Implicit Responses for Assessment of Autism Based on Natural Behaviors Obtained Inside Immersive Virtual Environment
The late detection and subjectivity of the assessment of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) imposed a difficulty for the children’s clinical and familiar environment. The results showed in this paper, are part of a research project about the assessment and training of social skills in children with ASD, whose overall goal is the use of virtual environments together with physiological measures in order to find a new model of objective ASD assessment based on implicit brain processes measures. In particular, this work tries to contribute by studying the differences and changes in the Skin Conductance Response (SCR) and Eye Tracking (ET) between a typical development group (TD group) and an ASD group (ASD group) after several combined stimuli using a low cost Immersive Virtual Environment (IVE). Subjects were exposed to a virtual environment that showed natural scenes that stimulated visual, auditory and olfactory perceptual system. By exposing them to the IVE, subjects showed natural behaviors while measuring SCR and ET. This study compared measures of subjects diagnosed with ASD (N = 18) with a control group of subjects with typical development (N=10) when exposed to three different conditions: only visual (V), visual and auditory (VA) and visual, auditory and olfactory (VAO) stimulation. Correlations between SCR and ET measures were also correlated with the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) test. SCR measures showed significant differences among the experimental condition between groups. The ASD group presented higher level of SCR while we did not find significant differences between groups regarding DF. We found high significant correlations among all the experimental conditions in SCR measures and the subscale of ADOS test of imagination and symbolic thinking. Regarding the correlation between ET measures and ADOS test, the results showed significant relationship between VA condition and communication scores.
Development of an Indoor Drone Designed for the Needs of the Creative Industries
With this contribution, we want to show how the AiRT system could change the future way of working of a part of the creative industry and what new economic opportunities could arise for them. Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS), also more commonly known as drones, are now essential tools used by many different companies for their creative outdoor work. However, using this very flexible applicable tool indoor is almost impossible, since safe navigation cannot be guaranteed by the operator due to the lack of a reliable and affordable indoor positioning system which ensures a stable flight, among other issues. Here we present our first results of a European project, which consists of developing an indoor drone for professional footage especially designed for the creative industries. One of the main achievements of this project is the successful implication of the end-users in the overall design process from the very beginning. To ensure safe flight in confined spaces, our drone incorporates a positioning system based on ultra-wide band technology, an RGB-D (depth) camera for 3D environment reconstruction and the possibility to fully pre-program automatic flights. Since we also want to offer this tool for inexperienced pilots, we have always focused on user-friendly handling of the whole system throughout the entire process.
A Psychophysiological Evaluation of an Effective Recognition Technique Using Interactive Dynamic Virtual Environments
Recording psychological and physiological correlates of human performance within virtual environments and interpreting their impacts on human engagement, ‘immersion’ and related emotional or ‘effective’ states is both academically and technologically challenging. By exposing participants to an effective, real-time (game-like) virtual environment, designed and evaluated in an earlier study, a psychophysiological database containing the EEG, GSR and Heart Rate of 30 male and female gamers, exposed to 10 games, was constructed. Some 174 features were subsequently identified and extracted from a number of windows, with 28 different timing lengths (e.g. 2, 3, 5, etc. seconds). After reducing the number of features to 30, using a feature selection technique, K-Nearest Neighbour (KNN) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) methods were subsequently employed for the classification process. The classifiers categorised the psychophysiological database into four effective clusters (defined based on a 3-dimensional space – valence, arousal and dominance) and eight emotion labels (relaxed, content, happy, excited, angry, afraid, sad, and bored). The KNN and SVM classifiers achieved average cross-validation accuracies of 97.01% (±1.3%) and 92.84% (±3.67%), respectively. However, no significant differences were found in the classification process based on effective clusters or emotion labels.
Teaching College Classes with Virtual Reality
Recent advances in virtual reality (VR) technologies have made it possible for students to experience a virtual on-the-scene or virtual in-person observation of an educational event. In an experimental class, the author uses VR, particularly 360° videos, to virtually engage students in an event, through a wide spectrum of educational resources, such s a virtual “bystander.” Students were able to observe the event as if they were physically on site, although they could not intervene with the scene. The author will describe the adopted equipment, specification, and cost of building them as well as the quality of VR. The author will discuss (a) feasibility, effectiveness, and efficiency of using VR as a supplemental technology to teach college students and criteria and methodologies used by the authors to evaluate them; (b) barriers and issues of technological implementation; and (c) pedagogical practices learned through this experiment. The author also attempts to explore (a) how VR could provide an interactive virtual in-person learning experience; (b) how VR can possibly change traditional college education and online education; (c) how educators and balance six critical factors: cost, time, technology, quality, result, and content.
Creating a Virtual Perception for Upper Limb Rehabilitation
This paper describes the development of a virtual-reality system ARWED, which will be used in physical rehabilitation of patients with reduced upper extremity mobility to increase limb Active Range of Motion (AROM). The ARWED system performs a symmetric reflection and real-time mapping of the patient’s healthy limb on to their most affected limb, tapping into the mirror neuron system and facilitating the initial learning phase. Using the ARWED, future experiments will test the extension of the action-observation priming effect linked to the mirror-neuron system on healthy subjects and then stroke patients.
Perceptions toward Adopting Virtual Reality as a Learning Aid in Information Technology
The field of education is an ever-evolving area constantly enriched by newly discovered techniques provided by active research in all areas of technologies. The recent years have witnessed the introduction of a number of promising technologies and applications to enhance the teaching and learning experience. Virtual Reality (VR) applications are considered one of the evolving methods that have contributed to enhancing education in many fields. VR creates an artificial environment, using computer hardware and software, which is similar to the real world. This simulation provides a solution to improve the delivery of materials, which facilitates the teaching process by providing a useful aid to instructors, and enhances the learning experience by providing a beneficial learning aid. In order to assure future utilization of such systems, students’ perceptions were examined toward utilizing VR as an educational tool in the Faculty of Information Technology (IT) in The University of Jordan. A questionnaire was administered to IT undergraduates investigating students’ opinions about the potential opportunities that VR technology could offer and its implications as learning and teaching aid. The results confirmed the end users’ willingness to adopt VR systems as a learning aid. The result of this research forms a solid base for investing in a VR system for IT education.
Behavioral Experiments of Small Societies in Social Media: Facebook Expressions of Anchored Relationships
Communities and societies have been changing towards computer mediated communication. This paper explores online and offline identities and how relationships are formed and negotiated within internet environments which offer opportunities for people who know each other offline and move into relationships online. The expectations and norms of behavior within everyday life cause people to be embodied self. According to the age categories of Turkish Cypriots, their measurements of attitudes in Facebook will be investigated. Face-to-face field research and semi-structured interview methods are used in the study. Face-to-face interview has been done with Turkish Cypriots who are using Facebook already. According to the study, in constructing a linkage between real and virtual identities mostly affected from societal relations serves as a societal grooming tool for Turkish Cypriots.
The Role of Planning and Memory in the Navigational Ability
Navigational ability requires spatial representation, planning, and memory. It covers three interdependent domains, i.e. cognitive and perceptual factors, neural information processing, and variability in brain microstructure. Many attempts have been made to see the role of spatial representation in the navigational ability, and the individual differences have been identified in the neural substrate. But, there is also a need to address the influence of planning, memory on navigational ability. The present study aims to evaluate relations of aforementioned factors in the navigational ability. Total 30 participants volunteered in the study of a virtual shopping complex and subsequently were classified into good and bad navigators based on their performances. The result showed that planning ability was the most correlated factor for the navigational ability and also the discriminating factor between the good and bad navigators. There was also found the correlations between spatial memory recall and navigational ability. However, non-verbal episodic memory and spatial memory recall were also found to be correlated with the learning variable. This study attempts to identify differences between people with more and less navigational ability on the basis of planning and memory.
Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Exercises of Upper Extremities Assessment Using Microsoft Kinect Sensor and Color Marker in a Virtual Reality Environment
Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation exercises are a series of stretching techniques that are commonly used in rehabilitation and exercise therapy. Assessment of these exercises for true maneuvering requires extensive experience in this field and could not be down with patients themselves. In this paper, we developed software that uses Microsoft Kinect sensor, a spherical color marker, and real-time image processing methods to evaluate patient’s performance in generating true patterns of movements. The software also provides the patient with a visual feedback by showing his/her avatar in a Virtual Reality environment along with the correct path of moving hand, wrist and marker. Primary results during PNF exercise therapy of a patient in a room environment shows the ability of the system to identify any deviation of maneuvering path and direction of the hand from the one that has been performed by an expert physician.
Factory Virtual Environment Development for Augmented and Virtual Reality
Machine visualization is an area of interest with fast
and progressive development. We present a method of machine
visualization which will be applicable in real industrial conditions
according to current needs and demands. Real factory data were
obtained in a newly built research plant. Methods described in this
paper were validated on a case study. Input data were processed and
the virtual environment was created. The environment contains
information about dimensions, structure, disposition, and function.
Hardware was enhanced by modular machines, prototypes, and
accessories. We added functionalities and machines into the virtual
environment. The user is able to interact with objects such as testing
and cutting machines, he/she can operate and move them. Proposed
design consists of an environment with two degrees of freedom of
movement. Users are in touch with items in the virtual world which
are embedded into the real surroundings. This paper describes development of the virtual environment. We
compared and tested various options of factory layout virtualization
and visualization. We analyzed possibilities of using a 3D scanner in
the layout obtaining process and we also analyzed various virtual
reality hardware visualization methods such as: Stereoscopic (CAVE)
projection, Head Mounted Display (HMD) and augmented reality
(AR) projection provided by see-through glasses.
Recording Video in the CAVE
Evaluating the performance of a simulator in the
CAVE has to be confirmed by encouraging people to live the
experience of virtual reality. In this paper, a detailed procedure of
recording video is presented. Limitations of the experimental device
are firstly exposed. Then, solutions for improving this idea are finally
Implementation of Virtual Reality in the Conceptual Design of a Tractor Trailer
Virtual reality (VR) is a rapidly emerging computer
interface that attempts to immerse the user completely within an
experimental recreation; thereby, greatly enhancing the overall
impact and providing a much more intuitive link between the
computer and the human participants. The main objective of this
study is to design tractor trailer capable of meeting the customers’
requirements and suitable for rough conditions to be used in
combination with a farm tractor in India. The final concept is capable
of providing arrangements for attaching the trailer to the tractor easily
by pickup hitch, stronger and lighter supporting frame, option of
spare tyre etc. Furthermore, the resulting product design can be sent
via the Internet to customers for comments or marketing purposes.
The virtual prototyping (VP) system therefore facilitates advanced
product design and helps reduce product development time and cost
Virtual Assembly in a Semi-Immersive Environment
Virtual Assembly (VA) is one of the key technologies
in advanced manufacturing field. It is a promising application of
virtual reality in design and manufacturing field. It has drawn much
interest from industries and research institutes in the last two decades.
This paper describes a process for integrating an interactive Virtual
Reality-based assembly simulation of a digital mockup with the
CAD/CAM infrastructure. The necessary hardware and software
preconditions for the process are explained so that it can easily be
adopted by non VR experts. The article outlines how assembly
simulation can improve the CAD/CAM procedures and structures;
how CAD model preparations have to be carried out and which
virtual environment requirements have to be fulfilled. The issue of
data transfer is also explained in the paper. The other challenges and
requirements like anti-aliasing and collision detection have also been
explained. Finally, a VA simulation has been carried out for a ball
valve assembly and a car door assembly with the help of Vizard
virtual reality toolkit in a semi-immersive environment and their
performance analysis has been done on different workstations to
evaluate the importance of graphical processing unit (GPU) in the
field of VA.
The Implementation of Spatio-Temporal Graph to Represent Situations in the Virtual World
In this paper, we develop a Spatio-Temporal graph as
of a key component of our knowledge representation Scheme. We
design an integrated representation Scheme to depict not only present
and past but future in parallel with the spaces in an effective and
intuitive manner. The resulting multi-dimensional comprehensive
knowledge structure accommodates multi-layered virtual world
developing in the time to maximize the diversity of situations in the
historical context. This knowledge representation Scheme is to be used
as the basis for simulation of situations composing the virtual world
and for implementation of virtual agents' knowledge used to judge and
evaluate the situations in the virtual world. To provide natural contexts
for situated learning or simulation games, the virtual stage set by this
Spatio-Temporal graph is to be populated by agents and other objects
interrelated and changing which are abstracted in the ontology.
Creation of a New Software used for Palletizing Process
This article gives a short preview of the new software
created especially for palletizing process in automated production
systems. Each chapter of this article is about problem solving in
development of modules in Java programming language. First part
describes structure of the software, its modules and data flow
between them. Second part describes all deployment methods, which
are implemented in the software. Next chapter is about twodimensional
editor created for manipulation with objects in each
layer of the load and gives calculations for collision control. Module
of virtual reality used for three-dimensional preview and creation of
the load is described in the fifth chapter. The last part of this article
describes communication and data flow between control system of
the robot, vision system and software.
The use of a Bespoke Computer Game For Teaching Analogue Electronics
An implementation of a design for a game based
virtual learning environment is described. The game is developed for a course in analogue electronics, and the topic is the design of a
power supply. This task can be solved in a number of different ways, with certain constraints, giving the students a certain amount of
freedom, although the game is designed not to facilitate trial-and error approach. The use of storytelling and a virtual gaming environment provides the student with the learning material in a
MMORPG environment. The game is tested on a group of second
year electrical engineering students with good results.
Hand Gesture Recognition using Blob Detection for Immersive Projection Display System
We developed a vision interface immersive projection system, CAVE in virtual rea using hand gesture recognition with computer vis background image was subtracted from current webcam and we convert the color space of the imag Then we mask skin regions using skin color range t a noise reduction operation. We made blobs fro gestures were recognized using these blobs. Using recognition, we could implement an effective bothering devices for CAVE. e framework for an reality research field vision techniques. ent image frame age into HSV space. e threshold and apply from the image and ing our hand gesture e interface without
The Effects of Immersion on Visual Attention and Detection of Signals Performance for Virtual Reality Training Systems
The Virtual Reality (VR) is becoming increasingly
important for business, education, and entertainment, therefore VR
technology have been applied for training purposes in the areas of
military, safety training and flying simulators. In particular, the
superior and high reliability VR training system is very important in
immersion. Manipulation training in immersive virtual environments
is difficult partly because users must do without the hap contact with
real objects they rely on in the real world to orient themselves and
In this paper, we create a convincing questionnaire of immersion
and an experiment to assess the influence of immersion on
performance in VR training system. The Immersion Questionnaire
(IQ) included spatial immersion, Psychological immersion, and
Sensory immersion. We show that users with a training system
complete visual attention and detection of signals. Twenty subjects
were allocated to a factorial design consisting of two different VR
systems (Desktop VR and Projector VR). The results indicated that
different VR representation methods significantly affected the
participants- Immersion dimensions.
Development of a Low Cost Haptic Knob
Haptics has been used extensively in many applications especially in human machine interaction and virtual reality systems. Haptic technology allows user to perceive virtual reality as in real world. However, commercially available haptic devices are expensive and may not be suitable for educational purpose. This paper describes the design and development of a low cost haptic knob, with only one degree of freedom, for use in rehabilitation or training hand pronation and supination. End-effectors can be changed to suit different applications or variation in hand sizes and hand orientation.
Assessment Methods for Surgical Skill
The increasingly sophisticated technologies have now been able to provide assistance for surgeons to improve surgical
performance through various training programs. Equally important to learning skills is the assessment method as it determines the learning and technical proficiency of a trainee. A consistent and
rigorous assessment system will ensure that trainees acquire the specific level of competency prior to certification. This paper
reviews the methods currently in use for assessment of surgical
skill and some modern techniques using computer-based
measurements and virtual reality systems for more quantitative
An AR/VR Based Approach Towards the Intuitive Control of Mobile Rescue Robots
An intuitive user interface for the teleoperation of mobile rescue robots is one key feature for a successful exploration of inaccessible and no-go areas. Therefore, we have developed a novel framework to embed a flexible and modular user interface into a complete 3-D virtual reality simulation system. Our approach is based on a client-server architecture to allow for a collaborative control of the rescue robot together with multiple clients on demand. Further, it is important that the user interface is not restricted to any specific type of mobile robot. Therefore, our flexible approach allows for the operation of different robot types with a consistent concept and user interface. In laboratory tests, we have evaluated the validity and effectiveness of our approach with the help of two different robot platforms and several input devices. As a result, an untrained person can intuitively teleoperate both robots without needing a familiarization time when changing the operating robot.
Virtual Laboratory for Learning Biology – A Preliminary Investigation
This study aims to conduct a preliminary investigation to determine the topic to be focused in developing Virtual Laboratory For Biology (VLab-Bio). Samples involved in answering the questionnaire are form five students (equivalent to A-Level) and biology teachers. Time and economical resources for the setting up and construction of scientific laboratories can be solved with the adaptation of virtual laboratories as an educational tool. Thus, it is hoped that the proposed virtual laboratory will help students to learn the abstract concepts in biology. Findings show that the difficult topic chosen is Cell Division and the learning objective to be focused in developing the virtual lab is “Describe the application of knowledge on mitosis in cloning".
Non Inmersive Virtual Reality for Improving Teaching Processes
The following paper shows an interactive tool which
main purpose is to teach how to play a flute. It consists of three
stages the first one is the instruction and teaching process through a
software application, the second is the practice part when the user
starts to play the flute (hardware specially designed for this
application) this flute is capable of capturing how is being played the
flute and the final stage is the one in which the data captured are sent
to the software and the user is evaluated in order to give him / she a
correction or an acceptance
Device for 3D Analysis of Basic Movements of the Lower Extremity
This document details the process of developing a
wireless device that captures the basic movements of the foot (plantar
flexion, dorsal flexion, abduction, adduction.), and the knee
movement (flexion). It implements a motion capture system by using
a hardware based on optical fiber sensors, due to the advantages in
terms of scope, noise immunity and speed of data transmission and
reception. The operating principle used by this system is the detection
and transmission of joint movement by mechanical elements and
their respective measurement by optical ones (in this case infrared).
Likewise, Visual Basic software is used for reception, analysis and
signal processing of data acquired by the device, generating a 3D
graphical representation in real time of each movement. The result is
a boot in charge of capturing the movement, a transmission module
(Implementing Xbee Technology) and a receiver module for
receiving information and sending it to the PC for their respective
The main idea with this device is to help on topics such as
bioengineering and medicine, by helping to improve the quality of
life and movement analysis.
, A / D converter
, Autodesk 3DMax
, Infrared Diode
, Infrared LEDs
, Modeling OPENGL
, Optical Fiber
, USB CDC(Communications Device Class)
, Virtual Reality.
3DARModeler: a 3D Modeling System in Augmented Reality Environment
This paper describes a 3D modeling system in
Augmented Reality environment, named 3DARModeler. It can be
considered a simple version of 3D Studio Max with necessary
functions for a modeling system such as creating objects, applying
texture, adding animation, estimating real light sources and casting
shadows. The 3DARModeler introduces convenient, and effective
human-computer interaction to build 3D models by combining both
the traditional input method (mouse/keyboard) and the tangible input
method (markers). It has the ability to align a new virtual object with
the existing parts of a model. The 3DARModeler targets nontechnical
users. As such, they do not need much knowledge of
computer graphics and modeling techniques. All they have to do is
select basic objects, customize their attributes, and put them together
to build a 3D model in a simple and intuitive way as if they were
doing in the real world. Using the hierarchical modeling technique,
the users are able to group several basic objects to manage them as a
unified, complex object. The system can also connect with other 3D
systems by importing and exporting VRML/3Ds Max files. A
module of speech recognition is included in the system to provide
flexible user interfaces.
A Discrete-Event-Simulation Approach for Logistic Systems with Real Time Resource Routing and VR Integration
Today, transport and logistic systems are often tightly
integrated in the production. Lean production and just-in-time delivering create multiple constraints that have to be fulfilled. As transport networks often have evolved over time they are very
expensive to change. This paper describes a discrete-event-simulation
system which simulates transportation models using real time
resource routing and collision avoidance. It allows for the
specification of own control algorithms and validation of new
strategies. The simulation is integrated into a virtual reality (VR)
environment and can be displayed in 3-D to show the progress.
Simulation elements can be selected through VR metaphors. All data
gathered during the simulation can be presented as a detailed summary afterwards. The included cost-benefit calculation can help to optimize the financial outcome. The operation of this approach is shown by the example of a timber harvest simulation.
Electronic Tool that Helps in Learning How to Play a Flute
This paper describes the development of an electronic
instrument that looks like a flute, which is able to sense the basic musical notes being executed by a specific user. The principal function of the instrument is to teach how to play a flute. This device
will generate a significant academic impact, in a field of virtual reality interactive that combine art and technology. With this example is expected to contribute in research and implementation of teaching devices around the world.
Educational Values of Virtual Reality: The Case of Spatial Ability
The use of Virtual Reality (VR) in schools and higher education is proliferating. Due to its interactive and animated features, it is regarded as a promising technology to increase students- spatial ability. Spatial ability is assumed to have a prominent role in science and engineering domains. However, research concerning individual differences such as spatial ability in the context of VR is still at its infancy. Moreover, empirical studies that focus on the features of VR to improve spatial ability are to date rare. Thus, this paper explores the possible educational values of VR in relation to spatial ability to call for more research concerning spatial ability in the context of VR based on studies in computerbased learning. It is believed that the incorporation of state-of-the-art VR technology for educational purposes should be justified by the enhanced benefits for the target learners.
3D Spatial Interaction with the Wii Remote for Head-Mounted Display Virtual Reality
This research investigates the design of a low-cost 3D
spatial interaction approach using the Wii Remote for immersive
Head-Mounted Display (HMD) virtual reality. Current virtual reality
applications that incorporate the Wii Remote are either desktop
virtual reality applications or systems that use large screen displays.
However, the requirements for an HMD virtual reality system differ
from such systems. This is mainly because in HMD virtual reality,
the display screen does not remain at a fixed location. The user views
the virtual environment through display screens that are in front of
the user-s eyes and when the user moves his/her head, these screens
move as well. This means that the display has to be updated in realtime
based on where the user is currently looking. Normal usage of
the Wii Remote requires the controller to be pointed in a certain
direction, typically towards the display. This is too restrictive for
HMD virtual reality systems that ideally require the user to be able to
turn around in the virtual environment. Previous work proposed a
design to achieve this, however it suffered from a number of
drawbacks. The aim of this study is to look into a suitable method of
using the Wii Remote for 3D interaction in a space around the user
for HMD virtual reality. This paper presents an overview of issues
that had to be considered, the system design as well as experimental
Instructional Design Using the Virtual Ecological Pond for Science Education in Elementary Schools
Ecological ponds can be a good teaching tool for
science teachers, but they must be built and maintained properly to
provide students with a safe and suitable learning environment.
Hence, many schools do not have the ability to build an ecological
pond. This study used virtual reality technology to develop a webbased
virtual ecological pond. Supported by situated learning theory
and the instructional design of “Aquatic Life" learning unit,
elementary school students can actively explore in the virtual
ecological pond to observe aquatic animals and plants and learn
about the concept of ecological conservation. A teaching experiment
was conducted to investigate the learning effectiveness and
practicability of this instructional design, and the results showed that
students improved a great deal in learning about aquatic life. They
found the virtual ecological pond interesting, easy to operate and
helpful to understanding the aquatic ecological system. Therefore, it
is useful in elementary science education.