damage in Irradiated Rats
Kombucha Tea Ferment (KT), was given to male albino rats, (1ml/Kg of body weight), via gavages, during 2 weeks before intraperitoneal administration of 3.5 mg/Kg body weight CdCl2 and/or whole body γ-irradiation with 4Gy, and during 4 weeks after each treatment. Hepatic and nephritic pathological changes included significant increases of serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities, and creatinine and urea contents with significant decrease in serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Increase in oxidative stress markers in liver and kidney tissues expressed by significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) contents associated to significant depletion in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities, and reduced glutathione (GSH) content were recorded. KT administration results in recovery of all the pathological changes. It could be concluded that KT might protect liver and kidney from oxidative damage induced by exposure to cadmium and/ or γ-irradiation.
Investigation of Anti-diabetic and Hypocholesterolemic Potential of Psyllium Husk Fiber (Plantago psyllium) in Diabetic and Hypercholesterolemic Albino Rats
The present study was conducted to observe the effect of Plantago psyllium on blood glucose and cholesterol levels in normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. To investigate the effect of Plantago psyllium 40 rats were included in this study divided into four groups of ten rats in each group. One group A was normal, second group B was diabetic, third group C was non diabetic and hypercholesterolemic and fourth group D was diabetic and hypercholesterolemic. Two groups B and D were made diabetic by intraperitonial injection of alloxan dissolved in 1mL distilled water at a dose of 125mg/Kg of body weight. Two groups C and D were made hypercholesterolemic by oral administration of powder cholesterol (1g/Kg of body weight). The blood samples from all the rats were collected from coccygial vein on 1st day, then on 21st and 42nd day respectively. All the samples were analyzed for blood glucose and cholesterol level by using enzymatic kits. The blood glucose and cholesterol levels of treated groups of rats showed significant reduction after 7 weeks of treatment with Plantago psyllium. By statistical analysis of results it was found that Plantago psyllium has anti-diabetic and hypocholesterolemic activity in diabetic and hypercholesterolemic albino rats.
Efficient Large Numbers Karatsuba-Ofman Multiplier Designs for Embedded Systems
Long number multiplications (n ≥ 128-bit) are a primitive in most cryptosystems. They can be performed better by using Karatsuba-Ofman technique. This algorithm is easy to parallelize on workstation network and on distributed memory, and it-s known as the practical method of choice. Multiplying long numbers using Karatsuba-Ofman algorithm is fast but is highly recursive. In this paper, we propose different designs of implementing Karatsuba-Ofman multiplier. A mixture of sequential and combinational system design techniques involving pipelining is applied to our proposed designs. Multiplying large numbers can be adapted flexibly to time, area and power criteria. Computationally and occupation constrained in embedded systems such as: smart cards, mobile phones..., multiplication of finite field elements can be achieved more efficiently. The proposed designs are compared to other existing techniques. Mathematical models (Area (n), Delay (n)) of our proposed designs are also elaborated and evaluated on different FPGAs devices.
Long-Term Study for the Effect of Ovariectomy on Rat Bone - Use of In-Vivo Micro-CT -
In the present study, changes of morphology and mechanical characteristics in the lumbar vertebrae of the ovariectomised (OVX) rat were investigated. In previous researches, there were many studies about morphology like volume fraction and trabecular thickness based on Micro - Computed Tomography (Micro - CT). However, detecting and tracking long-term changes in the trabecular bone of the lumbar vertebrae for the OVX rat were few. For this study, one female Sprague-Dawley rat was used: an OVX rat. The 4th Lumbar of the OVX rat was subjected to in-vivo micro-CT. Detecting and tracking long-term changes could be investigated in the trabecular bone of the lumbar vertebrae for an OVX rat using in-vivo micro-CT. An OVX rat was scanned at week 0 (just before surgery), at week 4, at week 8, week 16, week 22 and week 56 after surgery. Finite element (FE) analysis was used to investigate mechanical characteristics of the lumbar vertebrae for an OVX rat. When the OVX rat (at week 56) was compared with the OVX rat (at week 0), volume fraction was decreased by 80% and effective modulus was decreased by 75%.
Vol:12 No:11 2018Vol:12 No:10 2018Vol:12 No:09 2018Vol:12 No:08 2018Vol:12 No:07 2018Vol:12 No:06 2018Vol:12 No:05 2018Vol:12 No:04 2018Vol:12 No:03 2018Vol:12 No:02 2018Vol:12 No:01 2018
Vol:11 No:12 2017Vol:11 No:11 2017Vol:11 No:10 2017Vol:11 No:09 2017Vol:11 No:08 2017Vol:11 No:07 2017Vol:11 No:06 2017Vol:11 No:05 2017Vol:11 No:04 2017Vol:11 No:03 2017Vol:11 No:02 2017Vol:11 No:01 2017
Vol:10 No:12 2016Vol:10 No:11 2016Vol:10 No:10 2016Vol:10 No:09 2016Vol:10 No:08 2016Vol:10 No:07 2016Vol:10 No:06 2016Vol:10 No:05 2016Vol:10 No:04 2016Vol:10 No:03 2016Vol:10 No:02 2016Vol:10 No:01 2016
Vol:9 No:12 2015Vol:9 No:11 2015Vol:9 No:10 2015Vol:9 No:09 2015Vol:9 No:08 2015Vol:9 No:07 2015Vol:9 No:06 2015Vol:9 No:05 2015Vol:9 No:04 2015Vol:9 No:03 2015Vol:9 No:02 2015Vol:9 No:01 2015
Vol:8 No:12 2014Vol:8 No:11 2014Vol:8 No:10 2014Vol:8 No:09 2014Vol:8 No:08 2014Vol:8 No:07 2014Vol:8 No:06 2014Vol:8 No:05 2014Vol:8 No:04 2014Vol:8 No:03 2014Vol:8 No:02 2014Vol:8 No:01 2014
Vol:7 No:12 2013Vol:7 No:11 2013Vol:7 No:10 2013Vol:7 No:09 2013Vol:7 No:08 2013Vol:7 No:07 2013Vol:7 No:06 2013Vol:7 No:05 2013Vol:7 No:04 2013Vol:7 No:03 2013Vol:7 No:02 2013Vol:7 No:01 2013
Vol:6 No:12 2012Vol:6 No:11 2012Vol:6 No:10 2012Vol:6 No:09 2012Vol:6 No:08 2012Vol:6 No:07 2012Vol:6 No:06 2012Vol:6 No:05 2012Vol:6 No:04 2012Vol:6 No:03 2012Vol:6 No:02 2012Vol:6 No:01 2012
Vol:5 No:12 2011Vol:5 No:11 2011Vol:5 No:10 2011Vol:5 No:09 2011Vol:5 No:08 2011Vol:5 No:07 2011Vol:5 No:06 2011Vol:5 No:05 2011Vol:5 No:04 2011Vol:5 No:03 2011Vol:5 No:02 2011Vol:5 No:01 2011
Vol:4 No:12 2010Vol:4 No:11 2010Vol:4 No:10 2010Vol:4 No:09 2010Vol:4 No:08 2010Vol:4 No:07 2010Vol:4 No:06 2010Vol:4 No:05 2010Vol:4 No:04 2010Vol:4 No:03 2010Vol:4 No:02 2010Vol:4 No:01 2010
Vol:3 No:12 2009Vol:3 No:11 2009Vol:3 No:10 2009Vol:3 No:09 2009Vol:3 No:08 2009Vol:3 No:07 2009Vol:3 No:06 2009Vol:3 No:05 2009Vol:3 No:04 2009Vol:3 No:03 2009Vol:3 No:02 2009Vol:3 No:01 2009
Vol:2 No:12 2008Vol:2 No:11 2008Vol:2 No:10 2008Vol:2 No:09 2008Vol:2 No:08 2008Vol:2 No:07 2008Vol:2 No:06 2008Vol:2 No:05 2008Vol:2 No:04 2008Vol:2 No:03 2008Vol:2 No:02 2008Vol:2 No:01 2008
Vol:1 No:12 2007Vol:1 No:11 2007Vol:1 No:10 2007Vol:1 No:09 2007Vol:1 No:08 2007Vol:1 No:07 2007Vol:1 No:06 2007Vol:1 No:05 2007Vol:1 No:04 2007Vol:1 No:03 2007Vol:1 No:02 2007Vol:1 No:01 2007