|Commenced in January 2007||Frequency: Monthly||Edition: International||Paper Count: 15|
This study assesses the major ecological zones in Nigeria with the view to understanding the spatial pattern of vegetation zones and the implications on conservation within the period of sixteen (16) years. Satellite images used for this study were acquired from the SPOT-VEGETATION between 1998 and 2013. The annual NDVI images selected for this study were derived from SPOT-4 sensor and were acquired within the same season (November) in order to reduce differences in spectral reflectance due to seasonal variations. The images were sliced into five classes based on literatures and knowledge of the area (i.e. <0.16 Non-Vegetated areas; 0.16-0.22 Sahel Savannah; 0.22-0.40 Sudan Savannah, 0.40-0.47 Guinea Savannah and >0.47 Forest Zone). Classification of the 1998 and 2013 images into forested and non forested areas showed that forested area decrease from 511,691 km2 in 1998 to 478,360 km2 in 2013. Differencing change detection method was performed on 1998 and 2013 NDVI images to identify areas of ecological concern. The result shows that areas undergoing vegetation degradation covers an area of 73,062 km2 while areas witnessing some form restoration cover an area of 86,315 km2. The result also shows that there is a weak correlation between rainfall and the vegetation zones. The non-vegetated areas have a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.0088, Sahel Savannah belt 0.1988, Sudan Savannah belt -0.3343, Guinea Savannah belt 0.0328 and Forest belt 0.2635. The low correlation can be associated with the encroachment of the Sudan Savannah belt into the forest belt of South-eastern part of the country as revealed by the image analysis. The degradation of the forest vegetation is therefore responsible for the serious erosion problems witnessed in the South-east. The study recommends constant monitoring of vegetation and strict enforcement of environmental laws in the country.
Crop coefficient (Kc) is an important factor contributing to estimation of evapotranspiration, and is also used to determine the irrigation schedule. This study investigated and determined the monthly Kc of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) using five vegetation indices (VIs): Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Difference Vegetation Index (DVI), Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI), Infrared Percentage Vegetation Index (IPVI), and Ratio Vegetation Index (RVI) of four basins in Golestan province, Iran. 14 Landsat-8 images according to crop growth stage were used to estimate monthly Kc of wheat. VIs were calculated based on infrared and near infrared bands of Landsat 8 images using Geographical Information System (GIS) software. The best VIs were chosen after establishing a regression relationship among these VIs with FAO Kc and Kc that was modified for the study area by the previous research based on R² and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). The result showed that local modified SAVI with R²= 0.767 and RMSE= 0.174 was the best index to produce monthly wheat Kc maps.
Current trend of urban expansion, especially in the developing countries has caused significant changes in land cover, which is generating great concern due to its widespread environmental degradation. Energy consumption of the cities is also increasing with the aggravated heat island effect. Distribution of land surface temperature (LST) is one of the most significant climatic parameters affected by urban land cover change. Recent increasing trend of LST is causing elevated temperature profile of the built up area with less vegetative cover. Gradual change in land cover, especially decrease in vegetative cover is enhancing the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect in the developing cities around the world. Increase in the amount of urban vegetation cover can be a useful solution for the reduction of UHI intensity. LST and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) have widely been accepted as reliable indicators of UHI and vegetation abundance respectively. Chittagong, the second largest city of Bangladesh, has been a growth center due to rapid urbanization over the last several decades. This study assesses the intensity of UHI in Chittagong city by analyzing the relationship between LST and NDVI based on the type of land use/land cover (LULC) in the study area applying an integrated approach of Geographic Information System (GIS), remote sensing (RS), and regression analysis. Land cover map is prepared through an interactive supervised classification using remotely sensed data from Landsat ETM+ image along with NDVI differencing using ArcGIS. LST and NDVI values are extracted from the same image. The regression analysis between LST and NDVI indicates that within the study area, UHI is directly correlated with LST while negatively correlated with NDVI. It interprets that surface temperature reduces with increase in vegetation cover along with reduction in UHI intensity. Moreover, there are noticeable differences in the relationship between LST and NDVI based on the type of LULC. In other words, depending on the type of land usage, increase in vegetation cover has a varying impact on the UHI intensity. This analysis will contribute to the formulation of sustainable urban land use planning decisions as well as suggesting suitable actions for mitigation of UHI intensity within the study area.
Vegetation affects the mean and turbulent flow structure. It may increase flood risks and sediment transport. Therefore, it is important to develop analytical approaches for the bed shear stress on vegetated bed, to predict resistance caused by vegetation. In the recent years, experimental and numerical models have both been developed to model the effects of submerged vegetation on open-channel flow. In this paper, different analytic models are compared and tested using the criteria of deviation, to explore their capacity for predicting the mean velocity and select the suitable one that will be applied in real case of rivers. The comparison between the measured data in vegetated flume and simulated mean velocities indicated, a good performance, in the case of rigid vegetation, whereas, Huthoff model shows the best agreement with a high coefficient of determination (R2=80%) and the smallest error in the prediction of the average velocities.
The rapid expansion of deserts in recent decades as a result of human actions combined with climatic changes has highlighted the necessity to understand biological processes in arid environments. Whereas physical processes and the biology of flora and fauna have been relatively well studied in marginally used arid areas, knowledge of desert soil micro-organisms remains fragmentary. The objective of this study is to conduct a diversity analysis of bacterial communities in unvegetated arid soils. Several biological phenomena in hot deserts related to microbial populations and the potential use of micro-organisms for restoring hot desert environments. Dry land ecosystems have a highly heterogeneous distribution of resources, with greater nutrient concentrations and microbial densities occurring in vegetated than in bare soils. In this work, we found it useful to use techniques of artificial intelligence in their treatment especially artificial neural networks (ANN). The use of the ANN model, demonstrate his capability for addressing the complex problems of uncertainty data.
The purpose of this article is to study the effects of plants cover on overland flow and, therefore, its influences on the amount of eroded and transported soil. In this investigation, all the experiments were conducted in the LEGHYD laboratory using a rainfall simulator and a soil tray. The experiments were conducted using an experimental plot (soil tray) which is 2m long, 0.5 m wide and 0.15 m deep. The soil used is an agricultural sandy soil (62,08% coarse sand, 19,14% fine sand, 11,57% silt and 7,21% clay). Plastic rods (4 mm in diameter) were used to simulate the plants at different densities: 0 stem/m2 (bared soil), 126 stems/m², 203 stems/m², 461 stems/m² and 2500 stems/m²). The used rainfall intensity is 73mm/h and the soil tray slope is fixed to 3°. The results have shown that the overland flow velocities decreased with increasing stems density, and the density cover has a great effect on sediment concentration. Darcy–Weisbach and Manning friction coefficients of overland flow increased when the stems density increased. Froude and Reynolds numbers decreased with increasing stems density and, consequently, the flow regime of all treatments was laminar and subcritical. From these findings, we conclude that increasing the plants cover can efficiently reduce soil loss and avoid denuding the roots plants.
Present paper deals with an evaluation of magnitude of changes in biomass and net primary productivity at ‘Gujar Tal’ sloppy lake margin at Jaunpur in tropical semi-arid region of eastern U.P. (India). The study site abandoned or neglected lands (50 ×125 m) was divided into two zones, i.e. upper zone (up-land) and lower zone (low-land). Maximum biomass in the upper zone of dominant weed Desmostachya bipinnata (L.) Stapf. was 207.47 g m-2 and ‘rest weeds’ was 457.45 g m-2 both in the month of September. In contrast, the peak biomass value in the lower zone of dominant weed Oryza rufipogon Griff. was 1571.44 g m-2 in October and ‘rest weeds’ 270.65 g m-2 in February. Among the two zones, the peak total community biomass was observed 1655.62 g m-2 (October) in the lower zone while its peak value for the upper zone 457.45 g m-2 (September) was comparatively low. Maximum percentage contribution of dominant weeds (D. bipinnata and O. rufipogon) in the respective upper and lower zones and ‘rest weeds’ in both the zones varied in different months in the total community biomass. The peak net primary productivity of dominant weed (D. bipinnata) was 2.09g m-2 day-1 (September) and ‘rest weeds’ was 2.37 g m-2 day-1 (August) in the upper zone, while the lower zone for O. rufipogon was 5.25 g m-2 day-1 (June) as this zone was inundated later and ‘rest weeds’ was 2.08 g m-2 day-1 (January, 2009). The annual net production of total community at site I was highest, 409.58 g m-2 yr-1 in the upper zone followed by 395.58 g m-2 per eight month in the lower zone as this zone was flooded with water during rainy season. The site significance of variations in biomass in relation to plant species was tested by analysis of variance. It was significant between months in all the two zones (p<0.01 and p<0.05).
A better understanding of cloud forest characteristic in a tropical montane cloud forest at Khao Nan, Nakhon Si Thammarat on climatic, vegetation, soil and hydrology were studied during 18-21 April 2007. The results showed that as air temperature at Sanyen cloud forest increased, the percent relative humidity decreased. The amount of solar radiation at Sanyen cloud forest had a positive association with the amount of solar radiation at Parah forest. The amount of solar radiation at Sanyen cloud forest was very low with a range of 0-19 W/m2. On the other hand, the amount of solar radiation at Parah forest was high with a range of 0-1000 W/m2. There was no difference between leaf width, leaf length, leaf thickness and leaf area with increasing in elevations. As the elevations increased, bush height and tree height decreased. There was no association between bush width and bush ratio with elevation. As the elevations increased, the percent epiphyte cover and the percent soil moisture increased but water temperature, conductivity, and dissolved oxygen decreased. The percent soil moistures and organic contents were higher at elevations above 900 m than elevations below.