Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 32

Performance of an Absorption Refrigerator Using a Solar Thermal Collector

In the present paper, we investigate the feasibility of a thermal solar driven cold room in Gabes, southern region of Tunisia. The cold room of 109 m3 is refrigerated using an ammonia absorption machine. It is destined to preserve dates during the hot months of the year. A detailed study of the cold room leads previously to the estimation of the cooling load of the proposed storage room in the operating conditions of the region. The next step consists of the estimation of the required heat in the generator of the absorption machine to ensure the desired cold temperature. A thermodynamic analysis was accomplished and complete description of the system is determined. We propose, here, to provide the needed heat thermally from the sun by using vacuum tube collectors. We found that at least 21m² of solar collectors are necessary to accomplish the work of the solar cold room.

Comparative Exergy Analysis of Ammonia-Water Rankine Cycles and Kalina Cycle
This paper presents a comparative exergy analysis of ammonia-water Rankine cycles with and without regeneration and Kalina cycle for recovery of low-temperature heat source. Special attention is paid to the effect of system parameters such as ammonia mass fraction and turbine inlet pressure on the exergetical performance of the systems. Results show that maximum exergy efficiency can be obtained in the regenerative Rankine cycle for high turbine inlet pressures. However, Kalina cycle shows better exergy efficiency for low turbine inlet pressures, and the optimum ammonia mass fractions of Kalina cycle are lower than Rankine cycles.
Evaluation of NH3-Slip from Diesel Vehicles Equipped with Selective Catalytic Reduction Systems by Neural Networks Approach
Selective catalytic reduction systems for nitrogen oxides reduction by ammonia has been the chosen technology by most of diesel vehicle (i.e. bus and truck) manufacturers in Brazil, as also in Europe. Furthermore, at some conditions, over-stoichiometric ammonia availability is also needed that increases the NH3 slips even more. Ammonia (NH3) by this vehicle exhaust aftertreatment system provides a maximum efficiency of NOx removal if a significant amount of NH3 is stored on its catalyst surface. In the other words, the practice shows that slightly less than 100% of the NOx conversion is usually targeted, so that the aqueous urea solution hydrolyzes to NH3 via other species formation, under relatively low temperatures. This paper presents a model based on neural networks integrated with a road vehicle simulator that allows to estimate NH3-slip emission factors for different driving conditions and patterns. The proposed model generates high NH3slips which are not also limited in Brazil, but more efforts needed to be made to elucidate the contribution of vehicle-emitted NH3 to the urban atmosphere.
Thermodynamic Analysis of Ammonia-Water Based Regenerative Rankine Cycle with Partial Evaporation

A thermodynamic analysis of a partial evaporating Rankine cycle with regeneration using zeotropic ammonia-water mixture as a working fluid is presented in this paper. The thermodynamic laws were applied to evaluate the system performance. Based on the thermodynamic model, the effects of the vapor quality and the ammonia mass fraction on the system performance were extensively investigated. The results showed that thermal efficiency has a peak value with respect to the vapor quality as well as the ammonia mass fraction. The partial evaporating ammonia based Rankine cycle has a potential to improve recovery of low-grade finite heat source.

Removal of Nitrogen Compounds from Industrial Wastewater Using Sequencing Batch Reactor: The Effects of React Time
This study was performed to optimise the react time (RT) and study its effects on the removal rates of nitrogen compounds in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) treating synthetic industrial wastewater. The results showed that increasing the RT from 4 h to 10, 16 and 22 h significantly improved the nitrogen compounds’ removal efficiency, it was increased from 69.5% to 95%, 75.7 to 97% and from 54.2 to 80.1% for NH3-N, NO3-N and NO2-N respectively. The results obtained from this study showed that the RT of 22 h was the optimum for nitrogen compounds removal efficiency.
Analysis of Evaporation of Liquid Ammonia in a Vertical Cylindrical Storage Tank
The present study addresses the problem of ammonia evaporation during filling of a vertical cylindrical tank and the influence of various external factors on the stability of storage by determining the conditions for minimum evaporation. Numerical simulation is carried out by solving the governing equations namely, continuity, momentum, energy, and diffusion of species. The effect of temperature of surrounding air, the filling speed of the reservoir and the temperature of the filling liquid ammonia on the evaporation rate is investigated. Results show that the temperature of the filling liquid has little effect on the liquid ammonia for a short period, which, in fact, is function of the filling speed. The evaporation rate along the free surface of the liquid is non-uniform. The inlet temperature affects the vapor ammonia temperature because of pressure increase. The temperature of the surrounding air affects the temperature of the vapor phase rather than the liquid phase. The maximum of evaporation is reached at the final step of filling. In order to minimize loss of ammonia vapors automatically causing losses in quantity of the liquid stored, it is suggested to ensure the proper insulation for the walls and roof of the reservoir and to increase the filling speed.
Development and Evaluation of a Portable Ammonia Gas Detector

In this paper, we present a portable ammonia gas detector for performing the gas safety management efficiently. The display of the detector is separated from its body. The display module is received the data measured from the detector using ZigBee. The detector has a rechargeable li-ion battery which can be use for 11~12 hours, and a Bluetooth module for sending the data to the PC or the smart devices. The data are sent to the server and can access using the web browser or mobile application. The range of the detection concentration is 0~100ppm.

Dynamic Process Monitoring of an Ammonia Synthesis Fixed-Bed Reactor
This study involves the modeling and monitoring of an ammonia synthesis fixed-bed reactor using partial least squares (PLS) and its variants. The process exhibits complex dynamic behavior due to the presence of heat recycling and feed quench. One limitation of static PLS model in this situation is that it does not take account of the process dynamics and hence dynamic PLS was used. Although it showed, superior performance to static PLS in terms of prediction, the monitoring scheme was inappropriate hence adaptive PLS was considered. A limitation of adaptive PLS is that non-conforming observations also contribute to the model, therefore, a new adaptive approach was developed, robust adaptive dynamic PLS. This approach updates a dynamic PLS model and is robust to non-representative data. The developed methodology showed a clear improvement over existing approaches in terms of the modeling of the reactor and the detection of faults.
Nitrification Efficiency and Community Structure of Municipal Activated Sewage Sludge
Nitrification is essential to biological processes designed to remove ammonia and/or total nitrogen. It removes excess nitrogenous compound in wastewater which could be very toxic to the aquatic fauna or cause serious imbalance of such aquatic ecosystem. Efficient nitrification is linked to an in-depth knowledge of the structure and dynamics of the nitrifying community structure within the wastewater treatment systems. In this study, molecular technique was employed for characterizing the microbial structure of activated sludge [ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB)] in a municipal wastewater treatment with intention of linking it to the plant efficiency. PCR based phylogenetic analysis was also carried out. The average operating and environmental parameters as well as specific nitrification rate of plant was investigated during the study. During the investigation the average temperature was 23±1.5oC. Other operational parameters such as mixed liquor suspended solids and chemical oxygen demand inversely correlated with ammonia removal. The dissolved oxygen level in the plant was constantly lower than the optimum (between 0.24 and 1.267 mg/l) during this study. The plant was treating wastewater with influent ammonia concentration of 31.69 and 24.47 mg/L. The influent flow rates (ML/Day) was 96.81 during period. The dominant nitrifiers include: Nitrosomonas spp. Nitrobacter spp. and Nitrospira spp. The AOB had correlation with nitrification efficiency and temperature. This study shows that the specific ammonia oxidizing rate and the specific nitrate formation rates can serve as good indicator of the plant overall nitrification performance.
Performance Analysis of Absorption Power Cycle under Different Source Temperatures

The absorption power generation cycle based on the ammonia-water mixture has attracted much attention for efficient recovery of low-grade energy sources. In this paper a thermodynamic performance analysis is carried out for a Kalina cycle using ammonia-water mixture as a working fluid for efficient conversion of low-temperature heat source in the form of sensible energy. The effects of the source temperature on the system performance are extensively investigated by using the thermodynamic models. The results show that the source temperature as well as the ammonia mass fraction affects greatly on the thermodynamic performance of the cycle.

Sensor Monitoring of the Concentrations of Different Gases Present in Synthesis of Ammonia Based On Multi-Scale Entropy and Multivariate Statistics
This paper presents powerful techniques for the development of a new monitoring method based on multi-scale entropy (MSE) in order to characterize the behaviour of the concentrations of different gases present in the synthesis of Ammonia and soft-sensor based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA).
Entropy Generation Analysis of Heat Recovery Vapor Generator for Ammonia-Water Mixture

This paper carries out a performance analysis based on the first and second laws of thermodynamics for heat recovery vapor generator (HRVG) of ammonia-water mixture when the heat source is low-temperature energy in the form of sensible heat. In the analysis, effects of the ammonia mass concentration and mass flow ratio of the binary mixture are investigated on the system performance including the effectiveness of heat transfer, entropy generation, and exergy efficiency. The results show that the ammonia concentration and the mass flow ratio of the mixture have significant effects on the system performance of HRVG.

Effect of Windrow Management on Ammonia and Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Swine Manure Composting

In the era of sustainability, utilization of livestock wastes as soil amendment to provide micronutrients for crops is very economical and sustainable. It is well understood that livestock wastes are comparable, if not better, nutrient sources for crops as chemical fertilizers. However, the large concentrated volumes of animal manure produced from livestock operations and the limited amount of available nearby agricultural land areas necessitated the need for volume reduction of these animal wastes. Composting of these animal manures is a viable option for biomass and pathogenic reduction in the environment. Nevertheless, composting also increases the potential loss of available nutrients for crop production as well as unwanted emission of anthropogenic air pollutants due to the loss of ammonia and other compounds via volatilization. In this study, we examine the emission of ammonia and nitrous oxide from swine manure windrows to evaluate the benefit of biomass reduction in conjunction with the potential loss of available nutrients. The feedstock for the windrows was obtained from swine farm in Kentucky where swine manure was mixed with wood shaving as absorbent material. Static flux chambers along with photoacoustic gas analyzer were used to monitor ammonia and nitrous oxide concentrations during the composting process. The results show that ammonia and nitrous oxide fluxes were quite high during the initial composting process and after the turning of each compost pile. Over the period of roughly three months of composting, the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) decreased by about 90%. Although composting of animal waste is quite beneficial for biomass reduction, composting may not be economically feasible from an agronomical point of view due to time, nutrient loss (N loss), and potential environmental pollution (ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions). Therefore, additional studies are needed to assess and validate the economics and environmental impact of animal (swine) manure composting (e.g., crop yield or impact on climate change).

Ammonia Release during Photocopying Operations

The paper represents the dependence of ammonia concentration on microclimate parameters and photocopying shop circulation. The concentration of ammonia was determined during 8-hours working time over five days including three sampling points of a photocopying shop in Novi Sad, Serbia. The obtained results pointed out that the room temperature possesses the highest impact on ammonia release. The obtained ammonia concentration was in the range of 1.53 to 0.42ppm and decreased with the temperature decreasing from 24.6 to 20.7oC. As the detected concentrations were within the permissible levels of The Occupational Safety and Health Administration, The National Institute for Occupational Safety and The Health and Official Gazette of Republic of Serbia, in the range of 35 to 200ppm, there was no danger to the employee’s health in the photocopying shop.

Modification of Rk Equation of State for Liquid and Vapor of Ammonia by Genetic Algorithm

Cubic equations of state like Redlich–Kwong (RK)  EOS have been proved to be very reliable tools in the prediction of  phase behavior. Despite their good performance in compositional  calculations, they usually suffer from weaknesses in the predictions  of saturated liquid density. In this research, RK equation was  modified. The result of this study show that modified equation has  good agreement with experimental data.


Degradation of EE2 by Different Consortium of Enriched Nitrifying Activated Sludge

17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) is a recalcitrant micropollutant which is found in small amounts in municipal wastewater. But these small amounts still adversely affect for the reproductive function of aquatic organisms. Evidence in the past suggested that full-scale WWTPs equipped with nitrification process enhanced the removal of EE2 in the municipal wastewater. EE2 has been proven to be able to be transformed by ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) via co-metabolism. This research aims to clarify the EE2 degradation pattern by different consortium of ammonia oxidizing microorganism (AOM) including AOA (ammonia oxidizing archaea) and investigate contribution between the existing ammonia monooxygenase (AMO) and new synthesized AOM. The result showed that AOA or AOB of N. oligotropha cluster in enriched nitrifying activated sludge (NAS) from 2mM and 5mM, commonly found in municipal WWTPs, could degrade EE2 in wastewater via co-metabolism. Moreover, the investigation of the contribution between the existing ammonia monooxygenase (AMO) and new synthesized AOM demonstrated that the new synthesized AMO enzyme may perform ammonia oxidation rather than the existing AMO enzyme or the existing AMO enzyme may has a small amount to oxidize ammonia.

Glutamate Dehydrogenase and the Changing Pattern of Excretory Ammonia and Urea in Heteropneustes fossilis

Fishes, in general, follow ammonotelic mode of excretion. However, certain stress factors may provoke them to excrete urea. In the present study, the possible role of ureogenesis to avoid accumulation of toxic ammonia under water-restricted condition was tested in Heteropneustes fossilis. A total of hundred fishes were collected and sacrificed. Excretory urea and ammonia were estimated in the water of the aquarium and glutamate dehydrogenase acitivity was measured in the hepatic tissue. During the experimental period, excretory ammonia in Heteropneustes fossilis was found between 931% to 16% above the baseline ammonia and excretory urea was found between 112% to 898% above the baseline urea. A high degree of correlation with r (coefficient of correlation) above 0.9 is observed between excretory ammonia and urea in Heteropneustes fossilis. However, only a moderate degree of correlation is observed between the activity of glutamate dehydrogenase and excretory ammonia and urea.

Effect of Real Wastewater on Biotransformation of 17α-ethynylestradiol by Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria in Nitrifying Activated Sludge

17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2) is a synthetic estrogen used as a key ingredient in an oral contraceptives pill. EE2 is an endocrine disrupting compound, high in estrogenic potency. Although EE2 exhibits low degree of biodegradability with common microorganisms in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), this compound can be biotransformed by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) via a co-metabolism mechanism in WWTPs. This study aimed to investigate the effect of real wastewater on biotransformation of EE2 by AOB. A preliminary experiment on the effect of nitrite and pH levels on abiotic transformation of EE2 suggested that the abiotic transformation occurred at only pH <6.8. Biotransformation of EE2 under the presence of municipal or industrial wastewater demonstrated that different types of wastewater affect EE2 biotransformation differently. Organic matters in wastewater were believed to deteriorate EE2 biotransformation via the competition effect. At a lower initial ammonium concentration, EE2 biotransformation can be retarded and the extent of the deterioration was COD-concentration dependent. However, when an initial ammonium concentration was elevated, thisphenomena disappeared. This is because when increasing the amount of the primary substrate, more AMO enzymes can be produced resulting in unlimited transformation of all compounds in the tests reducing the competitive effect of organic matters on EE2.

An Energy Integration Approach on UHDE Ammonia Process
In this paper, the energy performance of a selected UHDE Ammonia plant is optimized by conducting heat integration through waste heat recovery and the synthesis of a heat exchange network (HEN). Minimum hot and cold utility requirements were estimated through IChemE spreadsheet. Supporting simulation was carried out using HYSYS software. The results showed that there is no need for heating utility while the required cold utility was found to be around 268,714 kW. Hence a threshold pinch case was faced. Then, the hot and cold streams were matched appropriately. Also, waste heat recovered resulted with savings in HP and LP steams of approximately 51.0% and 99.6%, respectively. An economic analysis on proposed HEN showed very attractive overall payback period not exceeding 3 years. In general, a net saving approaching 35% was achieved in implementing heat optimization of current studied UHDE Ammonia process.
Adsorption Capacity of Chitosan Beads in Toxic Solutions
The efficiency of chitosan beads processed from 4 marine animal shells; white leg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), mud crab (Scylla sp.), horseshoe crab (Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda), and cuttlefish bone (Sepia sp.), for the adsorption experiments of ammonia and formaldehyde were investigated. The porosities of chitosan from the shells looked like beads were distinctly examined under SEM. The original pores of those shells on the surface areas compose of evenly fine pores. The shell beads of cuttlefish bone and horseshoe crab show the larger probably even porosity, while on those white leg shrimp and mud crab contain various large and fine pores. The best adsorption at pH 9 in 18 mg/l ammonia at 2 hours yield on cuttlefish bone, horseshoe crab, mud crab and white leg shrimp with the average percent of 59.12, 51.45, 45.66 and 43.52, respectively. Within 30 minutes the formaldehyde absorbers (at pH 5 in 8 μg/ml) revealed 46.27, 26.56, and 18.04 percent capacities in cuttlefish bone, mud crab and white leg shrimp beads; while 22.44 percent in the horseshoe crab at pH 7. The adsorption capacities and the amounts of beads showed a positive correlation. The adsorption capacity relationship between pH and the gas concentrations were affected by these qualities of chitosan beads.
Mathematical Modelling of Venturi Scrubber for Ammonia Absorption
In this study, the dispersed model is used to predict gas phase concentration, liquid drop concentration. The venturi scrubber efficiency is calculated by gas phase concentration. The modified model has been validated with available experimental data of Johnstone, Field and Tasler for a range of throat gas velocities, liquid to gas ratios and particle diameters and is used to study the effect of some design parameters on collection efficiency.
A Study of the Garbage Enzyme's Effects in Domestic Wastewater

“Garbage enzyme", a fermentation product of kitchen waste, water and brown sugar, is claimed in the media as a multipurpose solution for household and agricultural uses. This study assesses the effects of dilutions (5% to 75%) of garbage enzyme in reducing pollutants in domestic wastewater. The pH of the garbage enzyme was found to be 3.5, BOD concentration about 150 mg/L. Test results showed that the garbage enzyme raised the wastewater-s BOD in proportion to its dilution due to its high organic content. For mixtures with more than 10% garbage enzyme, its pH remained acidic after the 5-day digestion period. However, it seems that ammonia nitrogen and phosphorus could be removed by the addition of the garbage enzyme. The most economic solution for removal of ammonia nitrogen and phosphorus was found to be 9%. Further tests are required to understand the removal mechanisms of the ammonia nitrogen and phosphorus.

Acidity of different Jordanian Clays characterized by TPD-NH3 and MBOH Conversion
The acidity of different raw Jordanian clays containing zeolite, bentonite, red and white kaolinite and diatomite was characterized by means of temperature programmed desorption (TPD) of ammonia, conversion of 2-methyl-3-butyn-2-ol (MBOH), FTIR and BET-measurements. FTIR spectra proved presence of silanol and bridged hydroxyls on the clay surface. The number of acidic sites was calculated from experimental TPD-profiles. We observed the decrease of surface acidity correlates with the decrease of Si/Al ratio except for diatomite. On the TPD-plot for zeolite two maxima were registered due to different strength of surface acidic sites. Values of MBOH conversion, product yields and selectivity were calculated for the catalysis on Jordanian clays. We obtained that all clay samples are able to convert MBOH into a major product which is 3-methyl-3-buten-1-yne (MBYNE) catalyzed by acid surface sites with the selectivity close to 70%. There was found a correlation between MBOH conversion and acidity of clays determined by TPD-NH3, i.e. the higher the acidity the higher the conversion of MBOH. However, diatomite provided the lowest conversion of MBOH as result of poor polarization of silanol groups. Comparison of surface areas and conversions revealed the highest density of active sites for red kaolinite and the lowest for zeolite and diatomite.
Ammonia Gas Removal from Gas Stream by Biofiltration using Agricultural Residue Biofilter Medias in Laboratory-scale Biofilter
In this research, a biofiltration process to remove ammonia gas from gas stream using agricultural residue biofilter medias is studied. The experiments were conducted in laboratoryscale biofilter. The biofilter medias were a mixture of manure fertilizer and bagasse at various ratios i.e., 1:3, 1:5 and 1:7. The experiments were performed for a period of 40 days. The empty bed retention time (EBRT) is 78s. The moisture content of biofilter media was maintained at 45-60% using water. The results showed that the agricultural residues (manure fertilizer and bagasse) are suitable as biofilter media for ammonia gas removal in biofiltration process. The maximum efficiency of ammonia gas removal is observed from the 1:5 of manure fertilizer: bagasse ratio at 89.93%. The biofiltration is more effective at low ammonia gas concentration. In addition, the mixture ratio of biofilter media is not a significant factor in biofiltration operation while the most significant factor for biofiltration operation is the inlet ammonia gas concentration.
Ammonia Removal from Nitrogenous Industrial Waste Water Using Iranian Natural Zeolite of Clinoptilolite Type
Ammonia nitrogen is one of the most hazardous water pollutants, discharging into water receptors through industrial effluents. Negative environmental impacts of such chemical species in hydrosphere include accelerated eutrophication, water toxicity and harming the aquatics. Natural zeolite clinoptilolite has very high selectivity & capacity for ammonium cation sorption. It occurs in high abundances and rich mines of this zeolite exist in different parts of Iran and thus are available more cheaply and with different sizing. The aim of this study is to investigate ammonia nitrogen removal over this natural sorbent from real samples of high polluted wastewater discharging from a fertilizer producing plant. The experimental results showed that this natural sorbent without even any pre treatment system & with the same particle size available in Iranian markets has still high capability & selectivity in ammonia nitrogen removal both in batch and continuous tests.
Phosphorus Supplementation of Ammoniated Rice Straw on Rumen Fermentability, Syntesised Microbial Protein and Degradabilityin Vitro

The effect of phosphorus supplementation of ammoniated rice straw was studied. The in vitro experiment was carried out following the first stage of Tilley and Terry method. The treatments consisting of four diets were A = 50% ammoniated rice straw + 50% concentrate (control), B = A + 0.2% Phosphor (P) supplement, C = A + 0.4% Phosphor (P) supplement, and D = A + 0.6% Phosphor (P) supplement of dry matter. Completely randomized design was used as the experimental design with differences among treatment means were examined using Duncan multiple range test. Variables measured were total bacterial and cellulolytic bacterial population, cellulolytic enzyme activity, ammonia (NH3) and volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations, as fermentability indicators and synthesized microbial protein, as well as degradability indicators including dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF) and cellulose. The results indicated that fermentability and degradability of diets consisting ammoniated rice straw with P supplementation were significantly higher than the control diet (P< 0.05). It is concluded that P supplementation is important to improve fermentability and degradability of rations containing ammoniated RS and concentrate. In terms of the most effective level of P supplementation occurred at a supplementation rate of 0.4% of dry matter.

Communities of Ammonia-oxidizing Archaea and Bacteria in Enriched Nitrifying Activated Sludge
In this study, communities of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in nitrifying activated sludge (NAS) prepared by enriching sludge from a municipal wastewater treatment plant in three continuous-flow reactors receiving an inorganic medium containing different ammonium concentrations of 2, 10, and 30 mM NH4 +-N (NAS2, NAS10, and NAS30, respectively) were investigated using molecular analysis. Results suggested that almost all AOA clones from NAS2, NAS10, and NAS30 fell into the same AOA cluster and AOA communities in NAS2 and NAS10 were more diverse than those of NAS30. In contrast to AOA, AOB communities obviously shifted from the seed sludge to enriched NASs and in each enriched NAS, communities of AOB varied particularly. The seed sludge contained members of N. communis cluster and N. oligotropha cluster. After it was enriched under various ammonium loads, members of N. communis cluster disappeared from all enriched NASs. AOB with high affinity to ammonia presented in NAS 2, AOB with low affinity to ammonia presented in NAS 30, and both types of AOB survived in NAS 10. These demonstrated that ammonium load significantly influenced AOB communities, but not AOA communities in enriched NASs.
Effect of Influent COD on Biological Ammonia Removal Efficiency
Biological Ammonia removal (nitrification), the oxidation of ammonia to nitrate catalyzed by bacteria, is a key part of global nitrogen cycling. In the first step of nitrification, chemolithoautotrophic ammonia oxidizer transform ammonia to nitrite, this subsequently oxidized to nitrate by nitrite oxidizing bacteria. This process can be affected by several factors. In this study the effect of influent COD on biological ammonia removal in a bench-scale biological reactor was investigated. Experiments were carried out using synthetic wastewater. The initial ammonium concentration was 25mgNH4 +-N L-1. The effect of COD between 247.55±1.8 and 601.08±3.24mgL-1 on biological ammonia removal was investigated by varying the COD loading supplied to reactor. From the results obtained in this study it could be concluded in the range of 247.55±1.8 to 351.35±2.05mgL-1, there is a direct relationship between amount of COD and ammonia removal. However more than 351.35±2.05 up to 601.08±3.24mgL-1 were found an indirect relationship between them.
Removal of Hydrogen Sulfide in Terms of Scrubbing Techniques using Silver Nano-Particles
Silver nano-particles have been used for antibacterial purpose and it is also believed to have removal of odorous compounds, oxidation capacity as a metal catalyst. In this study, silver nano-particles in nano sizes (5-30 nm) were prepared on the surface of NaHCO3, the supporting material, using a sputtering method that provided high silver content and minimized conglomerating problems observed in the common AgNO3 photo-deposition method. The silver nano-particles were dispersed by dissolving Ag-NaHCO3 into water, and the dispersed silver nano-particles in the aqueous phase were applied to remove inorganic odor compounds, H2S, in a scrubbing reactor. Hydrogen sulfide in the gas phase was rapidly removed by the silver nano-particles, and the concentration of sulfate (SO4 2-) ion increased with time due to the oxidation reaction by silver as a catalyst. Consequently, the experimental results demonstrated that the silver nano-particles in the aqueous solution can be successfully applied to remove odorous compounds without adding additional energy sources and producing any harmful byproducts
Thermodynamic Analysis of a Novel Thermal Driven Refrigeration System

Thermal-driven refrigeration systems have attracted increasing research and development interest in recent years. These systems do not cause ozone depletion and can reduce demand on electricity. The main objective of this work is to perform theoretical analyses of a thermal-driven refrigeration system using a new sorbent-sorptive pair as the working pair. The active component of sorbent is sodium thiocyanate (NaSCN). Ammonia (NH3) is chosen as sorptive. Based on the thermodynamic properties of the working solution, a mathematical model is introduced to analyze the system characteristics and performance. The results are used to compare with other thermal-driven refrigeration systems. It is shown that the advantages provided by this system over other absorption units include lower generator and evaporator temperatures, a higher coefficient of performance (COP). The COP is about 10 percent higher than the ones for the NH3-H2O system working at the same conditions.

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