Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 10

10
10003505
Alkali Silica Reaction Mitigation and Prevention Measures for Arkansas Local Aggregates
Abstract:
The objective of this research is to mitigate and prevent the alkali silica reactivity (ASR) in highway construction projects. ASR is a deleterious reaction initiated when the silica content of the aggregate reacts with alkali hydroxides in cement in the presence of relatively high moisture content. The ASR results in the formation of an expansive white colored gel-like material which forms the destructive tensile stresses inside hardened concrete. In this research, different types of local aggregates available in the State of Arkansas were mixed and mortar bars were poured according to the ASTM specifications. Mortar bars expansion was measured versus time and aggregates with potential ASR problems were detected. Different types of supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) were used in remixing mortar bars with highly reactive aggregates. Length changes for remixed bars proved that different types of SCMs can be successfully used in reducing the expansive effect of ASR. SCMs percentage by weight is highly dependent on the SCM type. The result of this study will help avoiding future losses due to ASR cracking in construction project and reduce the maintenance, repair, and replacement budgets required for highways network.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
9
10001869
The Effects of SCMs on the Mechanical Properties and Durability of Fibre Cement Plates
Abstract:
Fibre cement plates, often used in construction, generally are made using quartz as an inert material, cement as a binder and cellulose as a fibre. This paper, first of all, investigates the mechanical properties and durability of fibre cement plates when quartz is both partly and fully replaced with diatomite. Diatomite does not only have lower density compared to quartz but also has high pozzolanic activity. The main objective of this paper is the investigation of the effects of supplementary cementing materials (SCMs) on the short and long term mechanical properties and durability characteristics of fibre cement plates prepared using diatomite. Supplementary cementing materials such as ground granulated blast furnace slug (GGBS) and fly ash (FA) are used in this study. Volume proportions of 10, 20, 30 and 40% of GGBS and FA are used as partial replacement materials to cement. Short and long term mechanical properties such as compressive and flexural strengths as well as sorptivity characteristics and mass were investigated. Consistency and setting time at each replacement levels of SCMs were also recorded. The effects of using supplementary cementing materials on the carbonation and sulphate resistance of fibre cement plates were then experimented. The results, first of all, show that the use of diatomite as a full or partial replacement to quartz resulted in a systematic decrease in total mass of the fibre cement plates. The reduction of mass was largely due to the lower density and finer particle size of diatomite compared to quartz. The use of diatomite did not only reduce the mass of these plates but also increased the compressive strength significantly as a result of its high pozzolanic activity. The replacement levels of both GGBS and FA resulted in a systematic decrease in short term compressive strength with increasing replacement levels. This was essentially expected as the total rate of hydration is much lower in GGBS and FA than that of cement. Long term results however, indicated that the compressive strength of fibre cement plates prepared using both GGBS and FA increases with time and hence the compressive strength of plates prepared using SCMs is either equivalent or more than the compressive strength of plates prepared using cement alone. Durability characteristics of fibre cement plates prepared using SCMs were enhanced significantly. Measurements of sopritivty characteristics were also indicated that the plates prepared using SCMs has much lower water absorption capacities compared to plates prepared cement alone. Much higher resistance to carbonation and sulphate attach were observed with plates prepared using SCMs. The results presented in this paper show that the use of SCMs does not only support the production of more sustainable construction materials but also enhances the mechanical properties and durability characteristics of fibre cement plates.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
8
10005745
Ingenious Use of Hypo Sludge in M25 Concrete
Abstract:

Paper mill sludge is one of the major economic and environmental problems for paper and board industry, million tonnes quantity of sludge is produced in the world. It is essential to dispose these wastes safely without affecting health of human being, environment, fertile land; sources of water bodies, economy as it adversely affect the strength, durability and other properties of building materials based on them. Moreover, in developing countries like India where there is low availability of non-renewable resources and large need of building material like cement therefore it is essential to develop eco-efficient utilization of paper sludge. Primarily in functional terms paper sludge comprises of cellulose fibers, calcium carbonate, china clay, low silica, residual chemical bonds with water. The material is sticky and full of moisture content which is hard to dry. The manufacturing of paper usually produce loads of solid waste. These paper fibers are recycled in paper mills to limited number of times till they become weak to produce high quality paper. Thereafter, these left out small and weak pieces called as low quality paper fibers are detached out to become paper sludge. The material is by-product of de-inking and re-pulping of paper. This hypo sludge includes all kinds of inks, dyes, coating etc inscribed on the paper. This paper presents an overview of the published work on the use of hypo sludge in M25 concrete formulations as a supplementary cementitious material exploring its properties such as compressive strength, splitting and parameters like modulus of elasticity, density, applications and most importantly investigation of low cost concrete by using hypo sludge are presented.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
7
9999223
Incorporation of SVS CBVLC Supplementary Controller for Damping SSR in Power System
Abstract:

Static VAR System (SVS) is a kind of FACTS device which is used in power system primarily for the purpose of voltage and reactive power control. In this paper presents a systematic approach for designing SVS supplementary controller, which is used to improve the damping of power system oscillation. The combined bus voltage and line current (CBVLC) supplementary controller has been developed and incorporated in the SVS control system located at the middle of the series compensated long transmission line. Damping of torsional stresses due to subsynchronous resonance resulting from series capacitive compensation using CBVLC is investigated in this paper. Simulation results are carried out with MATLAB/Simulink on the IEEE first benchmark model (FBM). The simulation results show that the oscillations are satisfactorily damped out by the SVS supplementary controller. Time domain simulation is performed on power system and the results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed controller.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
6
17063
Analysis of GI/M(n)/1/N Queue with Single Working Vacation and Vacation Interruption
Abstract:

This paper presents a finite buffer renewal input single working vacation and vacation interruption queue with state dependent services and state dependent vacations, which has a wide range of applications in several areas including manufacturing, wireless communication systems. Service times during busy period, vacation period and vacation times are exponentially distributed and are state dependent. As a result of the finite waiting space, state dependent services and state dependent vacation policies, the analysis of these queueing models needs special attention. We provide a recursive method using the supplementary variable technique to compute the stationary queue length distributions at pre-arrival and arbitrary epochs. An efficient computational algorithm of the model is presented which is fast and accurate and easy to implement. Various performance measures have been discussed. Finally, some special cases and numerical results have been depicted in the form of tables and graphs. 

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
5
17227
Supplementary JAVA Programming Course for e-Learning with Small-Group Instruction
Abstract:

We have designed and implemented e-Learning materials for a JAVA programming course since 2004 and have found that “normal” students, meaning motivated and capable students, can successfully learn the course material taught in a fully online manner. However, for “weaker” students, meaning those lacking motivation, experience, and/or aptitude, the results have been unsatisfactory, and such students thus fall into the supplementary category. From 2007 to 2008, we offered a face-to-face class with small-group instruction for the weaker students, while we provided the fully online course for the normal students. Consequently, we succeeded in helping the weaker students to overcome their programming phobia and develop the ability to create basic programs.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
4
12986
Performance Analysis of a Discrete-time GeoX/G/1 Queue with Single Working Vacation
Abstract:

This paper treats a discrete-time batch arrival queue with single working vacation. The main purpose of this paper is to present a performance analysis of this system by using the supplementary variable technique. For this purpose, we first analyze the Markov chain underlying the queueing system and obtain its ergodicity condition. Next, we present the stationary distributions of the system length as well as some performance measures at random epochs by using the supplementary variable method. Thirdly, still based on the supplementary variable method we give the probability generating function (PGF) of the number of customers at the beginning of a busy period and give a stochastic decomposition formulae for the PGF of the stationary system length at the departure epochs. Additionally, we investigate the relation between our discretetime system and its continuous counterpart. Finally, some numerical examples show the influence of the parameters on some crucial performance characteristics of the system.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
3
5839
The Effect of Complementary Irrigation in Different Growth Stages on Yield, Qualitative and Quantitative Indices of the Two Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Cultivars in Mazandaran
Abstract:
In most wheat growing moderate regions and especially in the north of Iran climate, is affected grain filling by several physical and abiotic stresses. In this region, grain filling often occurs when temperatures are increasing and moisture supply is decreasing. The experiment was designed in RCBD with split plot arrangements with four replications. Four irrigation treatments included (I0) no irrigation (check); (I1) one irrigation (50 mm) at heading stage; (I2) two irrigation (100 mm) at heading and anthesis stage; and (I3) three irrigation (150 mm) at heading, anthesis and early grain filling growth stage, two wheat cultivars (Milan and Shanghai) were cultured in the experiment. Totally raining was 453 mm during the growth season. The result indicated that biological yield, grain yield and harvest index were significantly affected by irrigation levels. I3 treatment produced more tillers number in m2, fertile tillers number in m2, harvest index and biological yield. Milan produced more tillers number in m2, fertile tillers in m2, while Shanghai produced heavier tillers and grain 1000 weight. Plant height was significant in wheat varieties while were not statistically significant in irrigation levels. Milan produced more grain yield, harvest index and biological yield. Grain yield shown that I1, I2, and I3 produced increasing of 5228 (21%), 5460 (27%) and 5670 (29%) kg ha-1, respectively. There was an interaction of irrigation and cultivar on grain yields. In the absence of the irrigation reduced grain 1000 weight from 45 to 40 g. No irrigation reduced soil moisture extraction during the grain filling stage. Current assimilation as a source of carbon for grain filling depends on the light intercepting viable green surfaces of the plant after anthesis that due to natural senescence and the effect of various stresses. At the same time the demand by the growing grain is increasing. It is concluded from research work that wheat crop irrigated Milan cultivar could increase the grain yield in comparison with Shanghai cultivar. Although, the grain yield of Shanghai under irrigation was slightly lower than Milan. This grain yield also was related to weather condition, sowing date, plant density and location conditions and management of fertilizers, because there was not significant difference in biological and straw yield. The best result was produced by I1 treatment. I2 and I3 treatments were not significantly difference with I1 treatment. Grain yield of I1 indicated that wheat is under soil moisture deficiency. Therefore, I1 irrigation was better than I0.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2
14980
Integration of Acceleration Feedback Control with Automatic Generation Control in Intelligent Load Frequency Control
Abstract:

This paper investigates the effects of knowledge-based acceleration feedback control integrated with Automatic Generation Control (AGC) to enhance the quality of frequency control of governing system. The Intelligent Acceleration Feedback Controller (IAFC) is proposed to counter the over and under frequency occurrences due to major load change in power system network. Therefore, generator tripping and load shedding operations can be reduced. Meanwhile, the integration of IAFC with AGC, a well known Load-Frequency Control (LFC) is essential to ensure the system frequency is restored to the nominal value. Computer simulations of frequency response of governing system are used to optimize the parameters of IAFC. As a result, there is substantial improvement on the LFC of governing system that employing the proposed control strategy.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1
9438
A Water Reuse System in Wetland Paddy Supports the Growing Industrial Water Needs
Abstract:
A water reuse system in wetland paddy was simulated to supply water for industrial in this paper. A two-tank model was employed to represent the return flow of the wetland paddy.Historical data were performed for parameter estimation and model verification. With parameters estimated from the data, the model was then used to simulate a reasonable return flow rate from the wetland paddy. The simulation results show that the return flow ratio was 11.56% in the first crop season and 35.66% in the second crop season individually; the difference may result from the heavy rainfall in the second crop season. Under the existent pond with surplus active capacity, the water reuse ratio was 17.14%, and the water supplementary ratio was 21.56%. However, the pattern of rainfall, the active capacity of the pond, and the rate of water treatment limit the volume of reuse water. Increasing the irrigation water, dredging the depth of pond before rainy season and enlarging the scale of module are help to develop water reuse system to support for the industrial water use around wetland paddy.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
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