Warm Mix and Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement: A Greener Road Approach
Utilization of a high percentage of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) requires higher production temperatures and consumes more energy. High production temperature expedites the aging of bitumen in RAP, which could affect the mixture performance. Warm mix asphalt (WMA) additive enables reduced production temperatures as a result of viscosity reduction. This paper evaluates the integration of a high percentage of RAP with a WMA additive known as RH-WMA. The optimum dosage of RH-WMA was determined from basic properties tests. A total of 0%, 30% and 50% RAP contents from two roads sources were modified with RH-WMA. The modified RAP bitumen were examined for viscosity, stiffness, rutting resistance and greenhouse gas emissions. The addition of RH-WMA improved the flow of bitumen by reducing the viscosity, and thus, decreased the construction temperature. The stiffness of the RAP modified bitumen reduced with the incorporation of RH-WMA. The positive improvement in rutting resistance was observed on bitumen with the addition of RAP and RH-WMA in comparison with control. It was estimated that the addition of RH-WMA could potentially reduce fuel usage and GHG emissions by 22 %. Hence, the synergy of RAP and WMA technology can be an alternative in green road construction.
Calibrations and Effect of Different Operating Conditions on the Performance of a Fluid Power Control System with Servo Solenoid Valve
The current investigation presents a study on the hydraulic performance of an electro-hydraulic servo solenoid valve controlled linear piston used in hydraulic systems. Advanced methods have been used to measure and record laboratory experiments, to ensure accurate analysis and evaluation. Experiments have been conducted under different values of temperature (28, 40 and 50 °C), supply pressure (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 bar), system stiffness (32 N/mm), and load (0.0 & 5560 N). It is concluded that increasing temperature of hydraulic oil increases the quantity of flow rate, so it achieves an increase of the quantity of flow by 5.75 % up to 48.8 % depending on operating conditions. The values of pressure decay at low temperature are less than the values at high temperature. The frequency increases with the increase of the temperature. When we connect the springs to the system, it decreases system frequency. These results are very useful in the process of packing and manufacturing of fluid products, where the properties are not affected by 50 °C, so energy and time are saved.
Temperature Susceptibility of Multigrade Bitumen Asphalt and an Approach to Account for Temperature Variation through Deep Pavements
Multigrade bitumen asphalt is a quality asphalt product that is not utilised in many places globally. Multigrade bitumen is believed to be less sensitive to temperature, which gives it an advantage over conventional binders. Previous testing has shown that asphalt temperature changes greatly with depth, but currently the industry standard is to nominate a single temperature for design. For detailed design of asphalt roads, perhaps asphalt layers should be divided into nominal layer depths and different modulus and fatigue equations/values should be used to reflect the temperatures of each respective layer. A collaboration of previous laboratory testing conducted on multigrade bitumen asphalt beams under a range of temperatures and loading conditions was analysed. The samples tested included 0% or 15% recycled asphalt pavement (RAP) to determine what impact the recycled material has on the fatigue life and stiffness of the pavement. This paper investigated the temperature susceptibility of multigrade bitumen asphalt pavements compared to conventional binders by combining previous testing that included conducting a sweep of fatigue tests, developing complex modulus master curves for each mix and a study on how pavement temperature changes through pavement depth. This investigation found that the final design of the pavement is greatly affected by the nominated pavement temperature and respective material properties. This paper has outlined a potential revision to the current design approach for asphalt pavements and proposes that further investigation is needed into pavement temperature and its incorporation into design.
Mechanical Properties of Ordinary Portland Cement Modified Cold Bitumen Emulsion Mixture
Cold bitumen emulsion mixture (CBEM) offers a series benefits as compared with hot mix asphalt (HMA); these include environmental factors, energy saving, the resolution of logistical challenges that can characterise hot mix, and the potential to reserve funds. However, this mixture has some problems similar to any bituminous mixtures as it has low early strength, long curing time that needed to obtain the maximum performance, high air voids and considered inferior to HMA. Thus, CBEM has been used in limited applications such as lightly trafficked roads, footways and reinstatements. This laboratory study describes the development of CBEM using ordinary Portland cement (OPC) instead of the traditional mineral filler. Stiffness modulus, moisture damage and temperature sensitivity tests were used to evaluate the mechanical properties of the produced mixtures. The study concluded that there is a substantial improvement in the mechanical properties and moisture damage resistance of CBEMs containing OPC. Also, the produced cement modified CBEM shows a considerable lower thermal sensitivity than the conventional CBEM.
Determining G-γ Degradation Curve in Cohesive Soils by Dilatometer and in situ Seismic Tests
This article discusses the possibility of using dilatometer tests (DMT) together with in situ seismic tests (MASW) in order to get the shape of G-g degradation curve in cohesive soils (clay, silty clay, silt, clayey silt and sandy silt). MASW test provides the small soil stiffness (Go from vs) at very small strains and DMT provides the stiffness of the soil at ‘work strains’ (MDMT). At different test locations, dilatometer shear stiffness of the soil has been determined by the theory of elasticity. Dilatometer shear stiffness has been compared with the theoretical G-g degradation curve in order to determine the typical range of shear deformation for different types of cohesive soil. The analysis also includes factors that influence the shape of the degradation curve (G-g) and dilatometer modulus (MDMT), such as the overconsolidation ratio (OCR), plasticity index (IP) and the vertical effective stress in the soil (svo'). Parametric study in this article defines the range of shear strain gDMT and GDMT/Go relation depending on the classification of a cohesive soil (clay, silty clay, clayey silt, silt and sandy silt), function of density (loose, medium dense and dense) and the stiffness of the soil (soft, medium hard and hard). The article illustrates the potential of using MASW and DMT to obtain G-g degradation curve in cohesive soils.
Layout Design Optimization of Spars under Multiple Load Cases of the High-Aspect-Ratio Wing
The spar layout will affect the wing’s stiffness characteristics, and irrational spar arrangement will reduce the overall bending and twisting resistance capacity of the wing. In this paper, the active structural stiffness design theory is used to match the stiffness-center axis position and load-cases under the corresponding multiple flight conditions, in order to achieve better stiffness properties of the wing. The combination of active stiffness method and principle of stiffness distribution is proved to be reasonable supplying an initial reference for wing designing. The optimized layout of spars is eventually obtained, and the high-aspect-ratio wing will have better stiffness characteristics.
The Small Strain Effects to the Shear Strength and Maximum Stiffness of Post-Cyclic Degradation of Hemic Peat Soil
The laboratory tests for measuring the effects of small strain to the shear strength and maximum stiffness development of post-cyclic degradation of hemic peat are reviewed in this paper. A series of laboratory testing has been conducted to fulfil the objective of this research to study the post-cyclic behaviour of peat soil and focuses on the small strain characteristics. For this purpose, a number of strain-controlled static, cyclic and post-cyclic triaxial tests were carried out in undrained condition on hemic peat soil. The shear strength and maximum stiffness of hemic peat are evaluated immediately after post-cyclic monotonic testing. There are two soil samples taken from West Johor and East Malaysia peat soil. Based on these laboratories and field testing data, it was found that the shear strength and maximum stiffness of peat soil decreased in post-cyclic monotonic loading than its initial shear strength and stiffness. In particular, degradation in shear strength and stiffness is more sensitive for peat soil due to fragile and uniform fibre structures. Shear strength of peat soil, τmax = 12.53 kPa (Beaufort peat, BFpt) and 36.61 kPa (Parit Nipah peat, PNpt) decreased than its initial 58.46 kPa and 91.67 kPa. The maximum stiffness, Gmax = 0.23 and 0.25 decreased markedly with post-cyclic, Gmax = 0.04 and 0.09. Simple correlations between the Gmax and the τmax effects due to small strain, ε = 0.1, the Gmax values for post-cyclic are relatively low compared to its initial Gmax. As a consequence, the reported values and patterns of both the West Johor and East Malaysia peat soil are generally the same.
Finite Element Modeling of Stockbridge Damper and Vibration Analysis: Equivalent Cable Stiffness
Aeolian vibrations are the major cause for the
failure of conductor cables. Using a Stockbridge damper reduces
these vibrations and increases the life span of the conductor
cable. Designing an efficient Stockbridge damper that suits the
conductor cable requires a robust mathematical model with minimum
assumptions. However it is not easy to analytically model the complex
geometry of the messenger. Therefore an equivalent stiffness must be
determined so that it can be used in the analytical model. This paper
examines the bending stiffness of the cable and discusses the effect
of this stiffness on the natural frequencies. The obtained equivalent
stiffness compensates for the assumption of modeling the messenger
as a rod. The results from the free vibration analysis of the analytical
model with the equivalent stiffness is validated using the full scale
finite element model of the Stockbridge damper.
Parametric Non-Linear Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Frames with Supplemental Damping Systems
This paper focuses on parametric analysis of reinforced concrete structures equipped with supplemental damping braces. Practitioners still luck sufficient data for current design of damper added structures and often reduce the real model to a pure damper braced structure even if this assumption is neither realistic nor conservative. In the present study, the damping brace is modelled as made by a linear supporting brace connected in series with the viscous/hysteretic damper. Deformation capacity of existing structures is usually not adequate to undergo the design earthquake. In spite of this, additional dampers could be introduced strongly limiting structural damage to acceptable values, or in some cases, reducing frame response to elastic behavior. This work is aimed at providing useful considerations for retrofit of existing buildings by means of supplemental damping braces. The study explicitly takes into consideration variability of (a) relative frame to supporting brace stiffness, (b) dampers’ coefficient (viscous coefficient or yielding force) and (c) non-linear frame behavior. Non-linear time history analysis has been run to account for both dampers’ behavior and non-linear plastic hinges modelled by Pivot hysteretic type. Parametric analysis based on previous studies on SDOF or MDOF linear frames provide reference values for nearly optimal damping systems design. With respect to bare frame configuration, seismic response of the damper-added frame is strongly improved, limiting deformations to acceptable values far below ultimate capacity. Results of the analysis also demonstrated the beneficial effect of stiffer supporting braces, thus highlighting inadequacy of simplified pure damper models. At the same time, the effect of variable damping coefficient and yielding force has to be treated as an optimization problem.
Dependence of Shaft Stiffness on the Crack Location
In this study, an analytical model is developed to study crack breathing behavior under the effect of crack location and unbalance force. Crack breathing behavior is determined using effectual bending angle by studying the transient change in closed area of the crack. The status of the crack of a balanced shaft is symmetrical about shaft rotational angle and the duration of each crack status remains unchanged. The global stiffness of the balanced shaft is independent of crack location. Different crack breathing behavior for the unbalanced shaft has been observed. The influence of crack location on the unbalanced shaft stiffness can be divided into three regions. When the crack is located between 0.3L and 0.8335L, where L is the total length of the shaft, the unbalanced shaft is less stiff and when located outside this region it is stiffer than the balanced shaft. It was also found that unbalanced shaft stiffness has a maximum value with a crack at 0.1946L, a minimum value at 0.8053L and same value as balanced shaft at 0.3L and 0.8335L.
Seismic Retrofitting of RC Buildings with Soft Storey and Floating Columns
Open ground storey with floating columns is a typical feature in the modern multistory constructions in urban India. Such features are very much undesirable in buildings built in seismically active areas. The present study proposes a feasible solution to mitigate the effects caused due to non-uniformity of stiffness and discontinuity in load path and to simultaneously hold the functional use of the open storey particularly under the floating column, through a combination of various lateral strengthening systems. An investigation is performed on an example building with nine different analytical models to bring out the importance of recognising the presence of open ground storey and floating columns. Two separate analyses on various models of the building namely, the equivalent static analysis and the response spectrum analysis as per IS: 1893-2002 were performed. Various measures such as incorporation of Chevron bracings and shear walls, strengthening the columns in the open ground storey, and their different combinations were examined. The analysis shows that, in comparison to two short ones separated by interconnecting beams, the structural walls are most effective when placed at the periphery of the buildings and used as one long structural wall. Further, it can be shown that the force transfer from floating columns becomes less horizontal when the Chevron Bracings are placed just below them, thereby reducing the shear forces in the beams on which the floating column rests.
Comparison of the Dynamic Characteristics of Active and Passive Hybrid Bearings
One of the ways of reducing vibroactivity of rotor systems is to apply active hybrid bearings. Their design allows correction of the rotor’s location by means of separately controlling the supply pressure of the lubricant into the friction area. In a most simple case, the control system is based on a P-regulator. Increase of the gain coefficient allows decreasing the amplitude of rotor’s vibrations. The same effect can be achieved by means of increasing the pressure in the collector of a traditional passive hybrid bearing. However, these approaches affect the dynamic characteristics of the bearing differently. Theoretical studies show that the increase of the gain coefficient of an active bearing increases the stiffness of the bearing, as well as the increase of the pressure in the collector. Nevertheless, in case of a passive bearing, the damping properties deteriorate, whereas the active hybrid bearings obtain higher damping properties, which allow effectively providing the energy dissipation of the rotor vibrations and reducing the load on the constructional elements of a machine.
Design and Fabrication of a Programmable Stiffness-Sensitive Gripper for Object Handling
Stiffness sensing is an important issue in medical diagnostic, robotics surgery, safe handling, and safe grasping of objects in production lines. Detecting and obtaining the characteristics in dwelling lumps embedded in a soft tissue and safe removing and handling of detected lumps is needed in surgery. Also in industry, grasping and handling an object without damaging in a place where it is not possible to access a human operator is very important. In this paper, a method for object handling is presented. It is based on the use of an intelligent gripper to detect the object stiffness and then setting a programmable force for grasping the object to move it. The main components of this system includes sensors (sensors for measuring force and displacement), electrical (electrical and electronic circuits, tactile data processing and force control system), mechanical (gripper mechanism and driving system for the gripper) and the display unit. The system uses a rotary potentiometer for measuring gripper displacement. A microcontroller using the feedback received by the load cell, mounted on the finger of the gripper, calculates the amount of stiffness, and then commands the gripper motor to apply a certain force on the object. Results of Experiments on some samples with different stiffness show that the gripper works successfully. The gripper can be used in haptic interfaces or robotic systems used for object handling.
A Compact Quasi-Zero Stiffness Vibration Isolator Using Flexure-Based Spring Mechanisms Capable of Tunable Stiffness
This study presents a quasi-zero stiffness (QZS) vibration isolator using flexure-based spring mechanisms which afford both negative and positive stiffness elements, which enable self-adjustment. The QZS property of the isolator is achieved at the equilibrium position. A nonlinear mathematical model is then developed, based on the pre-compression of the flexure-based spring mechanisms. The dynamics are further analyzed using the Harmonic Balance method. The vibration attention efficiency is illustrated using displacement transmissibility, which is then compared with the corresponding linear isolator. The effects of parameters on performance are also investigated by numerical solutions. The flexure-based spring mechanisms are subsequently designed using the concept of compliant mechanisms, with evaluation by ANSYS software, and simulations of the QZS isolator.
Foil Bearing Stiffness Estimation with Pseudospectral Scheme
Compliant foil gas lubricated bearings are used for the
support of light loads in the order of few kilograms at high speeds, in
the order of 50,000 RPM. The stiffness of the foil bearings depends
both on the stiffness of the compliant foil and on the lubricating
gas film. The stiffness of the bearings plays a crucial role in the
stable operation of the supported rotor over a range of speeds. This
paper describes a numerical approach to estimate the stiffness of the
bearings using pseudo spectral scheme. Methodology to obtain the
stiffness of the foil bearing as a function of weight of the shaft is
given and the results are presented.
Effect of Blast Furnace Iron Slag on the Mechanical Performance of Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA)
This paper discusses the effect of using blast furnace iron slag as a part of fine aggregate on the mechanical performance of hot mix asphalt (HMA). The mechanical performance was evaluated based on various mechanical properties that include; Marshall/stiffness, indirect tensile strength and unconfined compressive strength. The effect of iron slag content on the mechanical properties of the mixtures was also investigated. Four HMA with various iron slag contents, namely; 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% by weight of total mixture were studied. Laboratory testing has revealed an enhancement in the compressive strength of HMA when iron slag was used. Within the tested range of iron slag content, a considerable increase in the compressive strength of the mixtures was observed with the increase of slag content. No significant improvement on Marshall/stiffness and indirect tensile strength of the mixtures was observed when slag was used. Even so, blast furnace iron slag can still be used in asphalt paving for environmental advantages.
Evaluation of Soil Stiffness and Strength for Quality Control of Compacted Earthwork
Microstructure and fabric of soils play an important
role on structural properties e.g. stiffness and strength of compacted
earthwork. Traditional quality control monitoring based on moisturedensity
tests neither reflects the variability of soil microstructure nor
provides a direct assessment of structural property, which is the
ultimate objective of the earthwork quality control. Since stiffness
and strength are sensitive to soil microstructure and fabric, any
independent test methods that provide simple, rapid, and direct
measurement of stiffness and strength are anticipated to provide an
effective assessment of compacted earthen materials’ uniformity. In
this study, the soil stiffness gauge (SSG) and the dynamic cone
penetrometer (DCP) were respectively utilized to measure and
monitor the stiffness and strength in companion with traditional
moisture-density measurements of various earthen materials used in
Thailand road construction projects. The practical earthwork quality
control criteria are presented herein in order to assure proper
earthwork quality control and uniform structural property of
Comparison of Meshing Stiffness of Altered Tooth Sum Spur Gear Tooth with Different Pressure Angles
The estimation of gear tooth stiffness is important for finding the load distribution between the gear teeth when two consecutive sets of teeth are in contact. Based on dynamic model a C-program has been developed to compute mesh stiffness. By using this program position dependent mesh stiffness of spur gear tooth for various profile shifts have been computed for a fixed center distance and altering tooth-sum gearing (100 by ± 4%). It is found that the C-program using dynamic model is one of the rapid soft computing technique which helps in design of gears. The mesh tooth stiffness along the path of contact is studied for both 20° and 25° pressure angle gears at various profile shifts. Better tooth stiffness is noticed in case of negative alteration tooth-sum gears compared to standard and positive alteration tooth-sum gears. Also, in case of negative alteration tooth-sum gearing better mesh stiffness is noticed in 20° pressure angle when compared to 25°.
Out-of-Plane Bending Properties of Out-of-Autoclave Thermosetting Prepregs during Forming Processes
In order to predict and model wrinkling which is caused by out of plane deformation due to compressive loading in the plane of the material during composite prepregs forming, it is necessary to quantitatively understand the relative magnitude of the bending stiffness. This study aims to examine the bending properties of out-of-autoclave (OOA) thermosetting prepreg under vertical cantilever test condition. A direct method for characterizing the bending behavior of composite prepregs was developed. The results from direct measurement were compared with results derived from an image-processing procedure that analyses the captured image during the vertical bending test. A numerical simulation was performed using ABAQUS to confirm the bending stiffness value.
Mathematical Modeling of Wind Energy System for Designing Fault Tolerant Control
This paper addresses the mathematical model of wind energy system useful for designing fault tolerant control. To serve the demand of power, large capacity wind energy systems are vital. These systems are installed offshore where non planned service is very costly. Whenever there is a fault in between two planned services, the system may stop working abruptly. This might even lead to the complete failure of the system. To enhance the reliability, the availability and reduce the cost of maintenance of wind turbines, the fault tolerant control systems are very essential. For designing any control system, an appropriate mathematical model is always needed. In this paper, the two-mass model is modified by considering the frequent mechanical faults like misalignments in the drive train, gears and bearings faults. These faults are subject to a wear process and cause frictional losses. This paper addresses these faults in the mathematics of the wind energy system. Further, the work is extended to study the variations of the parameters namely generator inertia constant, spring constant, viscous friction coefficient and gear ratio; on the pole-zero plot which is related with the physical design of the wind turbine. Behavior of the wind turbine during drive train faults are simulated and briefly discussed.
Polymer Aerostatic Thrust Bearing under Circular Support for High Static Stiffness
A new design of aerostatic thrust bearing is proposed
for high static stiffness. The bearing body, which is mead of polymer
covered with metallic membrane, is held by a circular ring. Such a
support helps form a concave air gap to grasp the air pressure. The
polymer body, which can be made rapidly by either injection or
molding is able to provide extra damping under dynamic loading. The
smooth membrane not only serves as the bearing surface but also
protects the polymer body. The restrictor is a capillary inside a silicone
tube. It can passively compensate the variation of load by expanding
the capillary diameter for more air flux. In the present example, the
stiffness soars from 15.85 N/μm of typical bearing to 349.85 N/μm at
bearing elevation 9.5 μm; meanwhile the load capacity also enhances
from 346.86 N to 704.18 N.
Worm Gearing Design Improvement by Considering Varying Mesh Stiffness
A new approach has been developed to estimate the
load share and distribution of worm gear drives, and to calculate the
instantaneous tooth meshing stiffness. In the approach, the worm gear
drive was modelled as a series of spur gear slices, and each slice was
analyzed separately using the well-established formulae of spur gear
loading and stresses. By combining the results obtained for all slices,
the entire envolute worm gear set loading and stressing was obtained. The geometric modelling method presented allows tooth elastic
deformation and tooth root stresses of worm gear drives under
different load conditions to be investigated. Based on the slicing
method introduced in this study, the instantaneous meshing stiffness
and load share are obtained. In comparison with existing methods,
this approach has both good analysis accuracy and less computing
A Novel Cold Asphalt Concrete Mixture for Heavily Trafficked Binder Course
This study aims at developing a novel cold asphalt
concrete binder course mixture by using Ordinary Portland Cement
(OPC) as a replacement for conventional mineral filler (0%-100%)
with new by-product material (LJMU-A2) used as a supplementary
cementitious material. With this purpose, cold asphalt concrete binder
course mixtures with cationic emulsions were studied by means of
stiffness modulus whereas water sensitivity was assessed by
measuring the stiffness modulus ratio before and after sample
The results indicate that a substantial enhancement in the stiffness
modulus and a considerable improvement of water sensitivity
resistance is achieved by adding LJMU-A2 to the cold asphalt
mixtures as a supplementary cementitious material. Moreover, the
addition of LJMU-A2 to those mixtures leads to a stiffness modulus
after 2-day curing compared to that obtained with Portland cement,
which occurs after 7-day curing.
Application Research on Large Profiled Statues of Steel-Concrete Composite Shear Wall
Twin steel plates-concrete composite shear walls are
composed of a pair of steel plate layers and a concrete layer
sandwiched between them, which have the characteristics of both
reinforced concrete shear walls and steel plate shear walls. Twin steel
plates-composite shear walls contain very high ultimsate bearing
capacity and ductility, which have great potential to be applied in the
super high-rise buildings and special structures. In this paper, we
analyzed the basic characteristics and stress mechanism of the twin
steel plates-composite shear walls. Specifically, we analyzed the
effects of the steel plate thickness, wall thickness and concrete
strength on the bearing capacity of the twin steel plates-composite
shear walls. The analysis results indicate that: (1) the initial shear
stiffness and ultimate shear-carrying capacity is not significantly
affected by the thickness of concrete wall but by the class of concrete,
(2) both factors significantly impact the shear distribution of the
shear walls in ultimate shear-carrying capacity. The technique of twin
steel plates-composite shear walls has been successfully applied in
the construction of an 88-meter Huge Statue of Buddha located in
Hunan Province, China. The analysis results and engineering
experiences showed that the twin steel plates-composite shear walls
have great potential for future research and applications.
The Effects of a Thin Liquid Layer on the Hydrodynamic Machine Rotor
A mathematical model of the additional effects of the
liquid in the hydrodynamic gap is presented in the paper. An
incompressible viscous fluid is considered. Based on computational
modeling are determined the matrices of mass, stiffness and damping.
The mathematical model is experimentally verified.
Implicit Force Control of a Position Controlled Robot – A Comparison with Explicit Algorithms
This paper investigates simple implicit force control
algorithms realizable with industrial robots. A lot of approaches
already published are difficult to implement in commercial robot
controllers, because the access to the robot joint torques is necessary
or the complete dynamic model of the manipulator is used. In
the past we already deal with explicit force control of a position
controlled robot. Well known schemes of implicit force control are
stiffness control, damping control and impedance control. Using such
algorithms the contact force cannot be set directly. It is further
the result of controller impedance, environment impedance and
the commanded robot motion/position. The relationships of these
properties are worked out in this paper in detail for the chosen
implicit approaches. They have been adapted to be implementable
on a position controlled robot. The behaviors of stiffness control
and damping control are verified by practical experiments. For this
purpose a suitable test bed was configured. Using the full mechanical
impedance within the controller structure will not be practical in the
case when the robot is in physical contact with the environment. This
fact will be verified by simulation.
MARTI and MRSD: Newly Developed Isolation-Damping Devices with Adaptive Hardening for Seismic Protection of Structures
In this paper, a summary of analytical and
experimental studies into the behavior of a new hysteretic damper,
designed for seismic protection of structures is presented. The Multidirectional
Torsional Hysteretic Damper (MRSD) is a patented
invention in which a symmetrical arrangement of identical cylindrical
steel cores is so configured as to yield in torsion while the structure
experiences planar movements due to earthquake shakings. The new
device has certain desirable properties. Notably, it is characterized by
a variable and controllable-via-design post-elastic stiffness. The
mentioned property is a result of MRSD’s kinematic configuration
which produces this geometric hardening, rather than being a
secondary large-displacement effect. Additionally, the new system is
capable of reaching high force and displacement capacities, shows
high levels of damping, and very stable cyclic response. The device
has gone through many stages of design refinement, multiple
prototype verification tests and development of design guide-lines
and computer codes to facilitate its implementation in practice.
Practicality of the new device, as offspring of an academic sphere, is
assured through extensive collaboration with industry in its final
design stages, prototyping and verification test programs.
Nonlinear Mathematical Model of the Rotor Motion in a Thin Hydrodynamic Gap
The article presents two mathematical models of the
interaction between a rotating shaft and an incompressible fluid. The
mathematical model includes both the journal bearings and the
axially traversed hydrodynamic sealing gaps of hydraulic machines.
A method is shown for the identification of additional effects of the
fluid acting on the rotor of the machine, both for a linear and a nonlinear
model. The interaction is expressed by matrices of mass,
stiffness and damping.
Comparison of Double Unit Tunnel Form Building before and after Repair and Retrofit under in-Plane Cyclic Loading
This paper present the experimental work of double
unit tunnel form building (TFB) subjected to in-plane lateral cyclic
loading. A one third scale of 3-storey double unit of TFB is tested
until its strength degradation. Then, the TFB is repaired and
retrofitted using additional shear wall, steel angle and CFRP sheet.
The crack patterns, lateral strength, stiffness, ductility and equivalent
viscous damping (EVD) were analyzed and compared before and
after repair and retrofit. The result indicates that the lateral strength
increases by 22% in pushing and 27% in pulling direction. Moreover,
the stiffness and ductility obtained before and after retrofit increase
tremendously by 87.87% and 39.66%, respectively. Meanwhile, the
energy absorption measured by equivalent viscous damping obtained
after retrofit increase by 12.34% in pulling direction. It can be
concluded that the proposed retrofit method is capable to increase the
lateral strength capacity, stiffness and energy absorption of double
Numerical Study on the Static Characteristics of Novel Aerostatic Thrust Bearings Possessing Elastomer Capillary Restrictor and Bearing Surface
In this paper a novel design of aerostatic thrust bearing
is proposed and is analyzed numerically. The capillary restrictor and
bearing disk are made of elastomer like silicone and PU. The
viscoelasticity of elastomer helps the capillary expand for more air
flux and at the same time, allows conicity of the bearing surface to
form when the air pressure is enhanced. Therefore the bearing has the
better ability of passive compensation. In the present example, as
compared with the typical model, the new designs can nearly double
the load capability and offer four times static stiffness.