Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 52

52
10009754
Active Linear Quadratic Gaussian Secondary Suspension Control of Flexible Bodied Railway Vehicle
Abstract:

Passenger comfort has been paramount in the design of suspension systems of high speed cars. To analyze the effect of vibration on vehicle ride quality, a vertical model of a six degree of freedom railway passenger vehicle, with front and rear suspension, is built. It includes car body flexible effects and vertical rigid modes. A second order linear shaping filter is constructed to model Gaussian white noise into random rail excitation. The temporal correlation between the front and rear wheels is given by a second order Pade approximation. The complete track and the vehicle model are then designed. An active secondary suspension system based on a Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG) optimal control method is designed. The results show that the LQG control method reduces the vertical acceleration, pitching acceleration and vertical bending vibration of the car body as compared to the passive system.

51
10009235
Experimental Study of Flow Effects of Solid Particles’ Size in Porous Media
Abstract:

Transpiration cooling combined to regenerative cooling is a technique that could be used to cool the porous walls of the future ramjet combustion chambers; it consists of using fuel that will flow through the pores of the porous material consisting of the chamber walls, as coolant. However, at high temperature, the fuel is pyrolysed and generates solid coke particles inside the porous materials. This phenomenon can lead to a significant decrease of the material permeability and can affect the efficiency of the cooling system. In order to better understand this phenomenon, an experimental laboratory study was undertaken to determine the transport and deposition of particles in a sintered porous material subjected to steady state flow. The test bench composed of a high-pressure autoclave is used to study the transport of different particle size (35

50
10008001
Passenger Seat Vibration Comparison Using ANFIS Control in Active Quarter Car Model
Authors:
Abstract:

In this paper, vibration control response of passenger seat in quarter car model having three degrees of freedom is studied. Three different control strategies are taken into account using Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) controller. In first case, ANFIS controller is applied in main suspension of active quarter car model. In second case, passenger seat suspension is assembled with ANFIS controller. Finally, both main and passenger seat suspensions are integrated with ANFIS controller. Simulation work under random road excitations is performed using passive and controlled quarter car models for performance comparison of passenger ride comfort. Ride comfort analysis is also compared as per ISO 2631-1 criterion. The obtained simulation responses are compared taking passenger seat acceleration and displacement response in time and frequency domain for the selection of best control strategy in designed quarter car model.

49
10007458
Self-Tuning Fuzzy Control of Seat Vibrations of Active Quarter Car Model
Authors:
Abstract:

An active quarter car model with three degrees of freedom is presented for vibration reduction of passenger seat. The designed Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) and Self-Tuning Fuzzy Logic Controller (STFLC) are applied in seat suspension. Vibration control performance of active and passive quarter car systems are determined using simulation work. Simulation results in terms of passenger seat acceleration and displacement responses are compared for controlled and uncontrolled cases. Simulation results showed the improved results of both FLC and STFLC controllers in improving passenger ride comfort compared to uncontrolled case. Furthermore, the best performance in simulation studies is achieved by STFLC controlled suspension system compared to FLC controlled and uncontrolled cases.

48
10007459
Summing ANFIS PID Control of Passenger Seat Vibrations in Active Quarter Car Model
Authors:
Abstract:

In this paper, passenger seat vibration control of an active quarter car model under random road excitations is considered. The designed ANFIS and Summing ANFIS PID controllers are assembled in primary suspension system of quarter car model. Simulation work is performed in time and frequency domain to obtain passenger seat acceleration and displacement responses. Simulation results show that Summing ANFIS PID based controller is highly suitable to suppress the road induced vibrations in quarter car model to achieve desired passenger ride comfort and safety compared to ANFIS and passive system.

47
10006730
Simulation of a Control System for an Adaptive Suspension System for Passenger Vehicles
Abstract:

In the process to cope with the challenges faced by the automobile industry in providing ride comfort, the electronics and control systems play a vital role. The control systems in an automobile monitor various parameters, controls the performances of the systems, thereby providing better handling characteristics. The automobile suspension system is one of the main systems that ensure the safety, stability and comfort of the passengers. The system is solely responsible for the isolation of the entire automobile from harmful road vibrations. Thus, integration of the control systems in the automobile suspension system would enhance its performance. The diverse road conditions of India demand the need of an efficient suspension system which can provide optimum ride comfort in all road conditions. For any passenger vehicle, the design of the suspension system plays a very important role in assuring the ride comfort and handling characteristics. In recent years, the air suspension system is preferred over the conventional suspension systems to ensure ride comfort. In this article, the ride comfort of the adaptive suspension system is compared with that of the passive suspension system. The schema is created in MATLAB/Simulink environment. The system is controlled by a proportional integral differential controller. Tuning of the controller was done with the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm, since it suited the problem best. Ziegler-Nichols and Modified Ziegler-Nichols tuning methods were also tried and compared. Both the static responses and dynamic responses of the systems were calculated. Various random road profiles as per ISO 8608 standard are modelled in the MATLAB environment and their responses plotted. Open-loop and closed loop responses of the random roads, various bumps and pot holes are also plotted. The simulation results of the proposed design are compared with the available passive suspension system. The obtained results show that the proposed adaptive suspension system is efficient in controlling the maximum over shoot and the settling time of the system is reduced enormously.

46
10006127
Workspace Analysis of 6–6 Cable-Suspended Parallel Robots
Abstract:
In this paper, the effect of the moving platform size on the workspace volume of 6–6 cable-suspended parallel robots is investigated in details for different geometric configurations and orientations of the moving platform. The obtained hints can be used as a rule of thumb in designing this type of robot.
45
10005107
Sliding Mode Control for Active Suspension System with Actuator Delay
Abstract:
Sliding mode controller for a vehicle active suspension system is designed in this study. The widely used quarter car model is preferred and it is aimed to improve the ride comfort of the passengers. The effect of the actuator time delay, which may arise due to the information processing, sensors or actuator dynamics, is also taken into account during the design of the controller. A sliding mode controller was designed that has taken into account the actuator time delay by using Smith predictor. The successful performance of the designed controller is confirmed via numerical results.
44
10005218
Sliding Mode Control of a Bus Suspension System
Abstract:

The vibrations, caused by the irregularities of the road surface, are to be suppressed via suspension systems. In this paper, sliding mode control for a half bus model with air suspension system is presented. The bus is modelled as five degrees of freedom (DoF) system. The mathematical model of the half bus is developed using Lagrange Equations. For time domain analysis, the bus model is assumed to travel at certain speed over the bump road. The numerical results of the analysis indicate that the sliding mode controllers can be effectively used to suppress the vibrations and to improve the ride comfort of the busses.

43
10004893
Active Vibration Control of Passenger Seat with HFPIDCR Controlled Suspension Alternatives
Abstract:

In this paper, passenger ride comfort issues are studied taking active quarter car model with three degrees of freedom. A hybrid fuzzy – PID controller with coupled rules (HFPIDCR) is designed for vibration control of passenger seat. Three different control strategies are considered. In first case, main suspension is controlled. In second case, passenger seat suspension is controlled. In third case, both main suspension and passenger seat suspensions are controlled. Passenger seat acceleration and displacement results are obtained using bump and sinusoidal type road disturbances. Finally, obtained simulation results of designed uncontrolled and controlled quarter car models are compared and discussed to select best control strategy for achieving high level of passenger ride comfort.

42
10003278
Modeling of a Vehicle Wheel System Having a Built-in Suspension Structure Consisted of Radially Deployed Colloidal Spokes between Hub and Rim
Abstract:

In this work, by replacing the traditional solid spokes with colloidal spokes, a vehicle wheel with a built-in suspension structure is proposed. Following the background and description of the wheel system, firstly, a vibration model of the wheel equipped with colloidal spokes is proposed, and based on such model the equivalent damping coefficients and spring constants are identified. Then, a modified model of a quarter-vehicle moving on a rough pavement is proposed in order to estimate the transmissibility of vibration from the road roughness to vehicle body. In the end, the optimal design of the colloidal spokes and the optimum number of colloidal spokes are decided in order to minimize the transmissibility of vibration, i.e., to maximize the ride comfort of the vehicle.

41
10001992
Controller Design for Active Suspension System of ¼ Car with Unknown Mass and Time-Delay
Abstract:
The purpose of this paper is to present a modeling and control of a quarter-car active suspension system with unknown mass, unknown time-delay and road disturbance. The objective of designing the controller is to derive a control law to achieve stability of the system and convergence that can considerably improve ride comfort and road disturbance handling. This is accomplished by using Routh-Hurwitz criterion based on defined parameters. Mathematical proof is given to show the ability of the designed controller to ensure the target of design, implementation with the active suspension system and enhancement dispersion oscillation of the system despite these problems. Simulations were also performed to control quarter car suspension, where the results obtained from these simulations verify the validity of the proposed design.
40
10000972
Comparative Analysis of Ranunculus muricatus and Typha latifolia as Wetland Plants Applied for Domestic Wastewater Treatment in a Mesocosm Scale Study
Abstract:

Comparing other methods of waste water treatment, constructed wetlands are one of the most fascinating practices because being a natural process they are eco-friendly have low construction and maintenance cost and have considerable capability of wastewater treatment. The current research was focused mainly on comparison of Ranunculus muricatus and Typha latifolia as wetland plants for domestic wastewater treatment by designing and constructing efficient pilot scale horizontal subsurface flow mesocosms. Parameters like chemical oxygen demand, biological oxygen demand, phosphates, sulphates, nitrites, nitrates, and pathogenic indicator microbes were studied continuously with successive treatments. Treatment efficiency of the system increases with passage of time and with increase in temperature. Efficiency of T. latifolia planted setups in open environment was fairly good for parameters like COD and BOD5 which was showing reduction up to 82.5% for COD and 82.6% for BOD5 while DO was increased up to 125%. Efficiency of R. muricatus vegetated setup was also good but lowers than that of T. latifolia planted showing 80.95% removal of COD and BOD5. Ranunculus muricatus was found effective in reducing bacterial count in wastewater. Both macrophytes were found promising in wastewater treatment.

39
9999849
Three-Dimensional Numerical Simulation of Drops Suspended in Poiseuille Flow: Effect of Reynolds Number
Authors:
Abstract:

A finite difference/front tracking method is used to study the motion of three-dimensional deformable drops suspended in plane Poiseuille flow at non-zero Reynolds numbers. A parallel version of the code was used to study the behavior of suspension on a reasonable grid resolution (grids). The viscosity and density of drops are assumed to be equal to that of the suspending medium. The effect of the Reynolds number is studied in detail. It is found that drops with small deformation behave like rigid particles and migrate to an equilibrium position about half way between the wall and the centerline (the Segre-Silberberg effect). However, for highly deformable drops there is a tendency for drops to migrate to the middle of the channel, and the maximum concentration occurs at the centerline. The effective viscosity of suspension and the fluctuation energy of the flow across the channel increases with the Reynolds number of the flow.

38
9999187
Auspicious Meaning for Community Souvenir Products
Abstract:

The objective of this research was to find the relationship between auspicious meaning in eastern wisdom and the interpretation as a guideline for the design and development of community souvenirs. The sample group included 400 customers in Bangkok who used to buy community souvenir products. The information was applied to design the souvenirs which were considered for the appropriateness by 5 design specialists. The data were analyzed to find frequency, percentage, and SD with the results as follows. 1) The best factor referring to the auspicious meaning is color. The application of auspicious meaning can make the value added to the product and bring the fortune to the receivers. 2) The effectiveness of the auspicious meaning integration on the design of community souvenir product was in high level. When considering in each aspect, it was found that the interpretation aspect was in high level, the congruency of the auspicious meaning and the utility of the product was in high level. The attractiveness and the good design were in very high level while the potential of the value added in the product design was in high level. The suitable application to the design of community souvenir product was in high level.

37
9999618
Design of Walking Beam Pendle Axle Suspension System
Abstract:

This paper deals with design of walking beam pendel axle suspension system. This axles and suspension systems are mainly required for transportation of heavy duty and Over Dimension Consignment (ODC) cargo, which is exceeding legal limit in terms of length, width and height. Presently, in Indian transportation industry, ODC movement growth rate has increased in transportation of bridge sections (pre-cast beams), transformers, heavy machineries, boilers, gas turbines, windmill blades etc. However, current Indian standard road transport vehicles are facing lot of service and maintenance issues due to non availability of suitable axle and suspension to carry the ODC cargoes. This in turn will lead to increased number of road accidents, bridge collapse and delayed deliveries, which finally result in higher operating cost. Understanding these requirements, this work was carried out. These axles and suspensions are designed for optimum self – weight with maximum payload carrying capacity with better road stability.

36
9998817
Experimental Study on Ultrasonic Shot Peening Forming and Surface Properties of AALY12
Abstract:

Ultrasonic shot peening (USP) on AALY12 sheet was studied. Several parameters (arc heights, surface roughness, surface topography and micro hardness) with different USP process parameters were measured. The research proposes that radius of curvature of shot peened sheet increases with time and electric current decreasing, while increases with pin diameter increasing, and radius of curvature reaches a saturation level after a specific processing time and electric current. An empirical model of the relationship between radius of curvature and pin diameter, electric current, time was also obtained. The research shows that the increment of surface and vertical micro hardness of material is more obvious with longer time and higher value of electric current, which can be up to 20% and 28% respectively.

35
9997914
Beliefs in Auspicious Materials of Shop Entrepreneurs in Maung Hat Yai, Thailand
Authors:
Abstract:

This research aimed to study the beliefs in auspicious materials of entrepreneurs in Muang Hat Yai. The data were collected via documentary research and field work including interviews, observations shops in Hat Yai which used auspicious materials to bring lucks to the shops. The results were as follows. The beliefs in auspicious materials that the entrepreneurs had were of three areas: 1) The auspicious materials could correct the improperness of the shop location, for example, the shop situated opposite a branch road, a shrine, or a bank. The owner usually corrected it by putting Chinese auspicious materials in front of or in the shop, for example, a lion holding a sword in his mouth, or a mirror, etc. 2) The auspicious materials could bring in more income. The owner of the shop usually put the auspicious materials such as a cat beckoning and a bamboo fish trap believed to trap money in front of or inside the shop. 3) The auspicious materials like turtles, paired fish and a monster holding the moon in his mouth could solve life problems including health, family, and safety problems. The use of these auspicious materials showed the blending of the beliefs of the Chinese shop entrepreneurs with the Thai folk beliefs. What is interesting is that Hat Yai is located near the three southern border provinces which are the unrest area and this may cause the number of tourists to decline. This prompted them to build a mechanism in adjusting themselves both to save their lives and to increase the number of customers. Auspicious materials can make them feel more confident.

34
9997629
Light Harvesting Titanium Nanocatalyst for Remediation of Methyl Orange
Abstract:

An ecofriendly Citrus paradisipeel extract mediated synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles is reported under sonication. U.V.-vis, Transmission electron microscopy, Dynamic light scattering, and X-ray analyses are performed to characterize the formation of TiO2 nanoparticles. It is almost spherical in shape, having a size of 60–140 nm and the XRD peaks at 2θ = 25.363° confirm the characteristic facets for anatase form. The synthesized nanocatalyst is highly active in the decomposition of methyl orange (64 mg/L) in sunlight (~73%) for 2.5h.

33
9997567
New Suspension Mechanism Using Camber Thrust for a Formula Car
Abstract:

The basic ability of a vehicle is to “run”, “turn” and “stop”. The safeness and comfort during a drive on various road surfaces and speed depends on the performance of these basic abilities of the vehicle. Stability and maneuverability of a vehicle are vital in automotive engineering. The stability of a vehicle is the ability of the vehicle to revert back to a stable state during a drive when faced with crosswinds and irregular road conditions. Maneuverability of a vehicle is the ability of the vehicle to change direction during a drive swiftly based on the steering of the driver. The stability and maneuverability of a vehicle can also be defined as the driving stability of the vehicle. Since the fossil fueled vehicle is the main type of transportation today, the environmental factor in automotive engineering is also vital. By improving the fuel efficiency of the vehicle, the overall carbon emission will be reduced, thus reducing the effect of global warming and greenhouse gas on the Earth. Another main focus of the automotive engineering is the safety performance of the vehicle, especially with the worrying increase of vehicle collision every day. With better safety performance of a vehicle, every driver will be more confident driving every day. Next, let us focus on the “turn” ability of a vehicle. By improving this particular ability of the vehicle, the cornering limit of the vehicle can be improved, thus increasing the stability and maneuverability factor. In order to improve the cornering limit of the vehicle, a study to find the balance between the steering systems, the stability of the vehicle, higher lateral acceleration and the cornering limit detection must be conducted. The aim of this research is to study and develop a new suspension system that will boost the lateral acceleration of the vehicle and ultimately improving the cornering limit of the vehicle. This research will also study environmental factor and the stability factor of the new suspension system. The double wishbone suspension system is widely used in a four-wheel vehicle, especially for high cornering performance sports car and racing car. The double wishbone designs allow the engineer to carefully control the motion of the wheel by controlling such parameters as camber angle, caster angle, toe pattern, roll center height, scrub radius, scuff, and more. The development of the new suspension system will focus on the ability of the new suspension system to optimize the camber control and to improve the camber limit during a cornering motion. The research will be carried out using the CAE analysis tool. Using this analysis tool we will develop a JSAE Formula Machine equipped with the double wishbone system and also the new suspension system and conduct simulation and conduct studies on the performance of both suspension systems.

32
9997437
Fuzzy Logic Control of a Semi-Active Quarter Car System
Abstract:

The development of vehicles having best ride comfort and safety of travelling passengers is of great interest for automotive manufacturers. The effect of transmitted vibrations from car body to passenger seat is required to be controlled for achieving the same. The application of magneto-rheological (MR) shock absorber in suspension system has been considered to achieve significant benefits in this regard. This paper introduces a secondary suspension controlled semi-active quarter car system using MR shock absorber for effective vibration control. Fuzzy logic control system is used for design of controller for actual damping force generation by MR shock absorber. Performance evaluations are done related to passenger seat acceleration and displacement in time and frequency domains, in order to see the effectiveness of the proposed semi-active suspension system. Simulation results show that the semi-active suspension system provides better results compared to passive suspension system in terms of passenger ride comfort improvement.

31
17368
Flow Properties of Wood Pulp Suspensions in Pipes
Authors:
Abstract:

The flow of suspensions of wood pulp fibers in circular pipes has been investigated experimentally. The flow characteristics of pulp suspensions are discussed with regard to five flow regimes designated by the author. In particular, the effects of the shear stress at the pipe wall on the disruption and dispersion of networks of pulp fibers are examined. The values of the disruptive and dispersive shear stresses are formulated as simple expressions depending on only the fiber concentration. Furthermore, the flow properties of the suspensions are described using the yield shear stress.

30
16658
The Finite Difference Scheme for the Suspended String Equation with the Nonlinear External Forces
Abstract:

This paper presents the finite difference scheme and the numerical simulation of suspended string. The vibration solutions when the various external forces are taken into account are obtained and compared with the solutions without external force. In addition, we also investigate how the external forces and their powers and coefficients affect the amplitude of vibration.

29
9996840
Studies on Various Parameters Involved in Conjugation of Starch with Lysine for Excellent Emulsification Properties Using Response Surface Methodology
Abstract:

The process parameters, starch-water ratio (A, (w/v) %), pH of suspension (B), Temperature(C, °C) and Time (D, hrs.)., were optimized for the preparation of starch-lysine conjugate and studying their effect on stability of emulsions by calculating emulsion stability index using response surface methodology. The optimized conditions are pH 9.0, temperature 60oC, reaction time 6 hrs, starch:water ratio 1:2.5, having emulsion stability index was 0.72.

28
14111
Numerical Analysis of Flow through Abrasive Water Suspension Jet: The Effect of Garnet, Aluminum Oxide and Silicon Carbide Abrasive on Skin Friction Coefficient Due To Wall Shear and Jet Exit Kinetic Energy
Abstract:
It is well known that the abrasive particles in the abrasive water suspension has significant effect on the erosion characteristics of the inside surface of the nozzle. Abrasive particles moving with the flow cause severe skin friction effect, there by altering the nozzle diameter due to wear which in turn reflects on the life of the nozzle for effective machining. Various commercial abrasives are available for abrasive water jet machining. The erosion characteristic of each abrasive is different. In consideration of this aspect, in the present work, the effect of abrasive materials namely garnet, aluminum oxide and silicon carbide on skin friction coefficient due to wall shear stress and jet kinetic energy has been analyzed. It is found that the abrasive material of lower density produces a relatively higher skin friction effect and higher jet exit kinetic energy.
27
9619
Bridge Analysis Structure under Human Induced Dynamic Load
Abstract:
The paper deals with the analysis of the dynamic response of footbridges under human - induced dynamic loads. This is a frequently occurring and often dominant load for footbridges as it stems from the very purpose of a footbridge - to convey pedestrian. Due to the emergence of new materials and advanced engineering technology, slender footbridges are increasingly becoming popular to satisfy the modern transportation needs and the aesthetical requirements of the society. These structures however are always lively with low stiffness, low mass, low damping and low natural frequencies. As a consequence, they are prone to vibration induced by human activities and can suffer severe vibration serviceability problems, particularly in the lateral direction. Pedestrian bridges are designed according to first and second limit states, these are the criteria involved in response to static design load. However, it is necessary to assess the dynamic response of bridge design load on pedestrians and assess it impact on the comfort of the user movement. Usually the load is considered a person or a small group which can be assumed in perfect motion synchronization. Already one person or small group can excite significant vibration of the deck. In order to calculate the dynamic response to the movement of people, designer needs available and suitable computational model and criteria. For the calculation program ANSYS based on finite element method was used.
26
10713
The Finite Difference Scheme for the Suspended String Equation with the Nonlinear Damping Term
Abstract:
A numerical solution of the initial boundary value problem of the suspended string vibrating equation with the particular nonlinear damping term based on the finite difference scheme is presented in this paper. The investigation of how the second and third power terms of the nonlinear term affect the vibration characteristic. We compare the vibration amplitude as a result of the third power nonlinear damping with the second power obtained from previous report provided that the same initial shape and initial velocities are assumed. The comparison results show that the vibration amplitude is inversely proportional to the coefficient of the damping term for the third power nonlinear damping case, while the vibration amplitude is proportional to the coefficient of the damping term in the second power nonlinear damping case.
25
1961
Investigation into Behavior of Suspen-Domes in Comparison with Single-Layer Domes
Abstract:

Prestressing in structure increases ratio of load-bearing capacity to weight. Suspendomes are single-layer braced domes reinforced with cable and strut. Prestressing of cables alter value and distribution of stress in structure. In this study two configuration, diamatic and lamella domes is selected. Investigated domes have span of 100m with rise-to-span ratios of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3. Single layer domes loaded under service load combinations according to ISO code. After geometric nonlinear analysis, models are designed with tubular and I-shaped sections then reinforced with cable and strut and converted to suspendomes. Displacements and stresses of some groups of nodes and elements in all of single-layer domes and suspendomes for three load combinations, symmetric snow, asymmetric snow and wind are compared. Variation due to suspending system is investigated. Suspendomes are redesigned and minimum possible weight after addition of cable and strut is obtained.

24
4480
Sprayer Boom Active Suspension Using Intelligent Active Force Control
Abstract:

The control of sprayer boom undesired vibrations pose a great challenge to investigators due to various disturbances and conditions. Sprayer boom movements lead to reduce of spread efficiency and crop yield. This paper describes the design of a novel control method for an active suspension system applying proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller with an active force control (AFC) scheme integration of an iterative learning algorithm employed to a sprayer boom. The iterative learning as an intelligent method is principally used as a method to calculate the best value of the estimated inertia of the sprayer boom needed for the AFC loop. Results show that the proposed AFC-based scheme performs much better than the standard PID control technique. Also, this shows that the system is more robust and accurate.

23
13251
Production of Spherical Ag/ZnO Nanocomposite Particles for Photocatalytic Applications
Abstract:
Noble metal participation in nanostructured semiconductor catalysts has drawn much interest because of their improved properties. Recently, it has been discussed by many researchers that Ag participation in TiO2, CuO, ZnO semiconductors showed improved photocatalytic and optical properties. In this research, Ag/ZnO nanocomposite particles were prepared by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis(USP) Method. 0.1M silver and zinc nitrate aqueous solutions were used as precursor solutions. The Ag:Zn atomic ratio of the solution was selected 1:1. Experiments were taken place under constant air flow of 400 mL/min at 800°C furnace temperature. Particles were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). The crystallite sizes of Ag and ZnO in composite particles are 24.6 nm, 19.7 nm respectively. Although, spherical nanocomposite particles are in a range of 300- 800 nm, these particles are formed by the aggregation of primary particles which are in a range of 20-60 nm.
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