Bi-Lateral Comparison between NIS-Egypt and NMISA-South Africa for the Calibration of an Optical Spectrum Analyzer
Dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) technology requires tight specification and therefore measurement of wavelength accuracy and stability of the telecommunication lasers. Thus, calibration of the used Optical Spectrum Analyzers (OSAs) that are used to measure wavelength is of a great importance. Proficiency testing must be performed on such measuring activity to insure the accuracy of the measurement results. In this paper, a new comparison scheme is introduced to test the performance of such calibrations. This comparison scheme is implemented between NIS-Egypt and NMISA-South Africa for the calibration of the wavelength scale of an OSA. Both institutes employ reference gas cell to calibrate OSA according to the standard IEC/ BS EN 62129 (2006). The result of this comparison is compiled in this paper.
Comparative Performance Analysis of Fiber Delay Line Based Buffer Architectures for Contention Resolution in Optical WDM Networks
Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM)
technology is the most promising technology for the proper
utilization of huge raw bandwidth provided by an optical fiber. One
of the key problems in implementing the all-optical WDM network is
the packet contention. This problem can be solved by several
different techniques. In time domain approach the packet contention
can be reduced by incorporating Fiber Delay Lines (FDLs) as optical
buffer in the switch architecture. Different types of buffering
architectures are reported in literatures. In the present paper a
comparative performance analysis of three most popular FDL
architectures are presented in order to obtain the best contention
resolution performance. The analysis is further extended to consider
the effect of different fiber non-linearities on the network
Soliton Interaction in Multi-Core Optical Fiber: Application to WDM System
The analytical bright two soliton solution of the 3-
coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations with variable coefficients in
birefringent optical fiber is obtained by Darboux transformation
method. To the design of ultra-speed optical devices, Soliton
interaction and control in birefringence fiber is investigated. Lax pair
is constructed for N coupled NLS system through AKNS method.
Using two-soliton solution, we demonstrate different interaction
behaviors of solitons in birefringent fiber depending on the choice of
control parameters. Our results shows that interactions of optical
solitons have some specific applications such as construction of logic
gates, optical computing, soliton switching, and soliton amplification
in wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) system.
New Approach for Minimizing Wavelength Fragmentation in Wavelength-Routed WDM Networks
Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) is the dominant transport technology used in numerous high capacity backbone networks, based on optical infrastructures. Given the importance of costs (CapEx and OpEx) associated to these networks, resource management is becoming increasingly important, especially how the optical circuits, called “lightpaths”, are routed throughout the network. This requires the use of efficient algorithms which provide routing strategies with the lowest cost. We focus on the lightpath routing and wavelength assignment problem, known as the RWA problem, while optimizing wavelength fragmentation over the network. Wavelength fragmentation poses a serious challenge for network operators since it leads to the misuse of the wavelength spectrum, and then to the refusal of new lightpath requests. In this paper, we first establish a new Integer Linear Program (ILP) for the problem based on a node-link formulation. This formulation is based on a multilayer approach where the original network is decomposed into several network layers, each corresponding to a wavelength. Furthermore, we propose an efficient heuristic for the problem based on a greedy algorithm followed by a post-treatment procedure. The obtained results show that the optimal solution is often reached. We also compare our results with those of other RWA heuristic methods
An Approach to Flatten the Gain of Fiber Raman Amplifiers with Multi-Pumping
The effects of the pumping wavelength and their power
on the gain flattening of a fiber Raman amplifier (FRA) are
investigated. The multi-wavelength pumping scheme is utilized to
achieve gain flatness in FRA. It is proposed that gain flatness
becomes better with increase in number of pumping wavelengths
applied. We have achieved flat gain with 0.27 dB fluctuation in a
spectral range of 1475-1600 nm for a Raman fiber length of 10 km by
using six pumps with wavelengths with in the 1385-1495 nm interval.
The effect of multi-wavelength pumping scheme on gain saturation in
FRA is also studied. It is proposed that gain saturation condition gets
improved by using this scheme and this scheme is more useful for
higher spans of Raman fiber length.
The Impact of NICTBB in Facilitating the E-Services and M-Services in Tanzania
ICT services are a key element of communications and important for socio-economic development. In recognition of the importance of this, the Tanzanian Government started to implement a National ICT Broadband Infrastructure Fibre Optic Backbone (NICTBB) in 2009; this development was planned to be implemented in four phases using an optical dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) network technology in collaboration with the Chinese Government through the Chinese International Telecommunications Construction Corporation (CITCC) under a bilateral agreement. This paper briefly explores the NICTBB network technologies implementation, operations and Internet bandwidth costs. It also provides an in depth assessment of the delivery of ICT services such as e-services and m-services in both urban and rural areas following commissioning of the NICTBB system. Following quantitative and qualitative approaches, the study shows that there have been significant improvements in utilization efficiency, effectiveness and the reliability of the ICT service such as e-services and m-services the NICTCBB was commissioned.
Performance Enhancement of DWDM Systems Using HTE Configuration HTE Configuration for 1479-1555nm Wavelength Range
In this paper, the gain spectrum of EDFA has been broadened by implementing HTE configuration for S and C band. On using this configuration an amplification bandwidth of 76nm ranging from 1479nm to 1555nm with a peak gain of 26dB has been obtained.
A Novel Feedback-Based Integrated FiWi Networks Architecture by Centralized Interlink-ONU Communication
Integrated fiber-wireless (FiWi) access networks are a viable solution that can deliver the high profile quadruple play services. Passive optical networks (PON) networks integrated with wireless access networks provide ubiquitous characteristics for high bandwidth applications. Operation of PON improves by employing a variety of multiplexing techniques. One of it is time division/wavelength division multiplexed (TDM/WDM) architecture that improves the performance of optical-wireless access networks. This paper proposes a novel feedback-based TDM/WDM-PON architecture and introduces a model of integrated PON-FiWi networks. Feedback-based link architecture is an efficient solution to improves the performance of optical-line-terminal (OLT) and interlink optical-network-units (ONUs) communication. Furthermore, the feedback-based WDM/TDM-PON architecture is compared with existing architectures in terms of capacity of network throughput.
WDM and OCDMA Systems under MAI Effects: A Comparison Analysis
This paper presents a comparison between Spectrum-
Sliced Wavelength Division Multiplexing (SS-WDM) and Spectrum
Amplitude Coding Optical Code Division Multiple Access (SAC
Optical CDMA) systems for different light sources. The performance
of the system is shown in the simulated results of the bit error rate
(BER) and the eye diagram of both systems. The comparison results
indicate that the Multiple Access Interference (MAI) effects have a
significant impact on SS-WDM over SAC Optical CDMA systems.
Finally, in terms of spectral efficiency at constant BER of 10-12, SSWDM
offers higher spectral efficiency than optical CDMA since no
bandwidth expansion in needed.
Design of EDFA Gain Controller based on Disturbance Observer Technique
Based on a theoretical erbium-doped fiber amplifier
(EDFA) model, we have proposed an application of disturbance
observer(DOB) with proportional/integral/differential(PID) controller
to EDFA for minimizing gain-transient time of wavelength
-division-multiplexing (WDM) multi channels in optical amplifier in
channel add/drop networks. We have dramatically reduced the
gain-transient time to less than 30μsec by applying DOB with PID
controller to the control of amplifier gain. The proposed DOB-based
gain control algorithm for EDFA was implemented as a digital control
system using TI's DSP(TMS320C28346) chip and experimental
results of the system verify the excellent performance of the proposed
gain control methodology.
Monitoring and Fault-Recovery Capacity with Waveguide Grating-based Optical Switch over WDM/OCDMA-PON
In order to implement flexibility as well as survivable
capacities over passive optical network (PON), a new automatic
random fault-recovery mechanism with array-waveguide-grating
based (AWG-based) optical switch (OSW) is presented. Firstly,
wavelength-division-multiplexing and optical code-division
multiple-access (WDM/OCDMA) scheme are configured to meet the
various geographical locations requirement between optical network
unit (ONU) and optical line terminal (OLT). The AWG-base optical
switch is designed and viewed as central star-mesh topology to
prohibit/decrease the duplicated redundant elements such as fiber and
transceiver as well. Hence, by simple monitoring and routing switch
algorithm, random fault-recovery capacity is achieved over
bi-directional (up/downstream) WDM/OCDMA scheme. When error
of distribution fiber (DF) takes place or bit-error-rate (BER) is higher
than 10-9 requirement, the primary/slave AWG-based OSW are
adjusted and controlled dynamically to restore the affected ONU
groups via the other working DFs immediately.
Fault Localization and Alarm Correlation in Optical WDM Networks
For several high speed networks, providing resilience against failures is an essential requirement. The main feature for designing next generation optical networks is protecting and restoring high capacity WDM networks from the failures. Quick detection, identification and restoration make networks more strong and consistent even though the failures cannot be avoided. Hence, it is necessary to develop fast, efficient and dependable fault localization or detection mechanisms. In this paper we propose a new fault localization algorithm for WDM networks which can identify the location of a failure on a failed lightpath. Our algorithm detects the failed connection and then attempts to reroute data stream through an alternate path. In addition to this, we develop an algorithm to analyze the information of the alarms generated by the components of an optical network, in the presence of a fault. It uses the alarm correlation in order to reduce the list of suspected components shown to the network operators. By our simulation results, we show that our proposed algorithms achieve less blocking probability and delay while getting higher throughput.
An Optical WDM Network Concept for Tanzania
Tanzania is a developing country, which significantly lags behind the rest of the world in information communications technology (ICT), especially for the Internet. Internet connectivity to the rest of the world is via expensive satellite links, thus leaving the majority of the population unable to access the Internet due to the high cost. This paper introduces the concept of an optical WDM network for Internet infrastructure in Tanzania, so as to reduce Internet connection costs, and provide Internet access to the majority of people who live in both urban and rural areas. We also present a proposed optical WDM network, which mitigates the effects of system impairments, and provide simulation results to show that the data is successfully transmitted over a longer distance using a WDM network.
Characteristic of Discrete Raman Amplifier at Different Pump Configurations
This paper describes the gain and noise performances
of discrete Raman amplifier as a function of fiber lengths and the
signal input powers for different pump configurations. Simulation has
been done by using optisystem 7.0 software simulation at signal
wavelength of 1550 nm and a pump wavelength of 1450nm. The
results showed that the gain is higher in bidirectional pumping than in
counter pumping, the gain changes with increasing the fiber length
while the noise figure remain the same for short fiber lengths and the
gain saturates differently for different pumping configuration at
different fiber lengths and power levels of the signal.
Statistical Analysis of Different Configurations of Hybrid Doped Fiber Amplifiers
Wavelength multiplexing (WDM) technology along
with optical amplifiers is used for optical communication systems in
S-band, C-band and L-band. To improve the overall system
performance Hybrid amplifiers consisting of cascaded TDFA and
EDFA with different gain bandwidths are preferred for long haul
wavelength multiplexed optical communication systems. This paper
deals with statistical analysis of different configuration of hybrid
amplifier i.e. analysis of TDFA-EDFA configuration and EDFA –
TDFA configuration. In this paper One-Way ANOVA method is used
for statistical analysis.
Routing Capability and Blocking Analysis of Dynamic ROADM Optical Networks (Category - II) for Dynamic Traffic
Reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexers
(ROADMs) can be classified into three categories based on their
underlying switching technologies. Category I consists of a single
large optical switch; category II is composed of a number of small
optical switches aligned in parallel; and category III has a single
optical switch and only one wavelength being added/dropped. In this
paper, to evaluate the wavelength-routing capability of ROADMs of
category-II in dynamic optical networks,the dynamic traffic models
are designed based on Bernoulli, Poisson distributions for smooth
and regular types of traffic. Through Analytical and Simulation
results, the routing power of cat-II of ROADM networks for two
traffic models are determined.
Analysis of FWM Penalties in DWDM Systems Based on G.652, G.653, and G.655 Optical Fibers
This paper presents an investigation of the power
penalties imposed by four-wave mixing (FWM) on G.652 (Single-
Mode Fiber - SMF), G.653 (Dispersion-Shifted Fiber - DSF), and
G.655 (Non-Zero Dispersion-Shifted Fiber - NZDSF) compliant
fibers, considering the DWDM grids suggested by the ITU-T
Recommendations G.692, and G.694.1, with uniform channel
spacing of 100, 50, 25, and 12.5 GHz. The mathematical/numerical
model assumes undepleted pumping, and shows very clearly the
deleterious effect of FWM on the performance of DWDM systems,
measured by the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The results make it
evident that non-uniform channel spacing is practically mandatory
for WDM systems based on DSF fibers.
Analysis of a WDM System for Tanzania
Internet infrastructures in most places of the world
have been supported by the advancement of optical fiber technology,
most notably wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) system.
Optical technology by means of WDM system has revolutionized
long distance data transport and has resulted in high data capacity,
cost reductions, extremely low bit error rate, and operational
simplification of the overall Internet infrastructure. This paper
analyses and compares the system impairments, which occur at data
transmission rates of 2.5Gb/s and 10 Gb/s per wavelength channel in
our proposed optical WDM system for Internet infrastructure in
Tanzania. The results show that the data transmission rate of 2.5 Gb/s
has minimum system impairments compared with a rate of 10 Gb/s
per wavelength channel, and achieves a sufficient system
performance to provide a good Internet access service.
Statistical Evaluation of Nonlinear Distortion using the Multi-Canonical Monte Carlo Method and the Split Step Fourier Method
In high powered dense wavelength division
multiplexed (WDM) systems with low chromatic dispersion,
four-wave mixing (FWM) can prove to be a major source of noise.
The MultiCanonical Monte Carlo Method (MCMC) and the Split
Step Fourier Method (SSFM) are combined to accurately evaluate the
probability density function of the decision variable of a receiver,
limited by FWM. The combination of the two methods leads to more
accurate results, and offers the possibility of adding other optical
noises such as the Amplified Spontaneous Emission (ASE) noise.
WDM-Based Storage Area Network (SAN) for Disaster Recovery Operations
This paper proposes a Wavelength Division
Multiplexing (WDM) technology based Storage Area Network
(SAN) for all type of Disaster recovery operation. It considers
recovery when all paths failure in the network as well as the main
SAN site failure also the all backup sites failure by the effect of
natural disasters such as earthquakes, fires and floods, power outage,
and terrorist attacks, as initially SAN were designed to work within
distance limited environments. Paper also presents a NEW PATH
algorithm when path failure occurs. The simulation result and
analysis is presented for the proposed architecture with performance