Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 20

20
10009754
Active Linear Quadratic Gaussian Secondary Suspension Control of Flexible Bodied Railway Vehicle
Abstract:

Passenger comfort has been paramount in the design of suspension systems of high speed cars. To analyze the effect of vibration on vehicle ride quality, a vertical model of a six degree of freedom railway passenger vehicle, with front and rear suspension, is built. It includes car body flexible effects and vertical rigid modes. A second order linear shaping filter is constructed to model Gaussian white noise into random rail excitation. The temporal correlation between the front and rear wheels is given by a second order Pade approximation. The complete track and the vehicle model are then designed. An active secondary suspension system based on a Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG) optimal control method is designed. The results show that the LQG control method reduces the vertical acceleration, pitching acceleration and vertical bending vibration of the car body as compared to the passive system.

19
10009727
A Wireless Feedback Control System as a Base of Bio-Inspired Structure System to Mitigate Vibration in Structures
Abstract:

This paper attempts to develop a wireless feedback control system as a primary step eventually toward a bio-inspired structure system where inanimate structure behaves like a life form autonomously. It is a standalone wireless control system which is supposed to measure externally caused structural responses, analyze structural state from acquired data, and take its own action on the basis of the analysis with an embedded logic. For an experimental examination of its effectiveness, we applied it on a model of two-span bridge and performed a wireless control test. Experimental tests have been conducted for comparison on both the wireless and the wired system under the conditions of Un-control, Passive-off, Passive-on, and Lyapunov control algorithm. By proving the congruence of the test result of the wireless feedback control system with the wired control system, its control performance was proven to be effective. Besides, it was found to be economical in energy consumption and also autonomous by means of a command algorithm embedded into it, which proves its basic capacity as a bio-inspired system.

18
10005459
Seismic Resistant Mechanism of Two-by-four Wooden Frame with Vibration Control Device
Abstract:
The structural system of wooden house by two-by-four method is widely adopted in any countries, and a various type of vibration control system for building structures has been developed on country with frequent earthquake. In this study, a vibration control device called “Scaling Frame” (SF) is suggested, and which is applied to wooden two-by-four method structures. This paper performs the experimental study to investigate the restoring force characteristics of two-by-four with SF device installed. The seismic resistant performance is estimated experimentally, and also the applicability and effectiveness are discussing.
17
10005072
Vibration Control of a Functionally Graded Carbon Nanotube-Reinforced Composites Beam Resting on Elastic Foundation
Abstract:
In this paper, vibration of a nonlinear composite beam is analyzed and then an active controller is used to control the vibrations of the system. The beam is resting on a Winkler-Pasternak elastic foundation. The composite beam is reinforced by single walled carbon nanotubes. Using the rule of mixture, the material properties of functionally graded carbon nanotube-reinforced composites (FG-CNTRCs) are determined. The beam is cantilever and the free end of the beam is under follower force. Piezoelectric layers are attached to the both sides of the beam to control vibrations as sensors and actuators. The governing equations of the FG-CNTRC beam are derived based on Euler-Bernoulli beam theory Lagrange- Rayleigh-Ritz method. The simulation results are presented and the effects of some parameters on stability of the beam are analyzed.
16
10004619
Effects of Damper Locations and Base Isolators on Seismic Response of a Building Frame
Abstract:

Structural vibration means repetitive motion that causes fatigue and reduction of the performance of a structure. An earthquake may release high amount of energy that can have adverse effect on all components of a structure. Therefore, decreasing of vibration or maintaining performance of structures such as bridges, dams, roads and buildings is important for life safety and reducing economic loss. When earthquake or any vibration happens, investigation on parts of a structure which sustain the seismic loads is mandatory to provide a safe condition for the occupants. One of the solutions for reducing the earthquake vibration in a structure is using of vibration control devices such as dampers and base isolators. The objective of this study is to investigate the optimal positions of friction dampers and base isolators for better seismic response of 2D frame. For this purpose, a two bay and six story frame with different distribution formats was modeled and some of their responses to earthquake such as inter-story drift, max joint displacement, max axial force and max bending moment were determined and compared using non-linear dynamic analysis.

15
9998718
Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Vibration Control of an ERF Embedded Smart Structure
Abstract:

The main objective of this article is to present the semi-active vibration control using an electro-rheological fluid embedded sandwich structure for a cantilever beam. ER fluid is a smart material, which cause the suspended particles polarize and connect each other to form chain. The stiffness and damping coefficients of the ER fluid can be changed in 10 micro seconds; therefore, ERF is suitable to become the material embedded in the tunable vibration absorber to become a smart absorber. For the ERF smart material embedded structure, the fuzzy control law depends on the experimental expert database and the proposed self-tuning strategy. The electric field is controlled by a CRIO embedded system to implement the real application. This study investigates the different performances using the Type-1 fuzzy and interval Type-2 fuzzy controllers. The Interval type-2 fuzzy control is used to improve the modeling uncertainties for this ERF embedded shock absorber. The self-tuning vibration controllers using Type-1 and Interval Type-2 fuzzy law are implemented to the shock absorber system. Based on the resulting performance, Internal Type-2 fuzzy is better than the traditional Type-1 fuzzy control for this vibration control system.

 

14
9997737
A Variable Stiffness Approach to Vibration Control
Abstract:

This work introduces a new concept for controlling the mechanical vibrations via variable stiffness coil spring. The concept relies on fitting a screw though the spring to change the number of active spring coils. A prototype has been built and tested with promising results toward an innovation in the field of vibration control.

13
9997538
Vibration Control of Two Adjacent Structures Using a Non-Linear Damping System
Abstract:

The advantage of using non-linear passive damping  system in vibration control of two adjacent structures is investigated  under their base excitation. The base excitation is El Centro  earthquake record acceleration. The damping system is considered as  an optimum and effective non-linear viscous damper that is  connected between two adjacent structures. A MATLAB program is  developed to produce the stiffness and damping matrices and to  determine a time history analysis of the dynamic motion of the  system. One structure is assumed to be flexible while the other has a  rule as laterally supporting structure with rigid frames. The response  of the structure has been calculated and the non-linear damping  coefficient is determined using optimum LQR algorithm in an  optimum vibration control system. The non-linear parameter of  damping system is estimated and it has shown a significant advantage  of application of this system device for vibration control of two  adjacent tall building.

12
9997237
Fuzzy Logic Based Active Vibration Control of Piezoelectric Stewart Platform
Abstract:

This paper demonstrates the potential of applying PD-like fuzzy logic controller for active vibration control of piezoelectric Stewart platforms. Through simulation, the control authority of the piezo stack actuators for effectively damping the Stewart platform vibration can be evaluated for further implementation of the system. Each leg of the piezoelectric Stewart platform consists of a linear piezo stack actuator, a collocated velocity sensor, a collocated displacement sensor and flexible tips for the connections with the two end plates. The piezoelectric stack is modeled as a bar element and the electro-mechanical coupling property is simulated using Matlab/Simulink software. Then, the open loop and closed loop dynamic responses are performed for the system to characterize the effect of the control on the vibration of the piezoelectric Stewart platform. A significant improvement in the damping of the structure can be observed by using the PD-like fuzzy controller.

11
10262
Retaining Structural System Active Vibration Control
Abstract:
This study presents an active vibration control technique to reduce the earthquake responses of a retained structural system. The proposed technique is a synthesis of the adaptive input estimation method (AIEM) and linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) controller. The AIEM can estimate an unknown system input online. The LQG controller offers optimal control forces to suppress wall-structural system vibration. The numerical results show robust performance in the active vibration control technique.
10
13646
Active Vibration Control of Flexible Beam using Differential Evolution Optimisation
Abstract:
This paper presents the development of an active vibration control using direct adaptive controller to suppress the vibration of a flexible beam system. The controller is realized based on linear parametric form. Differential evolution optimisation algorithm is used to optimize the controller using single objective function by minimizing the mean square error of the observed vibration signal. Furthermore, an alternative approach is developed to systematically search for the best controller model structure together with it parameter values. The performance of the control scheme is presented and analysed in both time and frequency domain. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed scheme is able to suppress the unwanted vibration effectively.
9
8433
Nonlinear Dynamic Modeling and Active Vibration Control of a System with Fuel Sloshing
Abstract:

Attitude control of aerospace system with liquid containers may face to a problem associate with fuel sloshing. The sloshing phenomena can degrade the stability of control system and in the worst case, interaction between the attitude control system and fuel vibration leading to resonance. In this paper, a full process of nonlinear dynamic modeling of an aerospace launch vehicle with fuel sloshing is given. Then, a new control system based on model reference adaptive filter is proposed and its algorithm is extracted. This controller implemented on the main attitude control system. Finally, numerical simulation of nonlinear model and control system is carried out to examine the performance of the new controller. Results of simulations show that the inconvenient effects of the fuel sloshing by augmenting this control system are reduced and attitude control system performs, satisfactorily.

8
15868
Simulation of Particle Damping under Centrifugal Loads
Abstract:
Particle damping is a technique to reduce the structural vibrations by means of placing small metallic particles inside a cavity that is attached to the structure at location of high vibration amplitudes. In this paper, we have presented an analytical model to simulate the particle damping of two dimensional transient vibrations in structure operating under high centrifugal loads. The simulation results show that this technique remains effective as long as the ratio of the dynamic acceleration of the structure to the applied centrifugal load is more than 0.1. Particle damping increases with the increase of particle to structure mass ratio. However, unlike to the case of particle damping in the absence of centrifugal loads where the damping efficiency strongly depends upon the size of the cavity, here this dependence becomes very weak. Despite the simplicity of the model, the simulation results are considerably in good agreement with the very scarce experimental data available in the literature for particle damping under centrifugal loads.
7
15092
Controller Design for Euler-Bernoulli Smart Structures Using Robust Decentralized FOS via Reduced Order Modeling
Abstract:
This paper features the modeling and design of a Robust Decentralized Fast Output Sampling (RDFOS) Feedback control technique for the active vibration control of a smart flexible multimodel Euler-Bernoulli cantilever beams for a multivariable (MIMO) case by retaining the first 6 vibratory modes. The beam structure is modeled in state space form using the concept of piezoelectric theory, the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory and the Finite Element Method (FEM) technique by dividing the beam into 4 finite elements and placing the piezoelectric sensor / actuator at two finite element locations (positions 2 and 4) as collocated pairs, i.e., as surface mounted sensor / actuator, thus giving rise to a multivariable model of the smart structure plant with two inputs and two outputs. Five such multivariable models are obtained by varying the dimensions (aspect ratios) of the aluminium beam. Using model order reduction technique, the reduced order model of the higher order system is obtained based on dominant Eigen value retention and the Davison technique. RDFOS feedback controllers are designed for the above 5 multivariable-multimodel plant. The closed loop responses with the RDFOS feedback gain and the magnitudes of the control input are obtained and the performance of the proposed multimodel smart structure system is evaluated for vibration control.
6
14859
Vibration Suppression of Timoshenko Beams with Embedded Piezoelectrics Using POF
Abstract:
This paper deals with the design of a periodic output feedback controller for a flexible beam structure modeled with Timoshenko beam theory, Finite Element Method, State space methods and embedded piezoelectrics concept. The first 3 modes are considered in modeling the beam. The main objective of this work is to control the vibrations of the beam when subjected to an external force. Shear piezoelectric sensors and actuators are embedded into the top and bottom layers of a flexible aluminum beam structure, thus making it intelligent and self-adaptive. The composite beam is divided into 5 finite elements and the control actuator is placed at finite element position 1, whereas the sensor is varied from position 2 to 5, i.e., from the nearby fixed end to the free end. 4 state space SISO models are thus developed. Periodic Output Feedback (POF) Controllers are designed for the 4 SISO models of the same plant to control the flexural vibrations. The effect of placing the sensor at different locations on the beam is observed and the performance of the controller is evaluated for vibration control. Conclusions are finally drawn.
5
14162
Modeling and FOS Feedback Based Control of SISO Intelligent Structures with Embedded Shear Sensors and Actuators
Abstract:
Active vibration control is an important problem in structures. The objective of active vibration control is to reduce the vibrations of a system by automatic modification of the system-s structural response. In this paper, the modeling and design of a fast output sampling feedback controller for a smart flexible beam system embedded with shear sensors and actuators for SISO system using Timoshenko beam theory is proposed. FEM theory, Timoshenko beam theory and the state space techniques are used to model the aluminum cantilever beam. For the SISO case, the beam is divided into 5 finite elements and the control actuator is placed at finite element position 1, whereas the sensor is varied from position 2 to 5, i.e., from the nearby fixed end to the free end. Controllers are designed using FOS method and the performance of the designed FOS controller is evaluated for vibration control for 4 SISO models of the same plant. The effect of placing the sensor at different locations on the beam is observed and the performance of the controller is evaluated for vibration control. Some of the limitations of the Euler-Bernoulli theory such as the neglection of shear and axial displacement are being considered here, thus giving rise to an accurate beam model. Embedded shear sensors and actuators have been considered in this paper instead of the surface mounted sensors and actuators for vibration suppression because of lot of advantages. In controlling the vibration modes, the first three dominant modes of vibration of the system are considered.
4
540
Control of Vibrations in Flexible Smart Structures using Fast Output Sampling Feedback Technique
Abstract:
This paper features the modeling and design of a Fast Output Sampling (FOS) Feedback control technique for the Active Vibration Control (AVC) of a smart flexible aluminium cantilever beam for a Single Input Single Output (SISO) case. Controllers are designed for the beam by bonding patches of piezoelectric layer as sensor / actuator to the master structure at different locations along the length of the beam by retaining the first 2 dominant vibratory modes. The entire structure is modeled in state space form using the concept of piezoelectric theory, Euler-Bernoulli beam theory, Finite Element Method (FEM) and the state space techniques by dividing the structure into 3, 4, 5 finite elements, thus giving rise to three types of systems, viz., system 1 (beam divided into 3 finite elements), system 2 (4 finite elements), system 3 (5 finite elements). The effect of placing the sensor / actuator at various locations along the length of the beam for all the 3 types of systems considered is observed and the conclusions are drawn for the best performance and for the smallest magnitude of the control input required to control the vibrations of the beam. Simulations are performed in MATLAB. The open loop responses, closed loop responses and the tip displacements with and without the controller are obtained and the performance of the proposed smart system is evaluated for vibration control.
3
684
Multivariable Control of Smart Timoshenko Beam Structures Using POF Technique
Abstract:
Active Vibration Control (AVC) is an important problem in structures. One of the ways to tackle this problem is to make the structure smart, adaptive and self-controlling. The objective of active vibration control is to reduce the vibration of a system by automatic modification of the system-s structural response. This paper features the modeling and design of a Periodic Output Feedback (POF) control technique for the active vibration control of a flexible Timoshenko cantilever beam for a multivariable case with 2 inputs and 2 outputs by retaining the first 2 dominant vibratory modes using the smart structure concept. The entire structure is modeled in state space form using the concept of piezoelectric theory, Timoshenko beam theory, Finite Element Method (FEM) and the state space techniques. Simulations are performed in MATLAB. The effect of placing the sensor / actuator at 2 finite element locations along the length of the beam is observed. The open loop responses, closed loop responses and the tip displacements with and without the controller are obtained and the performance of the smart system is evaluated for active vibration control.
2
8892
Controller Design for Euler-Bernoulli Smart Structures Using Robust Decentralized POF via Reduced Order Modeling
Abstract:
This paper features the proposed modeling and design of a Robust Decentralized Periodic Output Feedback (RDPOF) control technique for the active vibration control of smart flexible multimodel Euler-Bernoulli cantilever beams for a multivariable (MIMO) case by retaining the first 6 vibratory modes. The beam structure is modeled in state space form using the concept of piezoelectric theory, the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory and the Finite Element Method (FEM) technique by dividing the beam into 4 finite elements and placing the piezoelectric sensor / actuator at two finite element locations (positions 2 and 4) as collocated pairs, i.e., as surface mounted sensor / actuator, thus giving rise to a multivariable model of the smart structure plant with two inputs and two outputs. Five such multivariable models are obtained by varying the dimensions (aspect ratios) of the aluminum beam, thus giving rise to a multimodel of the smart structure system. Using model order reduction technique, the reduced order model of the higher order system is obtained based on dominant eigen value retention and the method of Davison. RDPOF controllers are designed for the above 5 multivariable-multimodel plant. The closed loop responses with the RDPOF feedback gain and the magnitudes of the control input are observed and the performance of the proposed multimodel smart structure system with the controller is evaluated for vibration control.
1
7537
Mathematical Modeling of SISO based Timoshenko Structures – A Case Study
Abstract:

This paper features the mathematical modeling of a single input single output based Timoshenko smart beam. Further, this mathematical model is used to design a multirate output feedback based discrete sliding mode controller using Bartoszewicz law to suppress the flexural vibrations. The first 2 dominant vibratory modes is retained. Here, an application of the discrete sliding mode control in smart systems is presented. The algorithm uses a fast output sampling based sliding mode control strategy that would avoid the use of switching in the control input and hence avoids chattering. This method does not need the measurement of the system states for feedback as it makes use of only the output samples for designing the controller. Thus, this methodology is more practical and easy to implement.

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