A Taxonomy of Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks
The Internet of Everything (IoE) presents today a very attractive and motivating field of research. It is basically based on Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) in which the routing task is the major analysis topic. In fact, it directly affects the effectiveness and the lifetime of the network. This paper, developed from recent works and based on extensive researches, proposes a taxonomy of routing protocols in WSNs. Our main contribution is that we propose a classification model based on nine classes namely application type, delivery mode, initiator of communication, network architecture, path establishment (route discovery), network topology (structure), protocol operation, next hop selection and latency-awareness and energy-efficient routing protocols. In order to provide a total classification pattern to serve as reference for network designers, each class is subdivided into possible subclasses, presented, and discussed using different parameters such as purposes and characteristics.
Ensuring Uniform Energy Consumption in Non-Deterministic Wireless Sensor Network to Protract Networks Lifetime
Wireless sensor networks have enticed much of the spotlight from researchers all around the world, owing to its extensive applicability in agricultural, industrial and military fields. Energy conservation node deployment stratagems play a notable role for active implementation of Wireless Sensor Networks. Clustering is the approach in wireless sensor networks which improves energy efficiency in the network. The clustering algorithm needs to have an optimum size and number of clusters, as clustering, if not implemented properly, cannot effectively increase the life of the network. In this paper, an algorithm has been proposed to address connectivity issues with the aim of ensuring the uniform energy consumption of nodes in every part of the network. The results obtained after simulation showed that the proposed algorithm has an edge over existing algorithms in terms of throughput and networks lifetime.
Energy-Aware Routing in Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks
Wireless sensor networks are resource constrained networks, where energy is the major resource in such networks. Therefore, energy conservation is major aspect in the deployment of Wireless Sensor Network. This work makes use of an extended Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing (eGPSR) protocol that mainly focuses on energy efficient data transmission. This data transmission is based on the fact that the message that is sent to a distant node consumes more energy than the message that is sent to a short range transmission. Every cluster contains a head set that consists of many virtual cluster heads. Routing is decided by head set members. The energy level of the received signal is the major constraint to choose head set from its members. The experimental result shows that the use of eGPSR in routing has improved throughput with comparatively less delay.
Performance Analysis of ERA Using Fuzzy Logic in Wireless Sensor Network
In Wireless Sensor Network (WSN), the main limitation is generally inimitable energy consumption during processing of the sensor nodes. Cluster head (CH) election is one of the main issues that can reduce the energy consumption. Therefore, discovering energy saving routing protocol is the focused area for research. In this paper, fuzzy-based energy aware routing protocol is presented, which enhances the stability and network lifetime of the network. Fuzzy logic ensures the well-organized selection of CH by taking four linguistic variables that are concentration, energy, centrality, and distance to base station (BS). The results show that the proposed protocol shows better results in requisites of stability and throughput of the network.
Energy-Efficient Clustering Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks for Healthcare Monitoring
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) can facilitate continuous monitoring of patients and increase early detection of emergency conditions and diseases. High density WSNs helps us to accurately monitor a remote environment by intelligently combining the data from the individual nodes. Due to energy capacity limitation of sensors, enhancing the lifetime and the reliability of WSNs are important factors in designing of these networks. The clustering strategies are verified as effective and practical algorithms for reducing energy consumption in WSNs and can tackle WSNs limitations. In this paper, an Energy-efficient weight-based Clustering Protocol (EWCP) is presented. Artificial retina is selected as a case study of WSNs applied in body sensors. Cluster heads’ (CHs) selection is equipped with energy efficient parameters. Moreover, cluster members are selected based on their distance to the selected CHs. Comparing with the other benchmark protocols, the lifetime of EWCP is improved significantly.
Optimized Energy Scheduling Algorithm for Energy Efficient Wireless Sensor Networks
Wireless sensor networks can be tiny, low cost, intelligent sensors connected with advanced communication systems. WSNs have pulled in significant consideration as a matter of fact that, industrial as well as medical solicitations employ these in monitoring targets, conservational observation, obstacle exposure, movement regulator etc. In these applications, sensor hubs are thickly sent in the unattended environment with little non-rechargeable batteries. This constraint requires energy-efficient systems to drag out the system lifetime. There are redundancies in data sent over the network. To overcome this, multiple virtual spine scheduling has been presented. Such networks problems are called Maximum Lifetime Backbone Scheduling (MLBS) problems. Though this sleep wake cycle reduces radio usage, improvement can be made in the path in which the group heads stay selected. Cluster head selection with emphasis on geometrical relation of the system will enhance the load sharing among the nodes. Also the data are analyzed to reduce redundant transmission. Multi-hop communication will facilitate lighter loads on the network.
Proposal of Commutation Protocol in Hybrid Sensors and Vehicular Networks for Intelligent Transport Systems
Hybrid Sensors and Vehicular Networks (HSVN), represent a hybrid network, which uses several generations of Ad-Hoc networks. It is used especially in Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS). The HSVN allows making collaboration between the Wireless Sensors Network (WSN) deployed on the border of the road and the Vehicular Network (VANET). This collaboration is defined by messages exchanged between the two networks for the purpose to inform the drivers about the state of the road, provide road safety information and more information about traffic on the road. Moreover, this collaboration created by HSVN, also allows the use of a network and the advantage of improving another network. For example, the dissemination of information between the sensors quickly decreases its energy, and therefore, we can use vehicles that do not have energy constraint to disseminate the information between sensors. On the other hand, to solve the disconnection problem in VANET, the sensors can be used as gateways that allow sending the messages received by one vehicle to another. However, because of the short communication range of the sensor and its low capacity of storage and processing of data, it is difficult to ensure the exchange of road messages between it and the vehicle, which can be moving at high speed at the time of exchange. This represents the time where the vehicle is in communication range with the sensor. This work is the proposition of a communication protocol between the sensors and the vehicle used in HSVN. The latter has as the purpose to ensure the exchange of road messages in the available time of exchange.
Data Collection with Bounded-Sized Messages in Wireless Sensor Networks
In this paper, we study the data collection problem in
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) adopting the two interference
models: The graph model and the more realistic physical interference
model known as Signal-to-Interference-Noise-Ratio (SINR). The
main issue of the problem is to compute schedules with the minimum
number of timeslots, that is, to compute the minimum latency
schedules, such that data from every node can be collected without
any collision or interference to a sink node. While existing works
studied the problem with unit-sized and unbounded-sized message
models, we investigate the problem with the bounded-sized message
model, and introduce a constant factor approximation algorithm.
To the best known of our knowledge, our result is the first result
of the data collection problem with bounded-sized model in both
Tree Based Data Fusion Clustering Routing Algorithm for Illimitable Network Administration in Wireless Sensor Network
In wireless sensor networks, locality and positioning information can be captured using Global Positioning System (GPS). This message can be congregated initially from spot to identify the system. Users can retrieve information of interest from a wireless sensor network (WSN) by injecting queries and gathering results from the mobile sink nodes. Routing is the progression of choosing optimal path in a mobile network. Intermediate node employs permutation of device nodes into teams and generating cluster heads that gather the data from entity cluster’s node and encourage the collective data to base station. WSNs are widely used for gathering data. Since sensors are power-constrained devices, it is quite vital for them to reduce the power utilization. A tree-based data fusion clustering routing algorithm (TBDFC) is used to reduce energy consumption in wireless device networks. Here, the nodes in a tree use the cluster formation, whereas the elevation of the tree is decided based on the distance of the member nodes to the cluster-head. Network simulation shows that this scheme improves the power utilization by the nodes, and thus considerably improves the lifetime.
Enhancing the Performance of Wireless Sensor Networks Using Low Power Design
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs), are constantly in demand to process information more rapidly with less energy and area cost. Presently, processor based solutions have difficult to achieve high processing speed with low-power consumption. This paper presents a simple and accurate data processing scheme for low power wireless sensor node, based on reduced number of processing element (PE). The presented model provides a simple recursive structure (SRS) to process the sampled data in the wireless sensor environment and to reduce the power consumption in wireless sensor node. Based on this model, to process the incoming samples and produce a smaller amount of data sufficient to reconstruct the original signal. The ModelSim simulator used to simulate SRS structure. Functional simulation is carried out for the validation of the presented architecture. Xilinx Power Estimator (XPE) tool is used to measure the power consumption. The experimental results show the average power consumption of 91 mW; this is 42% improvement compared to the folded tree architecture.
Adaptive Routing Protocol for Dynamic Wireless Sensor Networks
The main issue in designing a wireless sensor network
(WSN) is the finding of a proper routing protocol that complies with
the several requirements of high reliability, short latency, scalability,
low power consumption, and many others. This paper proposes a
novel routing algorithm that complies with these design
requirements. The new routing protocol divides the WSN into several subnetworks
and each sub-network is divided into several clusters. This
division is designed to reduce the number of radio transmission and
hence decreases the power consumption. The network division may
be changed dynamically to adapt with the network changes and
allows the realization of the design requirements.
The Selection of the Nearest Anchor Using Received Signal Strength Indication (RSSI)
The localization information is crucial for the
operation of WSN. There are principally two types of localization
algorithms. The Range-based localization algorithm has strict
requirements on hardware, thus is expensive to be implemented in
practice. The Range-free localization algorithm reduces the hardware
cost. However, it can only achieve high accuracy in ideal scenarios.
In this paper, we locate unknown nodes by incorporating the
advantages of these two types of methods. The proposed algorithm
makes the unknown nodes select the nearest anchor using the
Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) and choose two other
anchors which are the most accurate to achieve the estimated
location. Our algorithm improves the localization accuracy compared
with previous algorithms, which has been demonstrated by the
Heuristic Search Algorithm (HSA) for Enhancing the Lifetime of Wireless Sensor Networks
The lifetime of a wireless sensor network can be
effectively increased by using scheduling operations. Once the
sensors are randomly deployed, the task at hand is to find the largest
number of disjoint sets of sensors such that every sensor set provides
complete coverage of the target area. At any instant, only one of these
disjoint sets is switched on, while all other are switched off. This
paper proposes a heuristic search method to find the maximum
number of disjoint sets that completely cover the region. A
population of randomly initialized members is made to explore the
solution space. A set of heuristics has been applied to guide the
members to a possible solution in their neighborhood. The heuristics
escalate the convergence of the algorithm. The best solution explored
by the population is recorded and is continuously updated. The
proposed algorithm has been tested for applications which require
sensing of multiple target points, referred to as point coverage
applications. Results show that the proposed algorithm outclasses the
existing algorithms. It always finds the optimum solution, and that
too by making fewer number of fitness function evaluations than the
Wireless Sensor Network to Help Low Incomes Farmers to Face Drought Impacts
This research presents the main ideas to implement an
intelligent system composed by communicating wireless sensors
measuring environmental data linked to drought indicators (such as
air temperature, soil moisture , etc...). On the other hand, the setting
up of a spatio temporal database communicating with a Web mapping
application for a monitoring in real time in activity 24:00 /day, 7
days/week is proposed to allow the screening of the drought
parameters time evolution and their extraction. Thus this system
helps detecting surfaces touched by the phenomenon of drought.
Spatio-temporal conceptual models seek to answer the users who
need to manage soil water content for irrigating or fertilizing or other
activities pursuing crop yield augmentation. Effectively, spatiotemporal
conceptual models enable users to obtain a diagram of
readable and easy data to apprehend. Based on socio-economic
information, it helps identifying people impacted by the phenomena
with the corresponding severity especially that this information is
accessible by farmers and stakeholders themselves. The study will be
applied in Siliana watershed Northern Tunisia.
Energy Efficient Data Aggregation in Sensor Networks with Optimized Cluster Head Selection
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) routing is complex
due to its dynamic nature, computational overhead, limited battery
life, non-conventional addressing scheme, self-organization, and
sensor nodes limited transmission range. An energy efficient routing
protocol is a major concern in WSN. LEACH is a hierarchical WSN
routing protocol to increase network life. It performs self-organizing
and re-clustering functions for each round. This study proposes a
better sensor networks cluster head selection for efficient data
aggregation. The algorithm is based on Tabu search.
Multipath Routing Protocol Using Basic Reconstruction Routing (BRR) Algorithm in Wireless Sensor Network
A sensory network consists of multiple detection
locations called sensor nodes, each of which is tiny, featherweight
and portable. A single path routing protocols in wireless sensor
network can lead to holes in the network, since only the nodes
present in the single path is used for the data transmission. Apart
from the advantages like reduced computation, complexity and
resource utilization, there are some drawbacks like throughput,
increased traffic load and delay in data delivery. Therefore, multipath
routing protocols are preferred for WSN. Distributing the traffic
among multiple paths increases the network lifetime. We propose a
scheme, for the data to be transmitted through a dominant path to
save energy. In order to obtain a high delivery ratio, a basic route
reconstruction protocol is utilized to reconstruct the path whenever a
failure is detected. A basic reconstruction routing (BRR) algorithm is
proposed, in which a node can leap over path failure by using the
already existing routing information from its neighbourhood while
the composed data is transmitted from the source to the sink. In order
to save the energy and attain high data delivery ratio, data is
transmitted along a multiple path, which is achieved by BRR
algorithm whenever a failure is detected. Further, the analysis of
how the proposed protocol overcomes the drawback of the existing
protocols is presented. The performance of our protocol is compared
to AOMDV and energy efficient node-disjoint multipath routing
protocol (EENDMRP). The system is implemented using NS-2.34.
The simulation results show that the proposed protocol has high
delivery ratio with low energy consumption.
Performance Evaluation of XMAC and BMAC Routing Protocol under Static and Mobility Scenarios in Wireless Sensor Network
Based on application requirements, nodes are static or
mobile in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). Mobility poses
challenges in protocol design, especially at the link layer requiring
mobility adaptation algorithms to localize mobile nodes and predict
link quality to be established with them. This study implements
XMAC and Berkeley Media Access Control (BMAC) routing
protocols to evaluate performance under WSN’s static and mobility
conditions. This paper gives a comparative study of mobility-aware
MAC protocols. Routing protocol performance, based on Average
End to End Delay, Average Packet Delivery Ratio, Average Number
of hops, and Jitter is evaluated.
Modeling UWSN Simulators – A Taxonomy
In this research article of modeling Underwater
Wireless Sensor Network Simulators, we provide a comprehensive
overview of the various currently available simulators used in UWSN
modeling. In this work, we compare their working environment,
software platform, simulation language, key features, limitations and
corresponding applications. Based on extensive experimentation and
performance analysis, we provide their efficiency for specific
applications. We have also provided guidelines for developing
protocols in different layers of the protocol stack, and finally these
parameters are also compared and tabulated. This analysis is
significant for researchers and designers to find the right simulator
for their research activities.
Harmony Search-based K-Coverage Enhancement in Wireless Sensor Networks
Many wireless sensor network applications require
K-coverage of the monitored area. In this paper, we propose a
scalable harmony search based algorithm in terms of execution
time, K-Coverage Enhancement Algorithm (KCEA), it attempts to
enhance initial coverage, and achieve the required K-coverage degree
for a specific application efficiently. Simulation results show that
the proposed algorithm achieves coverage improvement of 5.34%
compared to K-Coverage Rate Deployment (K-CRD), which achieves
1.31% when deploying one additional sensor. Moreover, the proposed
algorithm is more time efficient.
A Survey of Attacks and Security Requirements in Wireless Sensor Networks
Wireless sensor network (WSN) is a network of many interconnected networked systems, they equipped with energy resources and they are used to detect other physical characteristics. On WSN, there are many researches are performed in past decades. WSN applicable in many security systems govern by military and in many civilian related applications. Thus, the security of WSN gets attention of researchers and gives an opportunity for many future aspects. Still, there are many other issues are related to deployment and overall coverage, scalability, size, energy efficiency, quality of service (QoS), computational power and many more. In this paper we discus about various applications and security related issue and requirements of WSN.
Distributed Self-Healing Protocol for Unattended Wireless Sensor Network
Wireless sensor network is vulnerable to a wide range
of attacks. Recover secrecy after compromise, to develop technique
that can detect intrusions and able to resilient networks that isolates
the point(s) of intrusion while maintaining network connectivity for
other legitimate users. To define new security metrics to evaluate
collaborative intrusion resilience protocol, by leveraging the sensor
mobility that allows compromised sensors to recover secure state
after compromise. This is obtained with very low overhead and in a
fully distributed fashion using extensive simulations support our
Dual Band Fractal Antenna for Wireless Sensor Network Application
A wireless sensor network (WSN) is a collection of
sensor nodes organized into a cooperative network. These nodes
communicate through a wireless antenna. Reduction in physical size
and multiband operation is an important requirement of WSN
antenna. Fractal antenna is used for miniaturization and multiband
operation. The self-similar or self-affine and space filling property of
fractal geometry increases the effective electrical length of the
antenna, reduces the size and make them frequency independent. This
paper elaborates on Dual band fractal antenna with Coplanar
Waveguide (CPW) feed for WSN. The proposed antenna is designed
on a FR4 substrate with the dimension of 27mm x 28.5mm x 1.6mm,
resonates at 2.4GHz and 5.2GHz with a return loss less than -10dB.
The design and simulation process is carried out using IE3D
simulation software. The simulated and measured results are found in
Greenhouse Micro Climate Monitoring Based On WSN with Smart Irrigation Technique
Greenhouse is a building, which provides controlled climate conditions to the plants to keep them from external hard conditions. Greenhouse technology gives freedom to the farmer to select any crop type in any time during year. The quality and productivity of plants inside greenhouse is highly dependent on the management quality and a good management scheme is defined by the quality of the information collected from the greenhouse environment. Therefore, Continuous monitoring of environmental variables such as temperature, humidity, and soil moisture gives information to the grower to better understand, how each factor affects growth and how to manage maximal crop productiveness. In this piper, we designed and implemented climate monitoring with irrigation control system based on Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) technology. The designed system is characterized with friendly to use, easy to install by any greenhouse user, multi-sensing nodes, multi-PAN ID, low cast, water irrigation control and low operation complexity. The system consists of two node types (sensing and control) with star topology on one PAN ID. Moreover, greenhouse manager can modifying system parameters such as (sensing node addresses, irrigation upper and lower control limits) by updating corresponding data in SDRAM memory. In addition, the designed system uses 2*16 characters. LCD to display the micro climate parameters values of each plants row inside the greenhouse.
REDD: Reliable Energy-Efficient Data Dissemination in Wireless Sensor Networks with Multiple Mobile Sinks
In wireless sensor network (WSN) the use of mobile
sink has been attracting more attention in recent times. Mobile sinks
are more effective means of balancing load, reducing hotspot
problem and elongating network lifetime. The sensor nodes in WSN
have limited power supply, computational capability and storage and
therefore for continuous data delivery reliability becomes high
priority in these networks. In this paper, we propose a Reliable
Energy-efficient Data Dissemination (REDD) scheme for WSNs with
multiple mobile sinks. In this strategy, sink first determines the
location of source and then directly communicates with the source
using geographical forwarding. Every forwarding node (FN) creates a
local zone comprising some sensor nodes that can act as
representative of FN when it fails. Analytical and simulation study
reveals significant improvement in energy conservation and reliable
data delivery in comparison to existing schemes.
An Energy Aware Dispatch Scheme WSNs
One of the key research issues in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is how to efficiently deploy sensors to cover an area. In this paper, we present a Fishnet Based Dispatch Scheme (FiBDS) with energy aware mobility and interest based sensing angle. We propose two algorithms, one is FiBDS centralized algorithm and another is FiBDS distributed algorithm. The centralized algorithm is designed specifically for the non-time critical applications, commonly known as non real-time applications while the distributed algorithm is designed specifically for the time critical applications, commonly known as real-time applications. The proposed dispatch scheme works in a phase-selection manner. In this in each phase a specific constraint is dealt with according to the specified priority and then moved onto the next phase and at the end of each only the best suited nodes for the phase are chosen. Simulation results are presented to verify their effectiveness.
Energy Efficient Cooperative Caching in WSN
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) consist of number
of tiny, low cost and low power sensor nodes to monitor some physical phenomenon. The major limitation in these networks is the use of non-rechargeable battery having limited power supply. The
main cause of energy consumption in such networks is
communication subsystem. This paper presents an energy efficient
Cluster Cooperative Caching at Sensor (C3S) based upon grid type clustering. Sensor nodes belonging to the same cluster/grid form a
cooperative cache system for the node since the cost for
communication with them is low both in terms of energy
consumption and message exchanges. The proposed scheme uses
cache admission control and utility based data replacement policy to
ensure that more useful data is retained in the local cache of a node.
Simulation results demonstrate that C3S scheme performs better in
various performance metrics than NICoCa which is existing
cooperative caching protocol for WSNs.
Cooperative Data Caching in WSN
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have gained
tremendous attention in recent years due to their numerous
applications. Due to the limited energy resource, energy efficient
operation of sensor nodes is a key issue in wireless sensor networks.
Cooperative caching which ensures sharing of data among various
nodes reduces the number of communications over the wireless
channels and thus enhances the overall lifetime of a wireless sensor
network. In this paper, we propose a cooperative caching scheme
called ZCS (Zone Cooperation at Sensors) for wireless sensor
networks. In ZCS scheme, one-hop neighbors of a sensor node form a
cooperative cache zone and share the cached data with each other.
Simulation experiments show that the ZCS caching scheme achieves
significant improvements in byte hit ratio and average query latency
in comparison with other caching strategies.
Handling Mobility using Virtual Grid in Static Wireless Sensor Networks
Querying a data source and routing data towards sink
becomes a serious challenge in static wireless sensor networks if sink
and/or data source are mobile. Many a times the event to be observed
either moves or spreads across wide area making maintenance of
continuous path between source and sink a challenge. Also, sink can
move while query is being issued or data is on its way towards sink.
In this paper, we extend our already proposed Grid Based Data
Dissemination (GBDD) scheme which is a virtual grid based
topology management scheme restricting impact of movement of
sink(s) and event(s) to some specific cells of a grid. This obviates the
need for frequent path modifications and hence maintains continuous
flow of data while minimizing the network energy consumptions.
Simulation experiments show significant improvements in network
energy savings and average packet delay for a packet to reach at sink.
Challenges for Security in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs)
Wireless sensor network is formed with the combination of sensor nodes and sink nodes. Recently Wireless sensor network has attracted attention of the research community. The main application of wireless sensor network is security from different attacks both for mass public and military. However securing these networks, by itself is a critical issue due to many constraints like limited energy, computational power and lower memory. Researchers working in this area have proposed a number of security techniques for this purpose. Still, more work needs to be done.In this paper we provide a detailed discussion on security in wireless sensor networks. This paper will help to identify different obstacles and requirements for security of wireless sensor networks as well as highlight weaknesses of existing techniques.
A Beacon Based Priority Routing Scheme for Solar Power Plants in WSNs
Solar power plants(SPPs) have shown a lot of good outcomes
in providing a various functions depending on industrial expectations by
deploying ad-hoc networking with helps of light loaded and battery powered
sensor nodes. In particular, it is strongly requested to develop an algorithm to
deriver the sensing data from the end node of solar power plants to the sink node
on time. In this paper, based on the above observation we have proposed an
IEEE802.15.4 based self routing scheme for solar power plants. The proposed
beacon based priority routing Algorithm (BPRA) scheme utilizes beacon
periods in sending message with embedding the high priority data and thus
provides high quality of service(QoS) in the given criteria. The performance
measures are the packet Throughput, delivery, latency, total energy
consumption. Simulation results under TinyOS Simulator(TOSSIM) have
shown the proposed scheme outcome the conventional Ad hoc On-Demand
Distance Vector(AODV) Routing in solar power plants.