Synthesis and Application of an Organic Dye in Nanostructure Solar Cells Device
Two organic dyes comprising carbazole as the electron donors and cyanoacetic acid moieties as the electron acceptors were synthesized. The organic dye was prepared by standard reaction from carbazole as the starting material. To this end, carbazole was reacted with bromobenzene and further oxidation and reacted with cyanoacetic acid. The obtained organic dye was purified and characterized using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1HNMR), carbon nuclear magnetic resonance (13CNMR) and elemental analysis. The influence of heteroatom on carbazole donors and cyno substitution on the acid acceptor is evidenced by spectral and electrochemical photovoltaic experiments. Finally, light fastness properties for organic dye were investigated.
Investigation of Green Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Based on Natural Dyes
Natural dyes, extracted from black carrot and bramble, were utilized as photosensitizers to prepare dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Spectrophotometric studies of the natural dyes in solution and on a titanium dioxide substrate were carried out in order to assess changes in the status of the dyes. The results show that the bathochromic shift is seen on the photo-electrode substrate. The chemical binding of the natural dyes at the surface photo-electrode were increased by the chelating effect of the Ti(IV) ions. The cyclic voltammetry results showed that all extracts are suitable to be performed in DSSCs. Finally, photochemical performance and stability of DSSCs based on natural dyes were studied. The DSSCs sensitized by black carrot extract have been reported to achieve up to Jsc=1.17 mAcm-2, Voc= 0.55 V, FF= 0.52, η=0.34%, whereas Bramble extract can obtain up to Jsc=2.24 mAcm-2, Voc= 0.54 V, FF= 0.57, η=0.71%. The power conversion efficiency was obtained from the mixed dyes in DSSCs. The power conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells using mixed Black carrot and Bramble dye is the average of the their efficiency in single DSSCs.
High Efficiency Perovskite Solar Cells Fabricated under Ambient Conditions with Mesoporous TiO2/In2O3 Scaffold
Mesoscopic perovskite solar cells (mp-PSCs) with mesoporous bilayer were fabricated under ambient conditions. The bilayer was formed by capping the mesoporous TiO2 layer with a layer of In2O3. CH3NH3I3-xClx mixed halide perovskite was prepared through the one-step method and was used as the light absorber. The mp-PSCs with the composite TiO2/In2O3 mesoporous layer exhibited optimized electrical parameters, compared with the PSCs that employed only a TiO2 mesoporous layer, with a current density of 23.86 mA/cm2, open circuit voltage of 0.863 V, fill factor of 0.6 and a power conversion efficiency of 11.2%. These results indicate that the formation of a proper semiconductor capping layer over the basic TiO2 mesoporous layer can facilitate the electron transfer, suppress the recombination and subsequently lead to higher charge collection efficiency.
Synthesis and Evaluation of Photovoltaic Properties of an Organic Dye for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells
In the present study, metal free organic dyes were prepared and used as photo-sensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells. Double rhodanine was utilized as the fundamental electron acceptor group to which electron donor aldehyde with varying substituents was attached to produce new organic dye. This dye was first purified and then characterized by analytical techniques. Spectrophotometric evaluations of the prepared dye in solution and on a nano anatase TiO2 substrate were carried out in order to assess possible changes in the status of the dyes in different environments. The results show that the dye form j-type aggregates on the nano TiO2. Additionally, oxidation potential measurements were also carried out. Finally, dye sensitized solar cell based on synthesized dye was fabricated in order to determine the photovoltaic behavior and conversion efficiency of individual dye.
Morphology Study of Inverted Planar Heterojunction Perovskite Solar Cells in Sequential Deposition
In this study, a sequential deposition process is used for the fabrication of PEDOT: PSS based inverted planar perovskite solar cell. A small amount of additive deionized water (DI-H2O) was added into PbI2 + Dimethyl formamide (DMF) precursor solution in order to increase the solubility of PbI2 in DMF, and finally to manipulate the surface morphology of the perovskite films. A morphology transition from needle like structure to hexagonal plates, and then needle-like again has been observed as the DI-H2O was added continuously (0.0 wt% to 3.0wt%). The latter one leads to full surface coverage of the perovskite, which is essential for high performance solar cell.
Extracts of Cola acuminata, Lupinus arboreus and Bougainvillea spectabilis as Natural Photosensitizers for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells
Organic dyes from Cola acuminata (C. acuminata), Lupinus arboreus (L. arboreus) and Bougainvillea spectabilis (B. spectabilis) leaves and their mixtures were used as sensitizers to manufacture dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). Photoelectric measurements of C. acuminata showed a short circuit current (Jsc) of 0.027 mA/ cm2, 0.026 mA/ cm2 and 0.018 mA/ cm2 with a mixture of mercury chloride and iodine (Hgcl2 + I); potassium bromide and iodine (KBr + I); and potassium chloride and iodine (KCl + I) respectively. The open circuit voltage (Voc) was 24 mV, 25 mV and 20 mV for the three dyes respectively. L. arboreus had Jsc of 0.034 mA/ cm2, 0.021 mA/ cm2 and 0.013 mA/ cm2; and corresponding Voc of 28 mV, 14.2 mV and 15 mV for the three electrolytes respectively. B. spectabilis recorded Jsc 0.023 mA/ cm2, 0.026 mA/ cm2 and 0.015 mA/ cm2; and corresponding Voc values of 6.2 mV, 14.3 mV and 4.0 mV for the three electrolytes respectively. It was observed that the fill factor (FF) was 0.140 for C. acuminata, 0.3198 for L. arboreus and 0.1138 for B. spectabilis. Internal conversions of 0.096%, 0.056% and 0.063% were recorded for three dyes when combined with (KBr + I) electrolyte. The internal efficiency of C. acuminata DSSC was highest in value.
An Approach on the Design of a Solar Cell Characterization Device
This paper presents the development of a compact, portable and easy to handle solar cell characterization device. The presented device reduces the effort and cost of single solar cell characterization to a minimum. It enables realistic characterization of cells under sunlight within minutes. In the field of photovoltaic research the common way to characterize a single solar cell or a module is, to measure the current voltage curve. With this characteristic the performance and the degradation rate can be defined which are important for the consumer or developer. The paper consists of the system design description, a summary of the measurement results and an outline for further developments.
A Compilation of Nanotechnology in Thin Film Solar Cell Devices
Nanotechnology has become the world attention in
various applications including the solar cells devices due to the
uniqueness and benefits of achieving low cost and better
performances of devices. Recently, thin film solar cells such as
Cadmium Telluride (CdTe), Copper-Indium-Gallium-diSelenide
(CIGS), Copper-Zinc-Tin-Sulphide (CZTS), and Dye-Sensitized
Solar Cells (DSSC) enhanced by nanotechnology have attracted
much attention. Thus, a compilation of nanotechnology devices
giving the progress in the solar cells has been presented. It is much
related to nanoparticles or nanocrystallines, carbon nanotubes, and
nanowires or nanorods structures.
Comparison of Transparent Nickel Doped Cobalt Sulfide and Platinum Counter Electrodes Used in Quasi-Solid State Dye Sensitized Solar Cells
Transparent nickel doped cobalt sulfide was fabricated
on a SnO2:F electrode and tested as an efficient electrocatalyst and as
an alternative to the expensive platinum counter electrode. In order to
investigate how this electrode could affect the electrical
characteristics of a dye-sensitized solar cell, we manufactured cells
with the same TiO2 photoanode sensitized with dye (N719) and
employing the same quasi-solid electrolyte, altering only the counter
electrode used. The cells were electrically and electrochemically
characterized and it was observed that the ones with the Ni doped
CoS2 outperformed the efficiency of the cells with the Pt counter
electrode (3.76% and 3.44% respectively). Particularly, the higher
efficiency of the cells with the Ni doped CoS2 counter electrode (CE)
is mainly because of the enhanced photocurrent density which is
attributed to the enhanced electrocatalytic ability of the CE and the
low charge transfer resistance at the CE/electrolyte interface.
The Effect of Global Solar Variations on the Performance of n-AlGaAs/p-GaAs Solar Cells
This study investigates how AlGaAs/GaAs thin film
solar cells perform under varying global solar spectrum due to the
changes of environmental parameters such as the air mass and the
atmospheric turbidity. The solar irradiance striking the solar cell is
simulated using the spectral irradiance model SMARTS2 (Simple
Model of the Atmospheric Radiative Transfer of Sunshine) for clear
skies on the site of Setif (Algeria). The results show a reduction in the
short circuit current due to increasing atmospheric turbidity, it is
63.09% under global radiation. However increasing air mass leads to
a reduction in the short circuit current of 81.73%. The efficiency
decreases with increasing atmospheric turbidity and air mass.
Effect of Chlorophyll Concentration Variations from Extract of Papaya Leaves on Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell
In this paper, extract of papaya leaves are used as a
natural dye and combined by variations of solvent concentration
applied on DSSC (Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell). Indonesian geographic
located on the equator line occasions the magnitude of the potential
to develop organic solar cells made from extracts of chlorophyll as a
substitute for inorganic materials or synthetic dye on DSSC material.
Dye serves as absorbing photons which are then converted into
electrical energy. A conductive coated glass layer called TCO
(Transparent Conductive Oxide) is used as a substrate of electrode.
TiO2 nanoparticles as binding dye molecules, redox couple iodide/
tri-iodide as the electrolyte and carbon as the counter electrode in the
DSSC are used. TiO2 nanoparticles, organic dyes, electrolytes, and
counter electrode are arranged and combined with the layered
structure of the photo-catalyst absorption layer. Dye absorption
measurements using a spectrophotometer at 400-800 nm light
spectrum produces a total amount of chlorophyll 80.076 mg/l. The
test cell at 7 watt LED light with 5000 lux luminescence was
obtained Voc and Isc of 235.5 mV and 14 μA, respectively.
Interfacial Layer Effect on Novel p-Ni1-xO:Li/n-Si Heterojunction Solar Cells
This study fabricates p-type Ni1−xO:Li/n-Si heterojunction solar cells (P+/n HJSCs) by using radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering and investigates the effect of substrate temperature on photovoltaic cell properties. Grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, four point probe, and ultraviolet-visible-near infrared discover the optoelectrical properties of p-Ni1-xO thin films. The results show that p-Ni1-xO thin films deposited at 300 oC has the highest grain size (22.4 nm), average visible transmittance (~42%), and electrical resistivity (2.7 Ωcm). However, the conversion efficiency of cell is shown only 2.33% which is lower than the cell (3.39%) fabricated at room temperature. This result can be mainly attributed to interfacial layer thickness (SiOx) reduces from 2.35 nm to 1.70 nm, as verified by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy.
A Three-Dimensional TLM Simulation Method for Thermal Effect in PV-Solar Cells
Temperature rising is a negative factor in almost all systems. It could cause by self heating or ambient temperature. In solar photovoltaic cells this temperature rising affects on the behavior of cells. The ability of a PV module to withstand the effects of periodic hot-spot heating that occurs when cells are operated under reverse biased conditions is closely related to the properties of the cell semi-conductor material.
In addition, the thermal effect also influences the estimation of the maximum power point (MPP) and electrical parameters for the PV modules, such as maximum output power, maximum conversion efficiency, internal efficiency, reliability, and lifetime. The cells junction temperature is a critical parameter that significantly affects the electrical characteristics of PV modules. For practical applications of PV modules, it is very important to accurately estimate the junction temperature of PV modules and analyze the thermal characteristics of the PV modules. Once the temperature variation is taken into account, we can then acquire a more accurate MPP for the PV modules, and the maximum utilization efficiency of the PV modules can also be further achieved.
In this paper, the three-Dimensional Transmission Line Matrix (3D-TLM) method was used to map the surface temperature distribution of solar cells while in the reverse bias mode. It was observed that some cells exhibited an inhomogeneity of the surface temperature resulting in localized heating (hot-spot). This hot-spot heating causes irreversible destruction of the solar cell structure. Hot spots can have a deleterious impact on the total solar modules if individual solar cells are heated. So, the results show clearly that the solar cells are capable of self-generating considerable amounts of heat that should be dissipated very quickly to increase PV module's lifetime.
Electrical Properties of Roystonea regia Fruit Extract as Dye Sensitized Solar Cells
Utilizing solar energy in producing electricity can minimize environmental pollution generated by fossil fuel in producing electricity. Our research was base on the extraction of dye from Roystonea regia fruit by using methanol as solvent. The dye extracts were used as sensitizers in Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSCs). Study was done on the electrical properties from the extracts of Roystonea regia fruit as Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSCs). The absorptions of the extracts and extracts with dye were determined at different wavelengths (350-1000nm). Absorption peak was observed at 1.339 at wavelength 400nm. The obtained values for methanol extract Roystonea regia extract are, Imp = 0.015mA, Vmp = 12.0mV, fill factor = 0.763, Isc= 0.018 mA and Voc = 13.1 mV and efficiency of 0.32%. .The phytochemical screening was taken and it was observed that Roystonea regia extract contained less of anthocyanin compared to flavonoids. The nanostructured dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) will provide economically credible alternative to present day silicon p–n junction photovoltaic.
Enhancing Power Conversion Efficiency of P3HT/PCBM Polymer Solar Cells
In this research, n-dodecylthiol was added to P3HT/ PC70BM polymer solar cells to improve the crystallinity of P3HT and enhance the phase separation of P3HT/PC70BM. The improved crystallinity of P3HT:PC70BM doped with 0-5% by volume of n-dodecylthiol resulted in improving the power conversion efficiency of polymer solar cells by 33%. In addition, thermal annealing of the P3HT/PC70MB/n-dodecylthiolcompound showed further improvement in crystallinity with n-dodecylthiol concentration up to 2%. The highest power conversion efficiency of 3.21% was achieved with polymer crystallites size L of 11.2nm, after annealing at 150°C for 30 minutes under a vacuum atmosphere. The smaller crystallite size suggests a shorter path of the charge carriers between P3HT backbones, which could be beneficial to getting a higher short circuit current in the devices made with the additive.
The Evaluation of Electricity Generation and Consumption from Solar Generator: A Case Study at Rajabhat Suan Sunandha’s Learning Center in Samutsongkram
This paper presents the performance of electricity
generation and consumption from solar generator installed at
Rajabhat Suan Sunandha’s learning center in Samutsongkram.
The result from the experiment showed that solar cell began to
work and distribute the current into the system when the solar energy
intensity was 340 w/m2, starting from 8:00 am to 4:00 pm (duration
of 8 hours). The highest intensity read during the experiment was
1,051.64w/m2. The solar power was 38.74kWh/day. The
electromotive force from solar cell averagely was 93.6V. However,
when connecting solar cell with the battery charge controller system,
the voltage was dropped to 69.07V. After evaluating the power
distribution ability and electricity load of tested solar cell, the result
showed that it could generate power to 11 units of 36-watt
fluorescent lamp bulbs, which was altogether 396W. In the
meantime, the AC to DC power converter generated 3.55A to the
load, and gave 781VA.
Solar Cell Degradation by Electron Irradiation Effect of Irradiation Fluence
Solar cells used in orbit are exposed to radiation environment mainly protons and high energy electrons. These particles degrade the output parameters of the solar cell. The aim of this work is to characterize the effects of electron irradiation fluence on the J (V) characteristic and output parameters of GaAs solar cell by numerical simulation. The results obtained demonstrate that the electron irradiation-induced degradation of performances of the cells concerns mainly the short circuit current
The Best Efficiency Point of the Performance of Solar Cell Panel System for Pumping Water at Various Lifting Heads Using 100 W Motor- Pump Unit
This study was carried out experimentally and analytically about the performance of solar cell panel system for operating the pump coupled by dc-motor. The solar cell panel with total area 1.9848 m2 consists of three modules of 80 Wp each. The small centrifugal pump powered by dc-motor is operated to lift water from 1m to 7m heads in sequence and gives the amount of water pumped over the whole day from 08.00 to 16.00 h are 11988, 10851, 8874, 7695, 5760, 3600, 2340 L/d respectively. The hourly global solar radiation during the day is an average of 506 W/m2. This study also presents the I-V characteristics of the panel at global radiations 200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 W/m2 matched with the operation of the pump at the above lifting heads. It proves that the only solar radiations 800 and 1000 W/m2 could provide lifting head from 1m to 7m. The analysis shows the best efficiency point of the performance of solar cell panel system occurs at the pumping head 2.89 m.
Parameters Estimation of Double Diode Solar Cell Model
A new technique based on Pattern search optimization is proposed for estimating different solar cell parameters in this paper. The estimated parameters are the generated photocurrent, saturation current, series resistance, shunt resistance, and ideality factor. The proposed approach is tested and validated using double diode model to show its potential. Performance of the developed approach is quite interesting which signifies its potential as a promising estimation tool.
A Comparative Study of PV Models in Matlab/Simulink
Solar energy has a major role in renewable energy
resources. Solar Cell as a basement of solar system has attracted lots
of research. To conduct a study about solar energy system, an
authenticated model is required. Diode base PV models are widely
used by researchers. These models are classified based on the number
of diodes used in them. Single and two-diode models are well
studied. Single-diode models may have two, three or four elements.
In this study, these solar cell models are examined and the simulation
results are compared to each other. All PV models are re-designed in
the Matlab/Simulink software and they examined by certain test
conditions and parameters. This paper provides comparative studies
of these models and it tries to compare the simulation results with
manufacturer-s data sheet to investigate model validity and accuracy.
The results show a four- element single-diode model is accurate and
has moderate complexity in contrast to the two-diode model with
higher complexity and accuracy
Optical and Structural Properties of a ZnS Buffer Layer Fabricated with Deposition Temperature of RF Magnetron Sputtering System
Optical properties of sputter-deposited ZnS thin films
were investigated as potential replacements for CBD(chemical bath
deposition) CdS buffer layers in the application of CIGS solar cells.
ZnS thin films were fabricated on glass substrates at RT, 150oC, 200oC,
and 250oC with 50 sccm Ar gas using an RF magnetron sputtering
system. The crystal structure of the thin film is found to be zinc blende
(cubic) structure. Lattice parameter of ZnS is slightly larger than CdS
on the plane and thus better matched with that of CIGS. Within a
400-800 nm wavelength region, the average transmittance was larger
than 75%. When the deposition temperature of the thin film was
increased, the blue shift phenomenon was enhanced. Band gap energy
of the ZnS thin film tended to increase as the deposition temperature
increased. ZnS thin film is a promising material system for the CIGS
buffer layer, in terms of ease of processing, low cost, environmental
friendliness, higher transparency, and electrical properties
Efficiency Improvements of GaAs-based Solar Cells by Hydrothermally-deposited ZnO Nanostructure Array
ZnO nanostructures including nanowires, nanorods,
and nanoneedles were successfully deposited on GaAs substrates,
respectively, by simple two-step chemical method for the first time. A
ZnO seed layer was firstly pre-coated on the O2-plasma treated
substrate by sol-gel process, followed by the nucleation of ZnO
nanostructures through hydrothermal synthesis. Nanostructures with
different average diameter (15-250 nm), length (0.9-1.8 μm), density
(0.9-16×109 cm-2) were obtained via adjusting the growth time and
concentration of precursors. From the reflectivity spectra, we
concluded ordered and taper nanostructures were preferential for
photovoltaic applications. ZnO nanoneedles with an average diameter
of 106 nm, a moderate length of 2.4 μm, and the density of 7.2×109
cm-2 could be synthesized in the concentration of 0.04 M for 18 h.
Integrated with the nanoneedle array, the power conversion efficiency
of single junction solar cell was increased from 7.3 to 12.2%,
corresponding to a 67% improvement.
Theoretical Investigation of Carbazole-Based
D-D-π-A Organic Dyes for Efficient
Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell
In this paper, four carbazole-based D-D-π-A organic
dyes code as CCT2A, CCT3A, CCT1PA and CCT2PA were reported.
A series of these organic dyes containing identical donor and
acceptor group but different π-system. The effect of replacing of
thiophene by phenyl thiophene as π-system on the physical
properties has been focused. The structural, energetic properties and
absorption spectra were theoretically investigated by means of
Density Functional Theory (DFT) and Time-Dependent Density
Functional Theory (TD-DFT). The results show that nonplanar
conformation due to steric hindrance in donor part (cabazolecarbazole
unit) of dye molecule can prevent unfavorable dye
aggregation. By means of the TD-DFT method, the absorption
spectra were calculated by B3LYP and BHandHLYP to study the
affect of hybrid functional on the excitation energy (Eg). The results
revealed the increasing of thiophene units not only resulted in
decreasing of Eg, but also found the shifting of absorption spectra to
higher wavelength. TD-DFT/BHandHLYP calculated results are
more strongly agreed with the experimental data than B3LYP
functions. Furthermore, the adsorptions of CCT2A and CCT3A on the
TiO2 anatase (101) surface were carried out by mean of the chemical
periodic calculation. The result exhibit the strong adsorption energy.
The calculated results provide our new organic dyes can be
effectively used as dye for Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSC).
An Empirical Validation of the Linear- Hyperbolic Approximation of the I-V Characteristic of a Solar Cell Generator
An empirical linearly-hyperbolic approximation of the I - V characteristic of a solar cell is presented. This approximation is based on hyperbolic dependence of a current of p-n junctions on voltage for large currents. Such empirical approximation is compared with the early proposed formal linearly-hyperbolic approximation of a solar cell. The expressions defining laws of change of parameters of formal approximation at change of a photo current of family of characteristics are received. It allows simplifying a finding of parameters of approximation on actual curves, to specify their values. Analytical calculation of load regime for linearly - hyperbolic model leads to quadratic equation. Also, this model allows to define soundly a deviation from the maximum power regime and to compare efficiency of regimes of solar cells with different parameters.
The Effect of a Graded Band Gap Window on the Performance of a Single Junction AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs Solar Cell
We have modeled the effect of a graded band gap
window on the performance of a single junction AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs
solar cell. First, we study the electrical characteristics of a single
junction AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs solar cell, by employing an optimized
structure for this solar cell, we show that grading the band gap of the
window can increase the conversion efficiency of the solar cell by
about 1.5%, and can also improve the quantum efficiency of the solar
cell especially at shorter wavelengths.
Temperature Effect on the Organic Solar Cells Parameters
In this work, the influence of temperature on the
different parameters of solar cells based on organic semiconductors
are studied. The short circuit current Isc increases so monotonous
with temperature and then saturates to a maximum value before
decreasing at high temperatures. The open circuit voltage Vco
decreases linearly with temperature. The fill factor FF and efficiency,
which are directly related with Isc and Vco follow the variations of
the letters. The phenomena are explained by the behaviour of the
mobility which is a temperature activated process.
A Convenient Model for I-V Characteristic of a Solar Cell Generator as an Active Two-Pole with Self-Limitation of Current
A convenient and physically sound mathematical model of the external or I - V characteristic of solar cells generators is presented in this paper. This model is compared with the traditional model of p-n junction. The direct analytical calculation of load regime leads to a quadratic equation, which is importantly to simplify the calculations in the real time.