Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 22

An Improved Face Recognition Algorithm Using Histogram-Based Features in Spatial and Frequency Domains

In this paper, we propose an improved face recognition algorithm using histogram-based features in spatial and frequency domains. For adding spatial information of the face to improve recognition performance, a region-division (RD) method is utilized. The facial area is firstly divided into several regions, then feature vectors of each facial part are generated by Binary Vector Quantization (BVQ) histogram using DCT coefficients in low frequency domains, as well as Local Binary Pattern (LBP) histogram in spatial domain. Recognition results with different regions are first obtained separately and then fused by weighted averaging. Publicly available ORL database is used for the evaluation of our proposed algorithm, which is consisted of 40 subjects with 10 images per subject containing variations in lighting, posing, and expressions. It is demonstrated that face recognition using RD method can achieve much higher recognition rate.

Optimized Vector Quantization for Bayer Color Filter Array
Digital cameras to reduce cost, use an image sensor to capture color images. Color Filter Array (CFA) in digital cameras permits only one of the three primary (red-green-blue) colors to be sensed in a pixel and interpolates the two missing components through a method named demosaicking. Captured data is interpolated into a full color image and compressed in applications. Color interpolation before compression leads to data redundancy. This paper proposes a new Vector Quantization (VQ) technique to construct a VQ codebook with Differential Evolution (DE) Algorithm. The new technique is compared to conventional Linde- Buzo-Gray (LBG) method.
Data Hiding by Vector Quantization in Color Image
With the growing of computer and network, digital data can be spread to anywhere in the world quickly. In addition, digital data can also be copied or tampered easily so that the security issue becomes an important topic in the protection of digital data. Digital watermark is a method to protect the ownership of digital data. Embedding the watermark will influence the quality certainly. In this paper, Vector Quantization (VQ) is used to embed the watermark into the image to fulfill the goal of data hiding. This kind of watermarking is invisible which means that the users will not conscious the existing of embedded watermark even though the embedded image has tiny difference compared to the original image. Meanwhile, VQ needs a lot of computation burden so that we adopt a fast VQ encoding scheme by partial distortion searching (PDS) and mean approximation scheme to speed up the data hiding process. The watermarks we hide to the image could be gray, bi-level and color images. Texts are also can be regarded as watermark to embed. In order to test the robustness of the system, we adopt Photoshop to fulfill sharpen, cropping and altering to check if the extracted watermark is still recognizable. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed system can resist the above three kinds of tampering in general cases.
An Intelligent Text Independent Speaker Identification Using VQ-GMM Model Based Multiple Classifier System
Speaker Identification (SI) is the task of establishing identity of an individual based on his/her voice characteristics. The SI task is typically achieved by two-stage signal processing: training and testing. The training process calculates speaker specific feature parameters from the speech and generates speaker models accordingly. In the testing phase, speech samples from unknown speakers are compared with the models and classified. Even though performance of speaker identification systems has improved due to recent advances in speech processing techniques, there is still need of improvement. In this paper, a Closed-Set Tex-Independent Speaker Identification System (CISI) based on a Multiple Classifier System (MCS) is proposed, using Mel Frequency Cepstrum Coefficient (MFCC) as feature extraction and suitable combination of vector quantization (VQ) and Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) together with Expectation Maximization algorithm (EM) for speaker modeling. The use of Voice Activity Detector (VAD) with a hybrid approach based on Short Time Energy (STE) and Statistical Modeling of Background Noise in the pre-processing step of the feature extraction yields a better and more robust automatic speaker identification system. Also investigation of Linde-Buzo-Gray (LBG) clustering algorithm for initialization of GMM, for estimating the underlying parameters, in the EM step improved the convergence rate and systems performance. It also uses relative index as confidence measures in case of contradiction in identification process by GMM and VQ as well. Simulation results carried out on speech database using MATLAB highlight the efficacy of the proposed method compared to earlier work.
Voltage Problem Location Classification Using Performance of Least Squares Support Vector Machine LS-SVM and Learning Vector Quantization LVQ

This paper presents the voltage problem location classification using performance of Least Squares Support Vector Machine (LS-SVM) and Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ) in electrical power system for proper voltage problem location implemented by IEEE 39 bus New- England. The data was collected from the time domain simulation by using Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT). Outputs from simulation data such as voltage, phase angle, real power and reactive power were taken as input to estimate voltage stability at particular buses based on Power Transfer Stability Index (PTSI).The simulation data was carried out on the IEEE 39 bus test system by considering load bus increased on the system. To verify of the proposed LS-SVM its performance was compared to Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ). The results showed that LS-SVM is faster and better as compared to LVQ. The results also demonstrated that the LS-SVM was estimated by 0% misclassification whereas LVQ had 7.69% misclassification.

Face Recognition Based On Vector Quantization Using Fuzzy Neuro Clustering

A face recognition system is a computer application for automatically identifying or verifying a person from a digital image or a video frame. A lot of algorithms have been proposed for face recognition. Vector Quantization (VQ) based face recognition is a novel approach for face recognition. Here a new codebook generation for VQ based face recognition using Integrated Adaptive Fuzzy Clustering (IAFC) is proposed. IAFC is a fuzzy neural network which incorporates a fuzzy learning rule into a competitive neural network. The performance of proposed algorithm is demonstrated by using publicly available AT&T database, Yale database, Indian Face database and a small face database, DCSKU database created in our lab. In all the databases the proposed approach got a higher recognition rate than most of the existing methods. In terms of Equal Error Rate (ERR) also the proposed codebook is better than the existing methods.

Local Image Descriptor using VQ-SIFT for Image Retrieval
In this paper, we present local image descriptor using VQ-SIFT for more effective and efficient image retrieval. Instead of SIFT's weighted orientation histograms, we apply vector quantization (VQ) histogram as an alternate representation for SIFT features. Experimental results show that SIFT features using VQ-based local descriptors can achieve better image retrieval accuracy than the conventional algorithm while the computational cost is significantly reduced.
Combination of Different Classifiers for Cardiac Arrhythmia Recognition
This paper describes a new supervised fusion (hybrid) electrocardiogram (ECG) classification solution consisting of a new QRS complex geometrical feature extraction as well as a new version of the learning vector quantization (LVQ) classification algorithm aimed for overcoming the stability-plasticity dilemma. Toward this objective, after detection and delineation of the major events of ECG signal via an appropriate algorithm, each QRS region and also its corresponding discrete wavelet transform (DWT) are supposed as virtual images and each of them is divided into eight polar sectors. Then, the curve length of each excerpted segment is calculated and is used as the element of the feature space. To increase the robustness of the proposed classification algorithm versus noise, artifacts and arrhythmic outliers, a fusion structure consisting of five different classifiers namely as Support Vector Machine (SVM), Modified Learning Vector Quantization (MLVQ) and three Multi Layer Perceptron-Back Propagation (MLP–BP) neural networks with different topologies were designed and implemented. The new proposed algorithm was applied to all 48 MIT–BIH Arrhythmia Database records (within–record analysis) and the discrimination power of the classifier in isolation of different beat types of each record was assessed and as the result, the average accuracy value Acc=98.51% was obtained. Also, the proposed method was applied to 6 number of arrhythmias (Normal, LBBB, RBBB, PVC, APB, PB) belonging to 20 different records of the aforementioned database (between– record analysis) and the average value of Acc=95.6% was achieved. To evaluate performance quality of the new proposed hybrid learning machine, the obtained results were compared with similar peer– reviewed studies in this area.
Codebook Generation for Vector Quantization on Orthogonal Polynomials based Transform Coding

In this paper, a new algorithm for generating codebook is proposed for vector quantization (VQ) in image coding. The significant features of the training image vectors are extracted by using the proposed Orthogonal Polynomials based transformation. We propose to generate the codebook by partitioning these feature vectors into a binary tree. Each feature vector at a non-terminal node of the binary tree is directed to one of the two descendants by comparing a single feature associated with that node to a threshold. The binary tree codebook is used for encoding and decoding the feature vectors. In the decoding process the feature vectors are subjected to inverse transformation with the help of basis functions of the proposed Orthogonal Polynomials based transformation to get back the approximated input image training vectors. The results of the proposed coding are compared with the VQ using Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) and Pairwise Nearest Neighbor (PNN) algorithm. The new algorithm results in a considerable reduction in computation time and provides better reconstructed picture quality.

A High Quality Speech Coder at 600 bps

This paper presents a vocoder to obtain high quality synthetic speech at 600 bps. To reduce the bit rate, the algorithm is based on a sinusoidally excited linear prediction model which extracts few coding parameters, and three consecutive frames are grouped into a superframe and jointly vector quantization is used to obtain high coding efficiency. The inter-frame redundancy is exploited with distinct quantization schemes for different unvoiced/voiced frame combinations in the superframe. Experimental results show that the quality of the proposed coder is better than that of 2.4kbps LPC10e and achieves approximately the same as that of 2.4kbps MELP and with high robustness.

Voice Command Recognition System Based on MFCC and VQ Algorithms
The goal of this project is to design a system to recognition voice commands. Most of voice recognition systems contain two main modules as follow “feature extraction" and “feature matching". In this project, MFCC algorithm is used to simulate feature extraction module. Using this algorithm, the cepstral coefficients are calculated on mel frequency scale. VQ (vector quantization) method will be used for reduction of amount of data to decrease computation time. In the feature matching stage Euclidean distance is applied as similarity criterion. Because of high accuracy of used algorithms, the accuracy of this voice command system is high. Using these algorithms, by at least 5 times repetition for each command, in a single training session, and then twice in each testing session zero error rate in recognition of commands is achieved.
Narrowband Speech Hiding using Vector Quantization
In this work we introduce an efficient method to limit the impact of the hiding process on the quality of the cover speech. Vector quantization of the speech spectral information reduces drastically the number of the secret speech parameters to be embedded in the cover signal. Compared to scalar hiding, vector quantization hiding technique provides a stego signal that is indistinguishable from the cover speech. The objective and subjective performance measures reveal that the current hiding technique attracts no suspicion about the presence of the secret message in the stego speech, while being able to recover an intelligible copy of the secret message at the receiver side.
Speech Coding and Recognition
This paper investigates the performance of a speech recognizer in an interactive voice response system for various coded speech signals, coded by using a vector quantization technique namely Multi Switched Split Vector Quantization Technique. The process of recognizing the coded output can be used in Voice banking application. The recognition technique used for the recognition of the coded speech signals is the Hidden Markov Model technique. The spectral distortion performance, computational complexity, and memory requirements of Multi Switched Split Vector Quantization Technique and the performance of the speech recognizer at various bit rates have been computed. From results it is found that the speech recognizer is showing better performance at 24 bits/frame and it is found that the percentage of recognition is being varied from 100% to 93.33% for various bit rates.
Fast Codevector Search Algorithm for 3-D Vector Quantized Codebook
This paper presents a very simple and efficient algorithm for codebook search, which reduces a great deal of computation as compared to the full codebook search. The algorithm is based on sorting and centroid technique for search. The results table shows the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in terms of computational complexity. In this paper we also introduce a new performance parameter named as Average fractional change in pixel value as we feel that it gives better understanding of the closeness of the image since it is related to the perception. This new performance parameter takes into consideration the average fractional change in each pixel value.
Image Compression Using Multiwavelet and Multi-Stage Vector Quantization

The existing image coding standards generally degrades at low bit-rates because of the underlying block based Discrete Cosine Transform scheme. Over the past decade, the success of wavelets in solving many different problems has contributed to its unprecedented popularity. Due to implementation constraints scalar wavelets do not posses all the properties such as orthogonality, short support, linear phase symmetry, and a high order of approximation through vanishing moments simultaneously, which are very much essential for signal processing. New class of wavelets called 'Multiwavelets' which posses more than one scaling function overcomes this problem. This paper presents a new image coding scheme based on non linear approximation of multiwavelet coefficients along with multistage vector quantization. The performance of the proposed scheme is compared with the results obtained from scalar wavelets.

Image Compression Using Hybrid Vector Quantization
In this paper, image compression using hybrid vector quantization scheme such as Multistage Vector Quantization (MSVQ) and Pyramid Vector Quantization (PVQ) are introduced. A combined MSVQ and PVQ are utilized to take advantages provided by both of them. In the wavelet decomposition of the image, most of the information often resides in the lowest frequency subband. MSVQ is applied to significant low frequency coefficients. PVQ is utilized to quantize the coefficients of other high frequency subbands. The wavelet coefficients are derived using lifting scheme. The main aim of the proposed scheme is to achieve high compression ratio without much compromise in the image quality. The results are compared with the existing image compression scheme using MSVQ.
Modified Vector Quantization Method for Image Compression
A low bit rate still image compression scheme by compressing the indices of Vector Quantization (VQ) and generating residual codebook is proposed. The indices of VQ are compressed by exploiting correlation among image blocks, which reduces the bit per index. A residual codebook similar to VQ codebook is generated that represents the distortion produced in VQ. Using this residual codebook the distortion in the reconstructed image is removed, thereby increasing the image quality. Our scheme combines these two methods. Experimental results on standard image Lena show that our scheme can give a reconstructed image with a PSNR value of 31.6 db at 0.396 bits per pixel. Our scheme is also faster than the existing VQ variants.
Speech Data Compression using Vector Quantization
Mostly transforms are used for speech data compressions which are lossy algorithms. Such algorithms are tolerable for speech data compression since the loss in quality is not perceived by the human ear. However the vector quantization (VQ) has a potential to give more data compression maintaining the same quality. In this paper we propose speech data compression algorithm using vector quantization technique. We have used VQ algorithms LBG, KPE and FCG. The results table shows computational complexity of these three algorithms. Here we have introduced a new performance parameter Average Fractional Change in Speech Sample (AFCSS). Our FCG algorithm gives far better performance considering mean absolute error, AFCSS and complexity as compared to others.
Multi Switched Split Vector Quantization of Narrowband Speech Signals
Vector quantization is a powerful tool for speech coding applications. This paper deals with LPC Coding of speech signals which uses a new technique called Multi Switched Split Vector Quantization (MSSVQ), which is a hybrid of Multi, switched, split vector quantization techniques. The spectral distortion performance, computational complexity, and memory requirements of MSSVQ are compared to split vector quantization (SVQ), multi stage vector quantization(MSVQ) and switched split vector quantization (SSVQ) techniques. It has been proved from results that MSSVQ has better spectral distortion performance, lower computational complexity and lower memory requirements when compared to all the above mentioned product code vector quantization techniques. Computational complexity is measured in floating point operations (flops), and memory requirements is measured in (floats).
Multi Switched Split Vector Quantizer
Vector quantization is a powerful tool for speech coding applications. This paper deals with LPC Coding of speech signals which uses a new technique called Multi Switched Split Vector Quantization, This is a hybrid of two product code vector quantization techniques namely the Multi stage vector quantization technique, and Switched split vector quantization technique,. Multi Switched Split Vector Quantization technique quantizes the linear predictive coefficients in terms of line spectral frequencies. From results it is proved that Multi Switched Split Vector Quantization provides better trade off between bitrate and spectral distortion performance, computational complexity and memory requirements when compared to Switched Split Vector Quantization, Multi stage vector quantization, and Split Vector Quantization techniques. By employing the switching technique at each stage of the vector quantizer the spectral distortion, computational complexity and memory requirements were greatly reduced. Spectral distortion was measured in dB, Computational complexity was measured in floating point operations (flops), and memory requirements was measured in (floats).
A New Vector Quantization Front-End Process for Discrete HMM Speech Recognition System

The paper presents a complete discrete statistical framework, based on a novel vector quantization (VQ) front-end process. This new VQ approach performs an optimal distribution of VQ codebook components on HMM states. This technique that we named the distributed vector quantization (DVQ) of hidden Markov models, succeeds in unifying acoustic micro-structure and phonetic macro-structure, when the estimation of HMM parameters is performed. The DVQ technique is implemented through two variants. The first variant uses the K-means algorithm (K-means- DVQ) to optimize the VQ, while the second variant exploits the benefits of the classification behavior of neural networks (NN-DVQ) for the same purpose. The proposed variants are compared with the HMM-based baseline system by experiments of specific Arabic consonants recognition. The results show that the distributed vector quantization technique increase the performance of the discrete HMM system.

Fingerprint Compression Using Contourlet Transform and Multistage Vector Quantization
This paper presents a new fingerprint coding technique based on contourlet transform and multistage vector quantization. Wavelets have shown their ability in representing natural images that contain smooth areas separated with edges. However, wavelets cannot efficiently take advantage of the fact that the edges usually found in fingerprints are smooth curves. This issue is addressed by directional transforms, known as contourlets, which have the property of preserving edges. The contourlet transform is a new extension to the wavelet transform in two dimensions using nonseparable and directional filter banks. The computation and storage requirements are the major difficulty in implementing a vector quantizer. In the full-search algorithm, the computation and storage complexity is an exponential function of the number of bits used in quantizing each frame of spectral information. The storage requirement in multistage vector quantization is less when compared to full search vector quantization. The coefficients of contourlet transform are quantized by multistage vector quantization. The quantized coefficients are encoded by Huffman coding. The results obtained are tabulated and compared with the existing wavelet based ones.
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