Design of Multiband Microstrip Antenna Using Stepped Cut Method for WLAN/WiMAX and C/Ku-Band Applications
In this paper, a planar monopole antenna for multi band applications is proposed. The antenna structure operates at three operating frequencies at 3.7, 6.2, and 13.5 GHz which cover different communication frequency ranges. The antenna consists of a quasi-modified rectangular radiating patch with a partial ground plane and two parasitic elements (open-loop-ring resonators) to serve as coupling-bridges. A stepped cut at lower corners of the radiating patch and the partial ground plane are used, to achieve the multiband features. The proposed antenna is manufactured on the FR4 substrate and is simulated and optimized using High Frequency Simulation System (HFSS). The antenna topology possesses an area of 30.5 x 30 x 1.6 mm3. The measured results demonstrate that the candidate antenna has impedance bandwidths for 10 dB return loss and operates from 3.80 – 3.90 GHz, 4.10 – 5.20 GHz, 11.2 – 11.5 GHz and from 12.5 – 14.0 GHz, which meet the requirements of the wireless local area network (WLAN), worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX), C- (Uplink) and Ku- (Uplink) band applications. Acceptable agreement is obtained between measurement and simulation results. Experimental results show that the antenna is successfully simulated and measured, and the tri-band antenna can be achieved by adjusting the lengths of the three elements and it gives good gains across all the operation bands.
Smart Grid Communication Architecture Modeling for Heterogeneous Network Based Advanced Metering Infrastructure
A smart grid is an emerging technology in the power delivery system which provides an intelligent, self-recovery and homeostatic grid in delivering power to the users. Smart grid communication network provides transmission capacity for information transformation within the connected nodes in the network, in favor of functional and operational needs. In the electric grids communication network delay is based on choosing the appropriate technology and the types of devices enforced. In distinction, the combination of IEEE 802.16 based WiMAX and IEEE 802.11 based WiFi technologies provides improved coverage and gives low delay performances to meet the smart grid needs. By incorporating this method in Wide Area Monitoring System (WAMS) and Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) the performance of the smart grid will be considerably improved. This work deals with the implementation of WiMAX-WLAN integrated network architecture for WAMS and AMI in the smart grid.
Secured Session Based Profile Caching for E-Learning Systems Using WiMAX Networks
E-Learning enables the users to learn at anywhere at
any time. In E-Learning systems, authenticating the E-Learning user
has security issues. The usage of appropriate communication
networks for providing the internet connectivity for E-learning is
another challenge. WiMAX networks provide Broadband Wireless
Access through the Multicast Broadcast Service so these networks
can be most suitable for E-Learning applications. The authentication
of E-Learning user is vulnerable to session hijacking problems. The
repeated authentication of users can be done to overcome these
issues. In this paper, session based Profile Caching Authentication is
proposed. In this scheme, the credentials of E-Learning users can be
cached at authentication server during the initial authentication
through the appropriate subscriber station. The proposed cache based
authentication scheme performs fast authentication by using cached
user profile. Thus, the proposed authentication protocol reduces the
delay in repeated authentication to enhance the security in ELearning.
Survey on Handover Security Issues in WiMAX Networks
Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access, is a broadband technology, which can effectively transmit a data across a group of users using Multicast and Broadcast Service. WiMAX belongs to a family of (IEEE 802.16) standards and is evolving as a fourth generation technology. WiMAX is the next generation technology that offers wireless access over long distances. MBS zone, which is a group of base stations that are broadcasting the same multicast packets which defines Multicast and Broadcast services. Handover is a process of transferring an ongoing call or data session from one channel connected to the core network to another channel. The handover causes authentication, delay, packet loss, jitter that mainly affects the communication. In this paper, we present a survey on handover security issues in WiMAX.
A Performance Analysis of Different Scheduling Schemes in WiMAX
IEEE 802.16 (WiMAX) aims to present high speed
wireless access to cover wide range coverage. The base station (BS)
and the subscriber station (SS) are the main parts of WiMAX.
WiMAX uses either Point-to-Multipoint (PMP) or mesh topologies.
In the PMP mode, the SSs connect to the BS to gain access to the
network. However, in the mesh mode, the SSs connect to each other
to gain access to the BS.
The main components of QoS management in the 802.16 standard
are the admission control, buffer management and packet scheduling.
In this paper, we use QualNet 5.0.2 to study the performance of
different scheduling schemes, such as WFQ, SCFQ, RR and SP when
the numbers of SSs increase. We find that when the number of SSs
increases, the average jitter and average end-to-end delay is increased
and the throughput is reduced.
Design and Analysis of a New Dual-Band Microstrip Fractal Antenna
This paper presents a novel design of a microstrip
fractal antenna based on the use of Sierpinski triangle shape, it’s
designed and simulated by using FR4 substrate in the operating
frequency bands (GPS, WiMAX), the design is a fractal antenna with
a modified ground structure. The proposed antenna is simulated and
validated by using CST Microwave Studio Software, the simulated
results presents good performances in term of radiation pattern and
matching input impedance.
BER Analysis of Energy Detection Spectrum Sensing in Cognitive Radio Using GNU Radio
Cognitive Radio is a turning out technology that
empowers viable usage of the spectrum. Energy Detector-based
Sensing is the most broadly utilized spectrum sensing strategy.
Besides, it's a lot of generic as receivers doesn't would like any
information on the primary user's signals, channel data, of even the
sort of modulation. This paper puts forth the execution of energy
detection sensing for AM (Amplitude Modulated) signal at 710 KHz,
FM (Frequency Modulated) signal at 103.45 MHz (local station
frequency), Wi-Fi signal at 2.4 GHz and WiMAX signals at 6 GHz.
The OFDM/OFDMA based WiMAX physical layer with
convolutional channel coding is actualized utilizing USRP N210
(Universal Software Radio Peripheral) and GNU Radio based
Software Defined Radio (SDR). Test outcomes demonstrated the
BER (Bit Error Rate) augmentation with channel noise and BER
execution is dissected for different Eb/N0 (the energy per bit to noise
power spectral density ratio) values.
Channel Estimation/Equalization with Adaptive Modulation and Coding over Multipath Faded Channels for WiMAX
Different order modulations combined with different
coding schemes, allow sending more bits per symbol, thus achieving
higher throughputs and better spectral efficiencies. However, it must
also be noted that when using a modulation technique such as 64-
QAM with less overhead bits, better signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) are
needed to overcome any Inter symbol Interference (ISI) and maintain
a certain bit error ratio (BER). The use of adaptive modulation allows
wireless technologies to yielding higher throughputs while also
covering long distances. The aim of this paper is to implement an
Adaptive Modulation and Coding (AMC) features of the WiMAX
PHY in MATLAB and to analyze the performance of the system in
different channel conditions (AWGN, Rayleigh and Rician fading
channel) with channel estimation and blind equalization. Simulation
results have demonstrated that the increment in modulation order
causes to increment in throughput and BER values. These results
derived a trade-off among modulation order, FFT length, throughput,
BER value and spectral efficiency. The BER changes gradually for
AWGN channel and arbitrarily for Rayleigh and Rician fade
Survey of Key Management Algorithms in WiMAX
WiMAX is a telecommunications technology and it is
specified by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.,
as the IEEE 802.16 standard. The goal of this technology is to
provide a wireless data over long distances in a variety of ways. IEEE
802.16 is a recent standard for mobile communication. In this paper,
we provide an overview of various key management algorithms to
provide security for WiMAX.
Study of the Vertical Handoff in Heterogeneous Networks and Implement Based On Opnet
In this document we studied more in detail the Performances of the vertical handover in the networks WLAN, WiMAX, UMTS before studying of it the Procedure of Handoff Vertical, the whole buckled by simulations putting forward the performances of the handover in the heterogeneous networks. The goal of Vertical Handover is to carry out several accesses in real-time in the heterogeneous networks. This makes it possible a user to use several networks (such as WLAN UMTS andWiMAX) in parallel, and the system to commutate automatically at another basic station, without disconnecting itself, as if there were no cut and with little loss of data as possible.
Microstrip Slot Antenna for Triple Band Application in Wireless Communication
In this paper, the design of a coaxial feed single layer rectangular microstrip patch antenna for three different wireless communication band applications is presented. The proposed antenna is designed by using substrate Roger RT/duroid 5880 having permittivity of about 2.2 and tangent loss of 0.0009. The characteristics of the substrate are designed and to evaluate the performance of modeled antenna using HFSS v.11 EM simulator, from Ansoft. The proposed antenna has small in size and operates at 2.25GHz, 3.76GHz and 5.23GHz suitable for mobile satellite service (MSS) network, WiMAX and WLAN applications. The dimension of the patch and slots are optimized to obtain these desired functional frequency ranges. The simulation results with frequency response, radiation pattern and return loss, VSWR, Input Impedance are presented with appropriate table and graph.
Performance Evaluation of Packet Scheduling with Channel Conditioning Aware Based On WiMAX Networks
Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) became one of the most challenging issues, since it was responsible for distributing available resources of the network among all users this leaded to the demand of constructing and designing high efficient scheduling algorithms in order to improve the network utilization, to increase the network throughput, and to minimize the end-to-end delay. In this study, the proposed algorithm focuses on an efficient mechanism to serve non_real time traffic in congested networks by considering channel status.
Ultra-Wideband Slot Antenna with Notched Band for World Interoperability for Microwave Access
In this paper a novel ultra-wideband (UWB) slot antenna with band notch characteristics for world interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX) is proposed. The designed antenna consists of a rectangular radiating patch and a ground plane with tapered shape slot. To realize a notch band, a curved parasitic element has been etched out along with the radiating patch. It is observed that by adjusting the length, thickness and position of the parasitic element, the proposed antenna can achieved an impedance bandwidth of 8.01GHz (2.84 to 10.85GHz) with a notched band of 3.28-3.85GHz. Compared to the recently reported band notch antennas, the proposed antenna has a simple configuration to realize band notch characteristics in order to mitigate the potential interference between WiMAX and UWB system. Furthermore, a stable radiation pattern and moderate gain except at the notched band makes the proposed antenna suitable for various UWB applications.
Design and Development of Ferroelectric Material for Microstrip Patch Array Antenna
This paper presents the utilizing of ferroelectric
material on antenna application. There are two different ferroelectric
had been used on the proposed antennas which include of Barium
Strontium Titanate (BST) and Bismuth Titanate (BiT), suitable for
Access Points operating in the WLAN IEEE 802.11 b/g and WiMAX
IEEE 802.16 within the range of 2.3 GHz to 2.5 GHz application.
BST, which had been tested to own a dielectric constant of εr = 15
while BiT has a dielectric constant that higher than BST which is εr =
21 and both materials are in rectangular shaped. The influence of
various parameters on antenna characteristics were investigated
extensively using commercial electromagnetic simulations software
by Communication Simulation Technology (CST). From theoretical
analysis and simulation results, it was demonstrated that ferroelectric
material used have not only improved the directive emission but also
enhanced the radiation efficiency.
Overhead Estimation over Capacity of Mobile WiMAX
The IEEE802.16 standard which has emerged as
Broadband Wireless Access (BWA) technology, promises to deliver
high data rate over large areas to a large number of subscribers in the
near future. This paper analyze the effect of overheads over capacity
of downlink (DL) of orthogonal frequency division multiple access
(OFDMA)–based on the IEEE802.16e mobile WiMAX system with
and without overheads. The analysis focuses in particular on the
impact of Adaptive Modulation and Coding (AMC) as well as
deriving an algorithm to determine the maximum numbers of
subscribers that each specific WiMAX sector may support. An
analytical study of the WiMAX propagation channel by using Cost-
231 Hata Model is presented. Numerical results and discussion
estimated by using Matlab to simulate the algorithm for different
Impact of Modeling Different Fading Channels on Wireless MAN Fixed IEEE802.16d OFDM System with Diversity Transmission Technique
Wimax (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access)
is a promising technology which can offer high speed data,
voice and video service to the customer end, which is presently, dominated
by the cable and digital subscriber line (DSL) technologies.
The performance assessment of Wimax systems is dealt with. The
biggest advantage of Broadband wireless application (BWA) over its
wired competitors is its increased capacity and ease of deployment.
The aims of this paper are to model and simulate the fixed OFDM
IEEE 802.16d physical layer under variant combinations of digital
modulation (BPSK, QPSK, and 16-QAM) over diverse combination
of fading channels (AWGN, SUIs). Stanford University Interim (SUI)
Channel serial was proposed to simulate the fixed broadband wireless
access channel environments where IEEE 802.16d is to be deployed.
It has six channel models that are grouped into three categories
according to three typical different outdoor Terrains, in order to give
a comprehensive effect of fading channels on the overall performance
of the system.
NGN and WiMAX: Putting the Pieces Together
With the exponential rise in the number of multimedia
applications available, the best-effort service provided by the Internet
today is insufficient. Researchers have been working on new
architectures like the Next Generation Network (NGN) which, by
definition, will ensure Quality of Service (QoS) in an all-IP based
network . For this approach to become a reality, reservation of
bandwidth is required per application per user. WiMAX (Worldwide
Interoperability for Microwave Access) is a wireless communication
technology which has predefined levels of QoS which can be
provided to the user . IPv6 has been created as the successor for
IPv4 and resolves issues like the availability of IP addresses and
QoS. This paper provides a design to use the power of WiMAX as an
NSP (Network Service Provider) for NGN using IPv6. The use of the
Traffic Class (TC) field and the Flow Label (FL) field of IPv6 has
been explained for making QoS requests and grants , . Using
these fields, the processing time is reduced and routing is simplified.
Also, we define the functioning of the ASN gateway and the NGN
gateway (NGNG) which are edge node interfaces in the NGNWiMAX
design. These gateways ensure QoS management through
built in functions and by certain physical resources and networking
The Safety of WiMAX Insolid Propellant Rocket Production
With the advance in wireless networking, IEEE 802.16 WiMAX technology has been widely deployed for several applications such as “last mile" broadband service, cellular backhaul, and high-speed enterprise connectivity. As a result, military employed WiMAX as a high-speed wireless connection for data-link because of its point to multi-point and non-line-of-sight (NLOS) capability for many years. However, the risk of using WiMAX is a critical factor in some sensitive area of military applications especially in ammunition manufacturing such as solid propellant rocket production. The US DoD policy states that the following certification requirements are met for WiMAX: electromagnetic effects on the environment (E3) and Hazards of Electromagnetic Radiation to Ordnance (HERO). This paper discuses the Recommended Power Densities and Safe Separation Distance (SSD) for HERO on WiMAX systems deployed on solid propellant rocket production. The result of this research found that WiMAX is safe to operate at close proximity distances to the rocket production based on AF Guidance Memorandum immediately changing AFMAN 91-201.
WiMAX RoF Design for Cost Effective Access Points
An optimized design of E/O and O/E for access points
of WiMAX RoF was carried out by evaluating RCE. The use of the
DFB-LD, a low input-impedance driving, a low distortion PIN-PD,
and a high gain EPHEMT amplifier is promising the cost-effective
design. For the uplink RoF design, the use of EDFA and EP-HEMT
amplifiers is necessity.
Re-Handling Operations in Small Container Terminal Operated by Reach Stackers
In this paper an average number of re-handlings
analysis is proposed to solve the problem of finding bays
configuration in small container terminal in Gliwice, Poland.
Rehandlings in this terminal can be performed only by reachstackers.
The goal of the heuristic is to plan the reachstacter moves in the
terminal, assuming that the target containers are reached and the
number of re-handings is minimized. The real situation requires also
to take into account the model of the problem environment
uncertainty caused by the fact that many containers are not delivered
to the terminal on time, or can not be sent on scheduled time. To
enable this, the heuristic uses some assumptions to simplify problem
A Simple Qos Scheduler for Mobile Wimax
WiMAX is defined as Worldwide Interoperability for
Microwave Access by the WiMAX Forum, formed in June 2001 to
promote conformance and interoperability of the IEEE 802.16
standard, officially known as WirelessMAN. The attractive features
of WiMAX technology are very high throughput and Broadband
Wireless Access over a long distance. A detailed simulation
environment is demonstrated with the UGS, nrtPS and ertPS service
classes for throughput, delay and packet delivery ratio for a mixed
environment of fixed and mobile WiMAX. A simple mobility aspect
is considered for the mobile WiMAX and the PMP mode of
transmission is considered in TDD mode. The Network Simulator 2
(NS-2) is the tool which is used to simulate the WiMAX network
scenario. A simple Priority Scheduler and Weighted Round Robin
Schedulers are the WiMAX schedulers used in the research work
Advanced Travel Information System in Heterogeneous Networks
In order to achieve better road utilization and traffic
efficiency, there is an urgent need for a travel information delivery
mechanism to assist the drivers in making better decisions in the
emerging intelligent transportation system applications. In this paper,
we propose a relayed multicast scheme under heterogeneous networks
for this purpose. In the proposed system, travel information consisting
of summarized traffic conditions, important events, real-time traffic
videos, and local information service contents is formed into layers
and multicasted through an integration of WiMAX infrastructure and
Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANET). By the support of adaptive
modulation and coding in WiMAX, the radio resources can be
optimally allocated when performing multicast so as to dynamically
adjust the number of data layers received by the users. In addition to
multicast supported by WiMAX, a knowledge propagation and
information relay scheme by VANET is designed. The experimental
results validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed
Radio over Fiber as a Cost Effective Technology for Transmission of WiMAX Signals
In this paper, an overview of the radio over fiber (RoF) technology is provided. Obstacles for reducing the capital and operational expenses in the existing systems are discussed in various perspectives. Some possible RoF deployment scenarios for WiMAX
data transmission are proposed as a means for capital and operational
expenses reduction. IEEE 802.16a standard based end-to-end physical layer model is simulated including intensity modulated direct detection RoF technology. Finally the feasibility of RoF
technology to carry WiMAX signals between the base station and the
remote antenna units is demonstrated using the simulation results.
Towards for Admission Control in WIMAX Relay Station Mesh Network for Mobile Stations out of Coverage Using Ad-Hoc
WIMAX relay station mesh network has been approved by IEEE 802.16j as a standard to provide a highly data rate transmission, the RS was implemented to extend the coverage zone of the BS, for instance the MSs previously were out of the coverage of the BS they become in the coverage of the RS, therefore these MSs can have Admission control from the BS through the RS. This paper describe a problem in the mesh network Relay station, for instance the problem of how to serve the mobile stations (MSs) which are out of the Relay station coverage. This paper also proposed a solution for mobile stations out of the coverage of the WIMAX Relay stations mesh Network. Therefore Ad-hoc network defined as a solution by using its admission control schema and apply it on the mobiles inside and outside the Relay station coverage.
Low Complexity Multi Mode Interleaver Core for WiMAX with Support for Convolutional Interleaving
A hardware efficient, multi mode, re-configurable
architecture of interleaver/de-interleaver for multiple standards,
like DVB, WiMAX and WLAN is presented. The interleavers
consume a large part of silicon area when implemented by using
conventional methods as they use memories to store permutation
patterns. In addition, different types of interleavers in different
standards cannot share the hardware due to different construction
methodologies. The novelty of the work presented in this paper is
threefold: 1) Mapping of vital types of interleavers including
convolutional interleaver onto a single architecture with flexibility
to change interleaver size; 2) Hardware complexity for channel
interleaving in WiMAX is reduced by using 2-D realization of the
interleaver functions; and 3) Silicon cost overheads reduced by
avoiding the use of small memories. The proposed architecture
consumes 0.18mm2 silicon area for 0.12μm process and can
operate at a frequency of 140 MHz. The reduced complexity helps
in minimizing the memory utilization, and at the same time
provides strong support to on-the-fly computation of permutation
Fast Dummy Sequence Insertion Method for PAPR Reduction in WiMAX Systems
In literatures, many researches proposed various
methods to reduce PAPR (Peak to Average Power Ratio). Among
those, DSI (Dummy Sequence Insertion) is one of the most attractive
methods for WiMAX systems because it does not require side
information transmitted along with user data. However, the
conventional DSI methods find dummy sequence by performing an
iterative procedure until achieving PAPR under a desired threshold.
This causes a significant delay on finding dummy sequence and also
effects to the overall performances in WiMAX systems. In this paper,
the new method based on DSI is proposed by finding dummy
sequence without the need of iterative procedure. The fast DSI
method can reduce PAPR without either delays or required side
information. The simulation results confirm that the proposed method
is able to carry out PAPR performances as similar to the other
methods without any delays. In addition, the simulations of WiMAX
system with adaptive modulations are also investigated to realize the
use of proposed methods on various fading schemes. The results
suggest the WiMAX designers to modify a new Signal to Noise Ratio
(SNR) criteria for adaptation.
2-D Realization of WiMAX Channel Interleaver for Efficient Hardware Implementation
The direct implementation of interleaver functions
in WiMAX is not hardware efficient due to presence of complex
functions. Also the conventional method i.e. using memories for
storing the permutation tables is silicon consuming. This work
presents a 2-D transformation for WiMAX channel interleaver
functions which reduces the overall hardware complexity to
compute the interleaver addresses on the fly. A fully reconfigurable
architecture for address generation in WiMAX
channel interleaver is presented, which consume 1.1 k-gates in
total. It can be configured for any block size and any modulation
scheme in WiMAX. The presented architecture can run at a
frequency of 200 MHz, thus fully supporting high bandwidth
requirements for WiMAX.
Multi Band Frequency Synthesizer Based on ISPD PLL with Adapted LC Tuned VCO
The 4G front-end transceiver needs a high
performance which can be obtained mainly with an optimal
architecture and a multi-band Local Oscillator. In this study, we
proposed and presented a new architecture of multi-band frequency
synthesizer based on an Inverse Sine Phase Detector Phase Locked
Loop (ISPD PLL) without any filters and any controlled gain block
and associated with adapted multi band LC tuned VCO using a
several numeric controlled capacitive branches but not binary
weighted. The proposed architecture, based on 0.35μm CMOS
process technology, supporting Multi-band GSM/DCS/DECT/
UMTS/WiMax application and gives a good performances: a phase
noise @1MHz -127dBc and a Factor Of Merit (FOM) @ 1MHz -
186dB and a wide band frequency range (from 0.83GHz to 3.5GHz),
that make the proposed architecture amenable for monolithic
integration and 4G multi-band application.
Interconnection of Autonomous PROFIBUS Segments through IEEE 802.16 WMAN
PROFIBUS (PROcess FIeld BUS) which is defined with international standarts (IEC61158, EN50170) is the most popular fieldbus, and provides a communication between industrial applications which are located in different control environment and location in manufacturing, process and building automation. Its communication speed is from 9.6 Kbps to 12 Mbps over distances from 100 to 1200 meters, and so it is to be often necessary to interconnect them in order to break these limits. Unfortunately this interconnection raises several issues and the solutions found so far are not very satisfactory. In this paper, we propose a new solution to interconnect PROFIBUS segments, which uses a wireless MAN based on the IEEE 802.16 standard as a backbone system. Also, the solution which is described a model for internetworking unit integrates the traffic generated by PROFIBUS segments into IEEE 802.16 wireless MAN using encapsulation technique.
Emerging Wireless Standards - WiFi, ZigBee and WiMAX
The world of wireless telecommunications is rapidly evolving. Technologies under research and development promise to deliver more services to more users in less time. This paper presents the emerging technologies helping wireless systems grow from where we are today into our visions of the future. This paper will cover the applications and characteristics of emerging wireless technologies: Wireless Local Area Networks (WiFi-802.11n), Wireless Personal Area Networks (ZigBee) and Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks (WiMAX). The purpose of this paper is to explain the impending 802.11n standard and how it will enable WLANs to support emerging media-rich applications. The paper will also detail how 802.11n compares with existing WLAN standards and offer strategies for users considering higher-bandwidth alternatives. The emerging IEEE 802.15.4 (ZigBee) standard aims to provide low data rate wireless communications with high-precision ranging and localization, by employing UWB technologies for a low-power and low cost solution. WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) is a standard for wireless data transmission covering a range similar to cellular phone towers. With high performance in both distance and throughput, WiMAX technology could be a boon to current Internet providers seeking to become the leader of next generation wireless Internet access. This paper also explores how these emerging technologies differ from one another.