Scholarly Research Excellence

Digital Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 30

30
10008601
A Note on MHD Flow and Heat Transfer over a Curved Stretching Sheet by Considering Variable Thermal Conductivity
Abstract:

The mixed convective flow of MHD incompressible, steady boundary layer in heat transfer over a curved stretching sheet due to temperature dependent thermal conductivity is studied. We use curvilinear coordinate system in order to describe the governing flow equations. Finite difference solutions with central differencing have been used to solve the transform governing equations. Numerical results for the flow velocity and temperature profiles are presented as a function of the non-dimensional curvature radius. Skin friction coefficient and local Nusselt number at the surface of the curved sheet are discussed as well.

29
10007391
Molecular Dynamics Simulation of the Effect of the Solid Gas Interface Nanolayer on Enhanced Thermal Conductivity of Copper-CO2 Nanofluid
Abstract:

The use of CO2 in oil recovery and in CO2 capture and storage is gaining traction in recent years. These applications involve heat transfer between CO2 and the base fluid, and hence, there arises a need to improve the thermal conductivity of CO2 to increase the process efficiency and reduce cost. One way to improve the thermal conductivity is through nanoparticle addition in the base fluid. The nanofluid model in this study consisted of copper (Cu) nanoparticles in varying concentrations with CO2 as a base fluid. No experimental data are available on thermal conductivity of CO2 based nanofluid. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are an increasingly adopted tool to perform preliminary assessments of nanoparticle (NP) fluid interactions. In this study, the effect of the formation of a nanolayer (or molecular layering) at the gas-solid interface on thermal conductivity is investigated using equilibrium MD simulations by varying NP diameter and keeping the volume fraction (1.413%) of nanofluid constant to check the diameter effect of NP on the nanolayer and thermal conductivity. A dense semi-solid fluid layer was seen to be formed at the NP-gas interface, and the thickness increases with increase in particle diameter, which also moves with the NP Brownian motion. Density distribution has been done to see the effect of nanolayer, and its thickness around the NP. These findings are extremely beneficial, especially to industries employed in oil recovery as increased thermal conductivity of CO2 will lead to enhanced oil recovery and thermal energy storage.

28
10006518
Degradation of Irradiated UO2 Fuel Thermal Conductivity Calculated by FRAPCON Model Due to Porosity Evolution at High Burn-Up
Abstract:

The evolution of volume porosity previously obtained by using the existing low temperature high burn-up gaseous swelling model with progressive recrystallization for UO2 fuel is utilized to study the degradation of irradiated UO2 thermal conductivity calculated by the FRAPCON model of thermal conductivity. A porosity correction factor is developed based on the assumption that the fuel morphology is a three-phase type, consisting of the as-fabricated pores and pores due to intergranular bubbles whitin UO2 matrix and solid fission products. The predicted thermal conductivity demonstrates an additional degradation of 27% due to porosity formation at burn-up levels around 120 MWd/kgU which would cause an increase in the fuel temperature accordingly. Results of the calculations are compared with available data.

27
10006067
Thermal Conductivity of Al2O3/Water-Based Nanofluids: Revisiting the Influences of pH and Surfactant
Abstract:

The present work focuses on the preparation and the stabilization of Al2O3-water based nanofluids. Though they have been widely considered in the past, to the best of our knowledge, there is no clear consensus about a proper way to prepare and stabilize them by the appropriate surfactant. In this paper, a careful experimental investigation is performed to quantify the combined influence of pH and the surfactant on the stability of Al2O3-water based nanofluids. Two volume concentrations of nanoparticles and three nanoparticle sizes have been considered. The good preparation and stability of these nanofluids are evaluated through thermal conductivity measurements. The results show that the optimum value for the thermal conductivity is obtained mainly by controlling the pH of the mixture and surfactants are not necessary to stabilize the solution.

26
10005858
The Influence of Fiber Volume Fraction on Thermal Conductivity of Pultruded Profile
Abstract:
Thermal conductivity in the x, y and z-directions was measured on a pultruded profile that was manufactured by the technology of pulling from glass fibers and a polyester matrix. The results of measurements of thermal conductivity showed considerable variability in different directions. The caused variability in thermal conductivity was expected due fraction variations. The cross-section of the pultruded profile was scanned. An image analysis illustrated an uneven distribution of the fibers and the matrix in the cross-section. The distribution of these inequalities was processed into a Voronoi diagram in the observed area of the pultruded profile cross-section. In order to verify whether the variation of the fiber volume fraction in the pultruded profile can affect its thermal conductivity, the numerical simulations in the ANSYS Fluent were performed. The simulation was based on the geometry reconstructed from image analysis. The aim is to quantify thermal conductivity numerically. Above all, images with different volume fractions were chosen. The results of the measured thermal conductivity were compared with the calculated thermal conductivity. The evaluated data proved a strong correlation between volume fraction and thermal conductivity of the pultruded profile. Based on presented results, a modification of production technology may be proposed.
25
10005211
Determination of Thermophysical Properties of Water Based Magnetic Nanofluids
Abstract:
In this study, it was aimed to determine the thermophysical properties of two different magnetic nanofluids (NiFe2O4-water and CoFe2O4-water). Magnetic nanoparticles were dispersed into the pure water at different volume fractions from 0 vol.% to 4 vol.%. The measurements were performed in the temperature range of 15 oC-55 oC. In order to get better idea on the temperature dependent thermophysical properties of magnetic nanofluids (MNFs), viscosity and thermal conductivity measurements were made. SEM images of both NiFe2O4 and CoFe2O4 nanoparticles were used in order to confirm the average dimensions. The measurements showed that the thermal conductivity of MNFs increased with an increase in the volume fraction as well as viscosity. Increase in the temperature of both MNFs resulted in an increase in the thermal conductivity and a decrease in the viscosity. Based on the measured data, the correlations for both the viscosity and the thermal conductivity were presented with respect to solid volume ratio and temperature. Effective thermal conductivity of the prepared MNFs was also calculated. The results indicated that water based NiFe2O4 nanofluid had higher thermal conductivity than that of the CoFe2O4. Once the viscosity values of both MNFs were compared, almost no difference was observed.
24
10004391
Change of the Thermal Conductivity of Polystyrene Insulation in term of Temperature at the Mid Thickness of the Insulation Material: Impact on the Cooling Load
Authors:
Abstract:

Accurate prediction of the cooling/heating load and consequently, the sizing of the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning equipment require precise calculation of the heat transfer mainly by conduction through envelope components of a building. The thermal resistance of most thermal insulation materials depends on the operating temperature. The temperature to which the insulation materials are exposed varies, depending on the thermal resistance of the materials, the location of the insulation layer within the assembly system, and the effective temperature which depends on the amount of solar radiation received on the surface of the assembly. The main objective of this paper is to investigate the change of the thermal conductivity of polystyrene insulation material in terms of the temperature at the mid-thickness of the material and its effect on the cooling load required by the building.

23
10004107
A Review on Thermal Conductivity of Bio-Based Carbon Nanotubes
Abstract:

Bio-based carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have received considerable research attention due to their comparative advantages of high level stability, simplistic use, low toxicity and overall environmental friendliness. New potentials for improvement in heat transfer applications are presented due to their high aspect ratio, high thermal conductivity and special surface area. Phonons have been identified as being responsible for thermal conductivities in carbon nanotubes. Therefore, understanding the mechanism of heat conduction in CNTs involves investigating the difference between the varieties of phonon modes and knowing the kinds of phonon modes that play the dominant role. In this review, a reference to a different number of studies is made and in addition, the role of phonon relaxation rate mainly controlled by boundary scattering and three-phonon Umklapp scattering process was investigated. Results show that the phonon modes are sensitive to a number of nanotube conditions such as: diameter, length, temperature, defects and axial strain. At a low temperature (<100K) the thermal conductivity increases with increasing temperature. A small nanotube size causes phonon quantization which is evident in the thermal conductivity at low temperatures.

22
10002485
Design of a Compact Herriott Cell for Heat Flux Measurement Applications
Abstract:
In this paper we present the design of an optical device based on a Herriott multi-pass cell fabricated on a small sized acrylic slab for heat flux measurements using the deflection of a laser beam propagating inside the cell. The beam deflection is produced by the heat flux conducted to the acrylic slab due to a gradient in the refractive index. The use of a long path cell as the sensitive element in this measurement device, gives the possibility of high sensitivity within a small size device. We present the optical design as well as some experimental results in order to validate the device’s operation principle.
21
10001166
Thermal Insulating Silicate Materials Suitable for Thermal Insulation and Rehabilitation Structures
Abstract:

Problems insulation of building structures is often closely connected with the problem of moisture remediation. In the case of historic buildings or if only part of the redevelopment of envelope of structures, it is not possible to apply the classical external thermal insulation composite systems. This application is mostly effective thermal insulation plasters with high porosity and controlled capillary properties which assures improvement of thermal properties construction, its diffusion openness towards the external environment and suitable treatment capillary properties of preventing the penetration of liquid moisture and salts thereof toward the outer surface of the structure. With respect to the current trend of reducing the energy consumption of building structures and reduce the production of CO2 is necessary to develop capillary-active materials characterized by their low density, low thermal conductivity while maintaining good mechanical properties. The aim of researchers at the Faculty of Civil Engineering, Brno University of Technology is the development and study of hygrothermal behaviour of optimal materials for thermal insulation and rehabilitation of building structures with the possible use of alternative, less energy demanding binders in comparison with conventional, frequently used binder, which represents cement. The paper describes the evaluation of research activities aimed at the development of thermal insulation and repair materials using lightweight aggregate and alternative binders such as metakaolin and finely ground fly ash.

20
10001519
Investigation of Enhancement of Heat Transfer in Natural Convection Utilizing of Nanofluids
Abstract:
This paper analyses the heat transfer performance and fluid flow using different nanofluids in a square enclosure. The energy equation and Navier-Stokes equation are solved numerically using finite volume scheme. The effect of volume fraction concentration on the enhancement of heat transfer has been studied icorporating the Brownian motion; the influence of effective thermal conductivity on the enhancement was also investigated for a range of volume fraction concentration. The velocity profile for different Rayleigh number. Water-Cu, water AL2O3 and water-TiO2 were tested.
19
10000075
Measurement of VIP Edge Conduction Using Vacuum Guarded Hot Plate
Abstract:

Vacuum insulation panel (VIP) is a promising thermal insulator for buildings, refrigerator, LNG carrier and so on. In general, it has the thermal conductivity of 2~4 mW/m·K. However, this thermal conductivity is that measured at the center of VIP. The total effective thermal conductivity of VIP is larger than this value due to the edge conduction through the envelope. In this paper, the edge conduction of VIP is examined theoretically, numerically and experimentally. To confirm the existence of the edge conduction, numerical analysis is performed for simple two-dimensional VIP model and a theoretical model is proposed to calculate the edge conductivity. Also, the edge conductivity is measured using the vacuum guarded hot plate and the experiment is validated against numerical analysis. The results show that the edge conductivity is dependent on the width of panel and thickness of Al-foil. To reduce the edge conduction, it is recommended that the VIP should be made as big as possible or made of thin Al film envelope.

18
10000294
Estimation of Thermal Conductivity of Nanofluids Using MD-Stochastic Simulation Based Approach
Abstract:

The thermal conductivity of a fluid can be significantly enhanced by dispersing nano-sized particles in it, and the resultant fluid is termed as "nanofluid". A theoretical model for estimating the thermal conductivity of a nanofluid has been proposed here. It is based on the mechanism that evenly dispersed nanoparticles within a nanofluid undergo Brownian motion in course of which the nanoparticles repeatedly collide with the heat source. During each collision a rapid heat transfer occurs owing to the solidsolid contact. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of the collision of nanoparticles with the heat source has shown that there is a pulselike pick up of heat by the nanoparticles within 20-100 ps, the extent of which depends not only on thermal conductivity of the nanoparticles, but also on the elastic and other physical properties of the nanoparticle. After the collision the nanoparticles undergo Brownian motion in the base fluid and release the excess heat to the surrounding base fluid within 2-10 ms. The Brownian motion and associated temperature variation of the nanoparticles have been modeled by stochastic analysis. Repeated occurrence of these events by the suspended nanoparticles significantly contributes to the characteristic thermal conductivity of the nanofluids, which has been estimated by the present model for a ethylene glycol based nanofluid containing Cu-nanoparticles of size ranging from 8 to 20 nm, with Gaussian size distribution. The prediction of the present model has shown a reasonable agreement with the experimental data available in literature.

17
9999458
Study of Hydrothermal Behavior of Thermal Insulating Materials Based On Natural Fibers
Abstract:

Thermal insulation materials based on natural fibers represent a very promising area of materials based on natural easy renewable row sources. These materials may be in terms of the properties of most competing synthetic insulations, but show somewhat higher moisture sensitivity and thermal insulation properties are strongly influenced by the density and orientation of fibers. The paper described the problem of hygrothermal behavior of thermal insulation materials based on natural plant and animal fibers. This is especially the dependence of the thermal properties of these materials on the type of fiber, bulk density, temperature, moisture and the fiber orientation.

16
9998553
A Three-Dimensional TLM Simulation Method for Thermal Effect in PV-Solar Cells
Abstract:

Temperature rising is a negative factor in almost all systems. It could cause by self heating or ambient temperature. In solar photovoltaic cells this temperature rising affects on the behavior of cells. The ability of a PV module to withstand the effects of periodic hot-spot heating that occurs when cells are operated under reverse biased conditions is closely related to the properties of the cell semi-conductor material.

In addition, the thermal effect also influences the estimation of the maximum power point (MPP) and electrical parameters for the PV modules, such as maximum output power, maximum conversion efficiency, internal efficiency, reliability, and lifetime. The cells junction temperature is a critical parameter that significantly affects the electrical characteristics of PV modules. For practical applications of PV modules, it is very important to accurately estimate the junction temperature of PV modules and analyze the thermal characteristics of the PV modules. Once the temperature variation is taken into account, we can then acquire a more accurate MPP for the PV modules, and the maximum utilization efficiency of the PV modules can also be further achieved.

In this paper, the three-Dimensional Transmission Line Matrix (3D-TLM) method was used to map the surface temperature distribution of solar cells while in the reverse bias mode. It was observed that some cells exhibited an inhomogeneity of the surface temperature resulting in localized heating (hot-spot). This hot-spot heating causes irreversible destruction of the solar cell structure. Hot spots can have a deleterious impact on the total solar modules if individual solar cells are heated. So, the results show clearly that the solar cells are capable of self-generating considerable amounts of heat that should be dissipated very quickly to increase PV module's lifetime.

15
9998149
Using the Transient Plane Source Method for Measuring Thermal Parameters of Electroceramics
Abstract:

Transient plane source method has been used to measure the thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity of a compact isostatic electroceramics at room temperature. The samples were fired at temperatures from 100 up to 1320 degrees Celsius in steps of 50. Bulk density and specific heat capacity were also measured with their corresponding standard uncertainties. The results were compared with further thermal analysis (dilatometry and thermogravimetry). Structural processes during firing were discussed.

14
9997552
Thermal Properties of the Ground in Cyprus and Their Correlations and Effect on the Efficiency of Ground Heat Exchangers
Abstract:

Ground Coupled Heat Pumps (GCHPs) exploit effectively the heat capacity of the ground, with the use of Ground Heat Exchangers (GHE). Depending on the mode of operation of the GCHPs, GHEs dissipate or absorb heat from the ground. For sizing the GHE the thermal properties of the ground need to be known. This paper gives information about the density, thermal conductivity, specific heat and thermal diffusivity of various lithologies encountered in Cyprus with various relations between these properties being examined through comparison and modeling. The results show that the most important correlation is the one encountered between thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity with both properties showing similar response to the inlet and outlet flow temperature of vertical and horizontal heat exchangers.

13
17273
Thermal Properties of Lime-Pozzolan Plasters for Application in Hollow Bricks Systems
Abstract:

The effect of waste ceramic powder on the thermal properties of lime-pozzolana composites is investigated. At first, the measurements of effective thermal conductivity of lime-pozzolan composites are performed in dependence on moisture content from the dry state to fully water saturated state using a pulse method. Then, the obtained data are analyzed using two different homogenization techniques, namely the Lichtenecker’s and Dobson’s formulas, taking into account Wiener’s and Hashin/Shtrikman bounds. 

12
17049
A High Thermal Dissipation Performance Polyethyleneterephthalate Heat Pipe
Abstract:

A high thermal dissipation performance polyethylene terephthalate heat pipe has been fabricated and tested in this research. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is used as the container material instead of copper. Copper mesh and methanol are sealed in the middle of two PET films as the wick structure and working fluid. Although the thermal conductivity of PET (0.15-0.24 W/m·K) is much smaller than copper (401 W/m·K), the experiment results reveal that the PET heat pipe can reach a minimum thermal resistance of 0.146 (oC/W) and maximum effective thermal conductivity of 18,310 (W/m·K) with 36.9 vol% at 26 W input power. However, when the input power is larger than 30 W, the laminated PET will debond due to the high vapor pressure of methanol.

11
17408
Anomalous Thermal Behavior of CuxMg1-xNb2O6 (x=0,0.4,0.6,1) for LTCC Substrate
Abstract:

LTCC (Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramics) being the most advantageous technology towards the multilayer substrates for various applications, demands an extensive study of its raw materials. In the present work, a series of CuxMg1-xNb2O6 (x=0,0.4,0.6,1) has been prepared using sol-gel synthesis route and sintered at a temperature of 900°C to study its applicability for LTCC technology as the firing temperature is 900°C in this technology. The phase formation has been confirmed using X-ray Diffraction. Thermal properties like thermal conductivity and thermal expansion being very important aspect as the former defines the heat flow to avoid thermal instability in layers and the later provides the dimensional congruency of the dielectric material and the conductors, are studied here over high temperature up to the firing temperature. Although the values are quite satisfactory from substrate requirement point view, results have shown anomaly over temperature. The anomalous thermal behavior has been further analyzed using TG-DTA.

10
1928
From Experiments to Numerical Modeling: A Tool for Teaching Heat Transfer in Mechanical Engineering
Abstract:
In this work the numerical simulation of transient heat transfer in a cylindrical probe is done. An experiment was conducted introducing a steel cylinder in a heating chamber and registering its surface temperature along the time during one hour. In parallel, a mathematical model was solved for one dimension transient heat transfer in cylindrical coordinates, considering the boundary conditions of the test. The model was solved using finite difference method, because the thermal conductivity in the cylindrical steel bar and the convection heat transfer coefficient used in the model are considered temperature dependant functions, and both conditions prevent the use of the analytical solution. The comparison between theoretical and experimental results showed the average deviation is below 2%. It was concluded that numerical methods are useful in order to solve engineering complex problems. For constant k and h, the experimental methodology used here can be used as a tool for teaching heat transfer in mechanical engineering, using mathematical simplified models with analytical solutions.
9
15889
Contribution to the Study of Thermal Conductivity of Porous Silicon Used In Thermal Sensors
Abstract:
The porous silicon (PS), formed from the anodization of a p+ type substrate silicon, consists of a network organized in a pseudo-column as structure of multiple side ramifications. Structural micro-topology can be interpreted as the fraction of the interconnected solid phase contributing to thermal transport. The reduction of dimensions of silicon of each nanocristallite during the oxidation induced a reduction in thermal conductivity. Integration of thermal sensors in the Microsystems silicon requires an effective insulation of the sensor element. Indeed, the low thermal conductivity of PS consists in a very promising way in the fabrication of integrated thermal Microsystems.In this work we are interesting in the measurements of thermal conductivity (on the surface and in depth) of PS by the micro-Raman spectroscopy. The thermal conductivity is studied according to the parameters of anodization (initial doping and current density. We also, determine porosity of samples by spectroellipsometry.
8
15729
Analyzing of Temperature-Dependent Thermal Conductivity Effect in the Numerical Modeling of Fin-Tube Radiators: Introduction of a New Method
Abstract:
In all industries which are related to heat, suitable thermal ranges are defined for each device to operate well. Consideration of these limits requires a thermal control unit beside the main system. The Satellite Thermal Control Unit exploits from different methods and facilities individually or mixed. For enhancing heat transfer between primary surface and the environment, utilization of radiating extended surfaces are common. Especially for large temperature differences; variable thermal conductivity has a strong effect on performance of such a surface .In most literatures, thermo-physical properties, such as thermal conductivity, are assumed as constant. However, in some recent researches the variation of these parameters is considered. This may be helpful for the evaluation of fin-s temperature distribution in relatively large temperature differences. A new method is introduced to evaluate temperature-dependent thermal conductivity values. The finite volume method is employed to simulate numerically the temperature distribution in a space radiating fin. The present modeling is carried out for Aluminum as fin material and compared with previous method. The present results are also compared with those of two other analytical methods and good agreement is shown.
7
10349
Ionanofluids as Novel Fluids for Advanced Heat Transfer Applications
Abstract:

Ionanofluids are a new and innovative class of heat transfer fluids which exhibit fascinating thermophysical properties compared to their base ionic liquids. This paper deals with the findings of thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity of ionanofluids as a function of a temperature and concentration of nanotubes. Simulation results using ionanofluids as coolants in heat exchanger are also used to access their feasibility and performance in heat transfer devices. Results on thermal conductivity and heat capacity of ionanofluids as well as the estimation of heat transfer areas for ionanofluids and ionic liquids in a model shell and tube heat exchanger reveal that ionanofluids possess superior thermal conductivity and heat capacity and require considerably less heat transfer areas as compared to those of their base ionic liquids. This novel class of fluids shows great potential for advanced heat transfer applications.

6
11208
Development of the Measurement Apparatus for the Effective Thermal Conductivity of Core Material
Abstract:
A measurement apparatus is designed and fabricated to measure the effective thermal conductivity (keff) of a VIP (vacuum insulation panel) core specimen under various vacuum states and external loads. The apparatus consists of part for measuring keff, and parts for controlling external load and vacuum condition. Uncertainty of the apparatus is validated by measuring the standard reference material and comparing with commercial devices with VIP samples. Assessed uncertainty is maximum 2.5 % in case of the standard reference material, 10 % in case of VIP samples. Using the apparatus, keff of glass paper under various vacuum levels is examined.
5
2723
Effects of Sodium Bicarbonate Content and Vulcanization Method on Properties of NBR/PVC Thermal Insulator Foam
Abstract:

In this research sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) was introduced to generate carbon dioxide gas (CO2) to the existing nitrogen gas (N2) of elastomeric foam, to lower thermal conductivity (K). Various loadings of NaHCO3 (0 to 60 phr) were added into the azodicarbonamide (AZC)-containing compound and its properties were then determined. Two vulcanization methods, i.e., hot air and infrared (IR), were employed and compared in this study. Results revealed that compound viscosity tended to increase slightly with increasing NaHCO3 content but cure time was delayed. The effect of NaHCO3 content on thermal conductivity depended on the vulcanization method. For hot air method, the thermal conductivity was insignificantly changed with increasing NaHCO3 up to 40 phr whereas it tended to decrease gradually for IR method. At higher NaHCO3 content (60 phr), unexpected increase of thermal conductivity was observed. The water absorption was also determined and foam structures were then used to explain the results.

4
7618
Density, Strength, Thermal Conductivity and Leachate Characteristics of Light-Weight Fired Clay Bricks Incorporating Cigarette Butts
Abstract:

Several trillion cigarettes produced worldwide annually lead to many thousands of kilograms of toxic waste. Cigarette butts (CBs) accumulate in the environment due to the poor biodegradability of the cellulose acetate filters. This paper presents some of the results from a continuing study on recycling CBs into fired clay bricks. Physico-mechanical properties of fired clay bricks manufactured with different percentages of CBs are reported and discussed. The results show that the density of fired bricks was reduced by up to 30 %, depending on the percentage of CBs incorporated into the raw materials. Similarly, the compressive strength of bricks tested decreased according to the percentage of CBs included in the mix. The thermal conductivity performance of bricks was improved by 51 and 58 % for 5 and 10 % CBs content respectively. Leaching tests were carried out to investigate the levels of possible leachates of heavy metals from the manufactured clay-CB bricks. The results revealed trace amounts of heavy metals.

3
10796
Cubic Splines and Fourier Series Approach to Study Temperature Variation in Dermal Layers of Elliptical Shaped Human Limbs
Abstract:
An attempt has been made to develop a seminumerical model to study temperature variations in dermal layers of human limbs. The model has been developed for two dimensional steady state case. The human limb has been assumed to have elliptical cross section. The dermal region has been divided into three natural layers namely epidermis, dermis and subdermal tissues. The model incorporates the effect of important physiological parameters like blood mass flow rate, metabolic heat generation, and thermal conductivity of the tissues. The outer surface of the limb is exposed to the environment and it is assumed that heat loss takes place at the outer surface by conduction, convection, radiation, and evaporation. The temperature of inner core of the limb also varies at the lower atmospheric temperature. Appropriate boundary conditions have been framed based on the physical conditions of the problem. Cubic splines approach has been employed along radial direction and Fourier series along angular direction to obtain the solution. The numerical results have been computed for different values of eccentricity resembling with the elliptic cross section of the human limbs. The numerical results have been used to obtain the temperature profile and to study the relationships among the various physiological parameters.
2
300
Possible Utilization of Cigarette Butts in Light- Weight Fired Clay Bricks
Abstract:

Over a million tonnes of cigarette butts (CBs) are produced worldwide annually. These CBs accumulate in the environment due to the poor biodegradability of the cellulose acetate filters and pose a serious environmental risk. This paper presents some of the results from a continuing study on recycling CBs into fired clay bricks. Properties including compressive strength, flexural strength, density, water absorption and thermal conductivity of fired clay bricks are reported and discussed. Furthermore, leaching of heavy metals from the manufactured clay bricks was tested. The results show that the density of fired bricks was reduced by about 8 – 30 %, depending on the percentage of CBs incorporated into the raw materials. The compressive strength of bricks tested was 12.57, 5.22 and 3.00 MPa for 2.5, 5.0 and 10 % CB content respectively. Water absorption and initial rate of absorption values increased as density, and hence porosity, of bricks decreased with increasing CB volume. The leaching test results revealed trace amounts of heavy metals.

1
11213
Effects of Nanolayer Structure and Brownian Motion of Particles in Thermal Conductivity Enhancement of Nanofluids
Abstract:
Nanofluids are novel fluids that are going to have an important role in future industrial thermal device designs. Studies are being predominantly conducted on the mechanism of these heat transfers. The key to this attraction is in the increase in thermal conductivity brought about by the Nanofluids compared with the base fluid. Different models have been proposed for calculation of effective thermal conduction that has been gradually modified. In this investigation effect of nanolayer structure and Brownian motion of particles are studied and a new modified thermal conductivity model is proposed. Temperature, concentration, nanolayer thickness and particle size are taken as variables and their effect are studied simultaneously on the thermal conductivity of the fluids, showing the concentration of the nanoparticles to affect the nanolayer thickness which also affects the Brownian motion.

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