A Recommendation to Oncologists for Cancer Treatment by Immunotherapy: Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis
Today, the treatment of cancer, in a relatively short
period, with minimum adverse effects is a great concern for
oncologists. In this paper, based on a recently used mathematical
model for cancer, a guideline has been proposed for the amount
and duration of drug doses for cancer treatment by immunotherapy.
Dynamically speaking, the mathematical ordinary differential
equation (ODE) model of cancer has different equilibrium points;
one of them is unstable, which is called the no tumor equilibrium
point. In this paper, based on the number of tumor cells an
intelligent soft computing controller (a combination of fuzzy logic
controller and genetic algorithm), decides regarding the amount
and duration of drug doses, to eliminate the tumor cells and
stabilize the unstable point in a relatively short time. Two different
immunotherapy approaches; active and adoptive, have been studied
and presented. It is shown that the rate of decay of tumor cells is
faster and the doses of drug are lower in comparison with the result
of some other literatures. It is also shown that the period of
treatment and the doses of drug in adoptive immunotherapy are
significantly less than the active method. A recommendation to
oncologists has also been presented.
Grade and Maximum Tumor Dimension as Determinants of Lymphadenectomy in Patients with Endometrioid Endometrial Cancer (EEC)
Introduction: Endometrial Cancer is a common gynecologic malignancy primarily treated with complete surgical staging, which may include complete pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy. The role of lymphadenectomy is controversial, especially the intraoperative indications for the procedure. Three factors are important in decision to proceed with lymphadenectomy: Myometrial invasion, maximum tumor dimension, and histology. Many institutions incorporate these criteria in varying degrees in the decision to proceed with lymphadenectomy. This investigation assesses the use of intraoperatively measured MTD with and without pre-operative histologic grade. Methods: This study compared retrospectively EEC patients with intraoperatively measured MTD ≤2 cm to those with MTD >2 cm from January 1, 2002 to August 31, 2017. This assessment compared those with MTD ≤ 2cm with endometrial biopsy (EB) grade 1-2 to patients with MTD > 2cm with EB grade 3. Lymph node metastasis (LNM), recurrence, and survival were compared in these groups. Results: This study reviewed 222 patient cases. In tumors > 2 cm, LNM occurred in 20% cases while in tumors ≤ 2 cm, LNM was found in 6% cases (p=0.04). Recurrence and mean survival based on last follow up visit in these two groups were not statistically different (p=0.78 and 0.36 respectively). Data demonstrated a trend that when combined with preoperative EB International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) grade, a higher proportion of patients with EB FIGO Grade 3 and MTD > 2 cm had LNM compared to those with EB FIGO Grade 1-2 and MTD ≤ 2 cm (43% vs, 11%, p=0.06). LNM was found in 15% of cases in which lymphadenectomy was performed based on current practices, whereas if the criteria of EB FIGO 3 and MTD > 2 cm were used the incidence of LNM would have been 44% cases. However, using this criterion, two patients would not have had their nodal metastases detected. Compared to the current practice, the sensitivity and specificity of the proposed criteria would be 60% and 81%, respectively. The PPV and NPV would be 43% and 90%, respectively. Conclusion: The results indicate that MTD combined with EB FIGO grade can detect LNM in a higher proportion of cases when compared to current practice. MTD combined with EB FIGO grade may eliminate the need of frozen section sampling in a substantial number of cases.
A Dose Distribution Approach Using Monte Carlo Simulation in Dosimetric Accuracy Calculation for Treating the Lung Tumor
This paper presents a Monte Carlo (MC) method-based dose distributions on lung tumor for 6 MV photon beam to improve the dosimetric accuracy for cancer treatment. The polystyrene which is tissue equivalent material to the lung tumor density is used in this research. In the empirical calculations, TRS-398 formalism of IAEA has been used, and the setup was made according to the ICRU recommendations. The research outcomes were compared with the state-of-the-art experimental results. From the experimental results, it is observed that the proposed based approach provides more accurate results and improves the accuracy than the existing approaches. The average %variation between measured and TPS simulated values was obtained 1.337±0.531, which shows a substantial improvement comparing with the state-of-the-art technology.
Dosimetric Analysis of Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy versus 3D Conformal Radiotherapy in Adult Primary Brain Tumors: Regional Cancer Centre, India
Radiation therapy has undergone many advancements and evloved from 2D to 3D. Recently, with rapid pace of drug discoveries, cutting edge technology, and clinical trials has made innovative advancements in computer technology and treatment planning and upgraded to intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) which delivers in homogenous dose to tumor and normal tissues. The present study was a hospital-based experience comparing two different conformal radiotherapy techniques for brain tumors. This analytical study design has been conducted at Regional Cancer Centre, India from January 2014 to January 2015. Ten patients have been selected after inclusion and exclusion criteria. All the patients were treated on Artiste Siemens Linac Accelerator. The tolerance level for maximum dose was 6.0 Gyfor lenses and 54.0 Gy for brain stem, optic chiasm and optical nerves as per RTOG criteria. Mean and standard deviation values of PTV98%, PTV 95% and PTV 2% in IMRT were 93.16±2.9, 95.01±3.4 and 103.1±1.1 respectively; for 3DCRT were 91.4±4.7, 94.17±2.6 and 102.7±0.39 respectively. PTV max dose (%) in IMRT and 3D-CRT were 104.7±0.96 and 103.9±1.0 respectively. Maximum dose to the tumor can be delivered with IMRT with acceptable toxicity limits. Variables such as expertise, location of tumor, patient condition, and TPS influence the outcome of the treatment.
Computer Aided Diagnostic System for Detection and Classification of a Brain Tumor through MRI Using Level Set Based Segmentation Technique and ANN Classifier
Due to the acquisition of huge amounts of brain tumor magnetic resonance images (MRI) in clinics, it is very difficult for radiologists to manually interpret and segment these images within a reasonable span of time. Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems can enhance the diagnostic capabilities of radiologists and reduce the time required for accurate diagnosis. An intelligent computer-aided technique for automatic detection of a brain tumor through MRI is presented in this paper. The technique uses the following computational methods; the Level Set for segmentation of a brain tumor from other brain parts, extraction of features from this segmented tumor portion using gray level co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM), and the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to classify brain tumor images according to their respective types. The entire work is carried out on 50 images having five types of brain tumor. The overall classification accuracy using this method is found to be 98% which is significantly good.
Antibody-Conjugated Nontoxic Arginine-Doped Fe3O4 Nanoparticles for Magnetic Circulating Tumor Cells Separation
Nano-sized materials present new opportunities in biology and medicine and they are used as biomedical tools for investigation, separation of molecules and cells. To achieve more effective cancer therapy, it is essential to select cancer cells exactly. This research suggests that using the antibody-functionalized nontoxic Arginine-doped magnetic nanoparticles (A-MNPs), has been prosperous in detection, capture, and magnetic separation of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in tumor tissue. In this study, A-MNPs were synthesized via a simple precipitation reaction and directly immobilized Ep-CAM EBA-1 antibodies over superparamagnetic A-MNPs for Mucin BCA-225 in breast cancer cell. The samples were characterized by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), FT-IR spectroscopy, Tunneling Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). These antibody-functionalized nontoxic A-MNPs were used to capture breast cancer cell. Through employing a strong permanent magnet, the magnetic separation was achieved within a few seconds. Antibody-Conjugated nontoxic Arginine-doped Fe3O4 nanoparticles have the potential for the future study to capture CTCs which are released from tumor tissue and for drug delivery, and these results demonstrate that the antibody-conjugated A-MNPs can be used in magnetic hyperthermia techniques for cancer treatment.
Monitoring the Effect of Doxorubicin Liposomal in VX2 Tumor Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Cancer is still one of the serious diseases threatening
the lives of human beings. How to have an early diagnosis and
effective treatment for tumors is a very important issue. The animal
carcinoma model can provide a simulation tool for the studies of
pathogenesis, biological characteristics, and therapeutic effects.
Recently, drug delivery systems have been rapidly developed to
effectively improve the therapeutic effects. Liposome plays an
increasingly important role in clinical diagnosis and therapy for
delivering a pharmaceutic or contrast agent to the targeted sites.
Liposome can be absorbed and excreted by the human body, and is
well known that no harm to the human body. This study aimed to
compare the therapeutic effects between encapsulated (doxorubicin
liposomal, Lipodox) and un-encapsulated (doxorubicin, Dox)
anti-tumor drugs using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
Twenty-four New Zealand rabbits implanted with VX2 carcinoma at
left thighs were classified into three groups: control group (untreated),
Dox-treated group, and LipoDox-treated group, 8 rabbits for each
group. MRI scans were performed three days after tumor implantation.
A 1.5T GE Signa HDxt whole body MRI scanner with a high
resolution knee coil was used in this study. After a 3-plane localizer
scan was performed, three-dimensional (3D) fast spin echo (FSE)
T2-weighted Images (T2WI) was used for tumor volumetric
quantification. Afterwards, two-dimensional (2D) spoiled gradient
recalled echo (SPGR) dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI was
used for tumor perfusion evaluation. DCE-MRI was designed to
acquire four baseline images, followed by contrast agent Gd-DOTA
injection through the ear vein of rabbit. A series of 32 images were
acquired to observe the signals change over time in the tumor and
muscle. The MRI scanning was scheduled on a weekly basis for a
period of four weeks to observe the tumor progression longitudinally.
The Dox and LipoDox treatments were prescribed 3 times in the first
week immediately after the first MRI scan; i.e. 3 days after VX2 tumor
implantation. ImageJ was used to quantitate tumor volume and time
course signal enhancement on DCE images. The changes of tumor size
showed that the growth of VX2 tumors was effectively inhibited for
both LipoDox-treated and Dox-treated groups. Furthermore, the tumor
volume of LipoDox-treated group was significantly lower than that of
Dox-treated group, which implies that LipoDox has better therapeutic effect than Dox. The signal intensity of LipoDox-treated group is
significantly lower than that of the other two groups, which implies
that targeted therapeutic drug remained in the tumor tissue. This study
provides a radiation-free and non-invasive MRI method for
therapeutic monitoring of targeted liposome on an animal tumor
Metabolites of Polygonum L. Plants Having Antitumor Properties
The article represents the results of research of
antitumor activity of different structural types of plant flavonoids
extracted by authors from Polygonum L. plants in commercial
reserves at the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan. For the first
time ever the results comparative research of antitumor activity of
plant flavonoids of different structural groups and their synthetic
derivatives have been represented. The results of determination of
toxicity of flavonoids in single parenteral infusion conditions have
been represented. Experimental substantiation of possible
mechanisms of antiproliferative and cytotoxic action of flavonoids
has been suggested. The perspectives of usage of plant flavonoids as
medications and creation of effective dosage forms of antitumor
medicines on their basis have been substantiated.
The Effect of Choke on the Efficiency of Coaxial Antenna for Percutaneous Microwave Coagulation Therapy for Hepatic Tumor
There are many perceived advantages of microwave
ablation have driven researchers to develop innovative antennas to
effectively treat deep-seated, non-resectable hepatic tumors. In this
paper a coaxial antenna with a miniaturized sleeve choke has been
discussed for microwave interstitial ablation therapy, in order to
reduce backward heating effects irrespective of the insertion depth
into the tissue. Two dimensional Finite Element Method (FEM) is
used to simulate and measure the results of miniaturized sleeve choke
antenna. This paper emphasizes the importance of factors that can
affect simulation accuracy, which include mesh resolution, surface
heating and reflection coefficient. Quarter wavelength choke
effectiveness has been discussed by comparing it with the unchoked
antenna with same dimensions.
Effectual Reversible Watermarking Method for Hide the Patient Details in Brain Tumor Image
The security of the medical images and its related data is the major research area which is to be concentrated in today’s era. Security in the medical image indicates that the physician may hide patients’ related data in the medical image and transfer it safely to a defined location using reversible watermarking. Many reversible watermarking methods had proposed over the decade. This paper enhances the security level in brain tumor images to hide the patient’s detail, which has to be conferred with other physician’s suggestions. The details or the information will be hidden in Non-ROI area of the image by using the block cipher algorithm. The block cipher uses different keys to extract the details that are difficult for the intruder to detect all the keys and to spot the details, which are the key advantage of this method. The ROI is the tumor area and Non-ROI is the area rest of ROI. The Non-ROI should not be spoiled in any cause and the details in the Non-ROI should be extracted correctly. The reversible watermarking method proposed in this paper performs well when compared to existing methods in the process of extraction of an original image and providing information security.
Performance Analysis of Genetic Algorithm with kNN and SVM for Feature Selection in Tumor Classification
Tumor classification is a key area of research in the
field of bioinformatics. Microarray technology is commonly used in
the study of disease diagnosis using gene expression levels. The
main drawback of gene expression data is that it contains thousands
of genes and a very few samples. Feature selection methods are used
to select the informative genes from the microarray. These methods
considerably improve the classification accuracy. In the proposed
method, Genetic Algorithm (GA) is used for effective feature
selection. Informative genes are identified based on the T-Statistics,
Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and F-Test values. The initial candidate
solutions of GA are obtained from top-m informative genes. The
classification accuracy of k-Nearest Neighbor (kNN) method is used
as the fitness function for GA. In this work, kNN and Support Vector
Machine (SVM) are used as the classifiers. The experimental results
show that the proposed work is suitable for effective feature
selection. With the help of the selected genes, GA-kNN method
achieves 100% accuracy in 4 datasets and GA-SVM method
achieves in 5 out of 10 datasets. The GA with kNN and SVM
methods are demonstrated to be an accurate method for microarray
based tumor classification.
ICAM-2, A Protein of Antitumor Immune Response in Mekong Giant Catfish (Pangasianodon gigas)
ICAM-2 (intercellular adhesion molecule 2) or CD102 (Cluster of Differentiation 102) is type I transmembrane glycoproteins, composing 2-9 immunoglobulin-like C2-type domains. ICAM-2 plays the particular role in immune response and cell surveillance. It is concerned in innate and specific immunity, cell survival signal, apoptosis, and anticancer. EST clone of ICAM-2, from P. gigas blood cell EST libraries, showed high identity to human ICAM-2 (92%) with conserve region of ICAM N-terminal domain and part of Ig superfamily. Gene and protein of ICAM-2 has been founded in mammals. This is the first report of ICAM-2 in fish
Industrial Production and Clinical Application of L-Asparaginase: A Chemotherapeutic Agent
This article comprises detail information about L-asparaginase, encompassing topic such as various sources of L-asparaginase, mechanism and properties of L-asparaginase. Also describe the production, cultivation and purification of L-asparaginase along with information about the application of L-asparaginase. L-asparaginase catalyzes the conversion reaction to convert asparagine to aspartic acid and ammonia. Asparagine is a nutritional requirement for both normal and tumor cell. Present scenario has found that L-asparaginase has been found to be a best anti tumor or antileukemic agent. In the recent years this enzyme gained application in the field of clinical research pharmacologic and food industry. It has been characterized based on the enzyme assay principle hydrolyzing L-asparagine into L-aspartic acid and ammonia. It has been observed that eukaryotic microorganisms such as yeast and filamentous fungi have a potential for L-asparaginase production. L-asparaginase has been and is still one of the most lengthily studied therapeutic enzymes by scientist and researchers worldwide.
New Drug Delivery System for Cancer Therapy
The paper presents a new drugs delivery system, based on the thin film technology. As a model antitumor drug, highly toxic doxorubicin is chosen. The system is based on the technology of obtaining zinc oxide composite of doxorubicin by deposition of nanosize ZnO films on the surface of doxorubicin coating on glass substrate using DC magnetron sputtering of zinc targets in Ar:O2 medium at room temperature. For doxorubicin zinc oxide compositions in the form of coatings and gels with 180-200nm thick ZnO films, higher (by a factor 2) in vivo (ascitic Ehrlich's carcinoma) antitumor activity is observed at low doses of doxorubicin in comparison with that of the initial preparation at therapeutic doses. The vector character of the doxorubicin zinc oxide composite transport to tumor tissues ensures the increase in antitumor activity as well as decrease of toxicity in comparison with the initial drug.
Can EEG Test Helps in Identifying Brain Tumor?
Brain tumor is inherently serious and life-threatening disease. Brain tumor builds the intracranial pressure in the brain, by shifting the brain or pushing against the skull, and also damaging nerves and healthy brain tissues. This intracranial pressure affects and interferes with normal brain functionality, which results in generation of abnormal electrical activities from brain. With recent development in the medical engineering and instruments, EEG instruments are able to record the brain electric activities with high accuracy, which establishes EEG as a primary tool for diagnosing the brain abnormalities. Research scholars and general physicians, often face difficulty in understanding EEG patterns. This paper presents the EEG patterns associated with brain tumor by combing medicine theory and neurologist experience. Paper also explains the pros-cons of the EEG based brain tumor identification.
Automatic Detection of Breast Tumors in Sonoelastographic Images Using DWT
Breast Cancer is the most common malignancy in women and the second leading cause of death for women all over the world. Earlier the detection of cancer, better the treatment. The diagnosis and treatment of the cancer rely on segmentation of Sonoelastographic images. Texture features has not considered for Sonoelastographic segmentation. Sonoelastographic images of 15 patients containing both benign and malignant tumorsare considered for experimentation.The images are enhanced to remove noise in order to improve contrast and emphasize tumor boundary. It is then decomposed into sub-bands using single level Daubechies wavelets varying from single co-efficient to six coefficients. The Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM), Local Binary Pattern (LBP) features are extracted and then selected by ranking it using Sequential Floating Forward Selection (SFFS) technique from each sub-band. The resultant images undergo K-Means clustering and then few post-processing steps to remove the false spots. The tumor boundary is detected from the segmented image. It is proposed that Local Binary Pattern (LBP) from the vertical coefficients of Daubechies wavelet with two coefficients is best suited for segmentation of Sonoelastographic breast images among the wavelet members using one to six coefficients for decomposition. The results are also quantified with the help of an expert radiologist. The proposed work can be used for further diagnostic process to decide if the segmented tumor is benign or malignant.
Pre-Clinical Studying of Antitumor Ramon Preparation: Chronic Toxicity
In article the data of chronic toxicity for pre-clinical
researches of Ramon preparation is described. Ramon effects to
hormone system and gastrointestinal tract; local irritative effect,
allergic, pyrogenic properties and reaction to the immune system
Pre-Clinical Studying of Antitumor Ramon Preparation: Specific Activity
In article the data of pre-clinical researches of Ramon
preparation is described. Antitumor activity of Ramon has been
studied on 19 strains of transplantated tumors of different
Pre-Clinical Studying of Antitumor Ramon Preparation: Acute Toxicity
In article the data of acute toxicity for pre-clinical
researches of Ramon preparation is described. Ramon effects to
clinical characteristics of blood, cardio-vascular system, hepatotoxic
and diuretic effects were studied.
MiRNAs as Regulators of Tumour Suppressor Expression
Tumour suppressors are key participants in the
prevention of cancer. Regulation of their expression through
miRNAs is important for comprehensive translation inhibition of
tumour suppressors and elucidation of carcinogenesis mechanisms.
We studies the possibility of 1521 miRNAs to bind with 873 mRNAs
of human tumour suppressors using RNAHybrid 2.1 and ERNAhybrid
programmes. Only 978 miRNAs were found to be
translational regulators of 812 mRNAs, and 61 mRNAs did not have
any miRNA binding sites. Additionally, 45.9% of all miRNA binding
sites were located in coding sequences (CDSs), 33.8% were located
in 3' untranslated region (UTR), and 20.3% were located in the
5'UTR. MiRNAs binding with more than 50 target mRNAs and
mRNAs binding with several miRNAs were selected. Hsa-miR-5096
had 15 perfectly complementary binding sites with mRNAs of 14
tumour suppressors. These newly indentified miRNA binding sites
can be used in the development of medicines (anti-sense therapies)
for cancer treatment.
A Fuzzy Tumor Volume Estimation Approach Based On Fuzzy Segmentation of MR Images
Quantitative measurements of tumor in general and tumor volume in particular, become more realistic with the use of Magnetic Resonance imaging, especially when the tumor morphological changes become irregular and difficult to assess by clinical examination. However, tumor volume estimation strongly depends on the image segmentation, which is fuzzy by nature. In this paper a fuzzy approach is presented for tumor volume segmentation based on the fuzzy connectedness algorithm. The fuzzy affinity matrix resulting from segmentation is then used to estimate a fuzzy volume based on a certainty parameter, an Alpha Cut, defined by the user. The proposed method was shown to highly affect treatment decisions. A statistical analysis was performed in this study to validate the results based on a manual method for volume estimation and the importance of using the Alpha Cut is further explained.
Highly Sensitive Label Free Biosensor for Tumor Necrosis Factor
We present a label-free biosensor based on
electrochemical impedance spectroscopy for the detection of proinflammatory
cytokine Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF-α). Secretion of
TNF-α has been correlated to the onset of various diseases including
rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn-s disease etc. Gold electrodes were
patterned on a silicon substrate and self assembled monolayer of
dithiobis-succinimidyl propionate was used to develop the biosensor
which achieved a detection limit of ~57fM. A linear relationship was
also observed between increasing TNF-α concentrations and chargetransfer
resistance within a dynamic range of 1pg/ml – 1ng/ml.
Optimization of Breast Tumor Cells Isolation Efficiency and Purity by Membrane Filtration
Size based filtration is one of the common methods
employed to isolate circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from whole
blood. It is well known that this method suffers from isolation
efficiency to purity tradeoff. However, this tradeoff is poorly
understood. In this paper, we present the design and manufacturing
of a special rectangular slit filter. The filter was designed to retain
maximal amounts of nucleated cells, while minimizing the pressure
on cells, thereby preserving their morphology. The key parameter,
namely, input pressure, was optimized to retain the maximal number
of tumor cells, whilst maximizing the depletion of normal blood cells
(red and white blood cells and platelets). Our results indicate that for
a slit geometry of 5 × 40 μm on a 13 mm circular membrane with a
fill factor of 21%, a pressure of 6.9 mBar yields the optimum for
maximizing isolation of MCF-7 and depletion of normal blood cells.
On the Mathematical Model of Vascular Endothelial Growth Connected with a Tumor Proliferation
In the paper the mathematical model of tumor
growth is considered. New capillary network formation,
which supply cancer cells with the nutrients, is taken into the
account. A formula estimating a tumor growth in connection
with the number of capillaries is obtained.
Study of Peptide Fragment of Alpha-Fetoprotein as a Radionuclide Vehicle
Alpfa-fetoprotein and its fragments may be an important vehicle for targeted delivery of radionuclides to the tumor. We investigated the effect of conditions on the labeling of biologically active synthetic peptide based on the (F-afp) with technetium-99m. The influence of the nature of the buffer solution, pH, concentration of reductant, concentration of the peptide and the reaction temperature on the yield of labeling was examined. As a result, the following optimal conditions for labeling of (F-afp) are found: pH 8.5 (phosphate and bicarbonate buffers) and pH from 1.7 to 7.0 (citrate buffer). The reaction proceeds with sufficient yield at room temperature for 30 min at the concentration of SnCl2 and (Fafp) (F-afp) is to be less than 10 mkg/ml and 25 mkg/ml, respectively. Investigations of the test drug accumulation in the tumor cells of human breast cancer were carried out. Results can be assumed that the in vivo study of the (F-afp) in experimental tumor lesions will show concentrations sufficient for imaging these lesions by SPECT.
Study on Antioxidant and Antitumor Activities of Some Herbal Extracts
The potential of antioxidant activities of the plant
extract Gynura procumbens, Achyranthes aspera and Polygenum
tomentosum were studied by using 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl
(DPPH) .Antioxidant activity was qualitatively and quantitatively
determined. In this analysis , Ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) was used as
the standard .The antioxidant activities were observed all three plant
extracts and the EC50 values of G procumbens A.aspera and
P.tomemtosum were 13.7 μg /ml,14.37 μg /ml and 14.35 μg /ml.
Among these plants, G.procumbens is more potent antioxidant
activity then others. Antitumor activities were found with A.aspera
(s2) extracts in the dose of 100ppm in carrot disks and G.procumbens
(s1) and P.tomentosum (s3) in the dose of 1000 ppm. Therefore, these
herbal plants are used in traditional medicines.
Quantitative Determination of Free Radical Scavenging Activity and Anti-tumor Activity of Some Myanmar Herbal Plants
Antioxidant activities of ethanolic extracts of Ardisia
japonica Blume., Ageartum conyzoides Linn., and Cocculus hirsutus
Linn Diels. leaves was determined qualitatively and quantitatively in
this research. 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical
solution was used to investigate free radical scavenging activity of
these leaves extracts. Ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) was used as the
standard. In the present investigation, it is found that all of these
extracts have remarkable antioxidant activities. The EC50 values of
these ethanolic extracts were 12.72 μg/ml for A. japonica, 15.19
μg/ml for A. conyzoides, 10.68 μg/ml for C. hirsutus respectively.
Among these Myanmar medicinal plants, C. hirsutus showed higher
antioxidant activities as well as free radical scavenging activity than
black tea (Camellia sinensis), the famous antioxidant, and A.
japonica and A. conyzoides showed a rather lower antioxidant
activity than tea extracts. According to results from bioassay with
carrot discs infected with Agrobacterium tumefaciens, all extracts
showed anti-tumor activity after 3 weeks of incubation. No gall was
detected in carrot disks treated with C. hirsutus and A. japonica
extracts in the dose of 100ppm and in carrot discs treated with A.
conyzoides extract in the dose of 1000 ppm. Therefore, the research
clearly indicates that these weedy plants of dry farm land are
exceptionally advantageous for human health.
Loss of P16/INK4A Protein Expression is a Common Abnormality in Hodgkin's Lymphoma
P16/INK4A is tumor suppressor protein that plays a critical role in cell cycle regulation. Loss of P16 protein expression has been implicated in pathogenesis of many cancers, including lymphoma. Therefore, we sought to investigate if loss of P16 protein expression is associated with lymphoma and/or any specific lymphoma subtypes (Hodgkin-s lymphoma (HL) and nonHodgkin-s lymphoma (NHL)). Fifty-five lymphoma cases consisted of 30 cases of HL and 25 cases of NHL, with an age range of 3 to 78 years, were examined for loss of P16 by immunohistochemical technique using a specific antibody reacting against P16. In total, P16 loss was seen in 33% of all lymphoma cases. P16 loss was identified in 47.7% of HL cases. In contrast, only 16% of NHL showed loss of P16. Loss of P16 was seen in 67% of HL patients with 50 years of age or older, whereas P16 loss was found in only 42% of HL patients with less than 50 years of age. P16 loss in HL is somewhat higher in male (55%) than in female (30%). In subtypes of HL, P16 loss was found exclusively in all cases of lymphocyte depletion, lymphocyte predominance and unclassified cases, whereas P16 loss was seen in 39% of mixed cellularity and 29% of nodular sclerosis cases. In low grade NHL patients, P16 loss was seen in approximately one-third of cases, whereas no or very rare of P16 loss was found in intermediate and high grade cases. P16 loss did not show any correlation with age or gender of NHL patients. In conclusion, the high rate of P16 loss seen in our study suggests that loss of P16 expression plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of lymphoma, particularly with HL.
Applications of Artificial Neural Network to Building Statistical Models for Qualifying and Indexing Radiation Treatment Plans
The main goal in this paper is to quantify the quality of
different techniques for radiation treatment plans, a back-propagation
artificial neural network (ANN) combined with biomedicine theory
was used to model thirteen dosimetric parameters and to calculate
two dosimetric indices. The correlations between dosimetric indices
and quality of life were extracted as the features and used in the ANN
model to make decisions in the clinic. The simulation results show
that a trained multilayer back-propagation neural network model can
help a doctor accept or reject a plan efficiently. In addition, the
models are flexible and whenever a new treatment technique enters
the market, the feature variables simply need to be imported and the
model re-trained for it to be ready for use.
Bioinformatics Profiling of Missense Mutations
The ability to distinguish missense nucleotide
substitutions that contribute to harmful effect from those that do not
is a difficult problem usually accomplished through functional in
vivo analyses. In this study, instead current biochemical methods, the
effects of missense mutations upon protein structure and function
were assayed by means of computational methods and information
from the databases. For this order, the effects of new missense
mutations in exon 5 of PTEN gene upon protein structure and
function were examined. The gene coding for PTEN was identified
and localized on chromosome region 10q23.3 as the tumor
suppressor gene. The utilization of these methods were shown that
c.319G>A and c.341T>G missense mutations that were recognized in
patients with breast cancer and Cowden disease, could be pathogenic.
This method could be use for analysis of missense mutation in others