Availability, Accessibility and Utilization of Information and Communication Technology in Teaching and Learning Islamic Studies in Colleges of Education, North-Eastern, Nigeria
The use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in tertiary institutions by lecturers and students has become a necessity for the enhancement of quality teaching and learning. This study examined availability, accessibility and utilization of ICT in Teaching-Learning Islamic Studies in Colleges of Education, North-East, Nigeria. The study adopted multi-stage sampling technique, in which, five out of the eleven Colleges of Education (both Federal and State owned) were purposively selected for the study. Primary data was drawn from the respondents by the use of questionnaire, interviews and observations. The results of the study, generally, indicate that the availability and accessibility to ICT facilities in Colleges of Education in North-East, Nigeria, especially in teaching/learning delivery of Islamic studies were relatively inadequate and rare to lecturers and students. The study further reveals that the respondents’ level of utilization of ICT is low and only few computer packages and internet services were involved in the ICT utilization, which is yet to reach the real expected situation of the globalization and advancement in the application of ICT if compared to other parts of the world, as far as the teaching and learning of Islamic studies is concerned. Observations and conclusion were drawn from the findings and finally, recommendations on how to improve on ICT availability, accessibility and utilization in teaching/ learning were suggested.
Utilization of Process Mapping Tool to Enhance Production Drilling in Underground Metal Mining Operations
Underground mining is at the core of rapidly evolving metals and minerals sector due to the increasing mineral consumption globally. Even though the surface mines are still more abundant on earth, the scales of industry are slowly tipping towards underground mining due to rising depth and complexities of orebodies. Thus, the efficient and productive functioning of underground operations depends significantly on the synchronized performance of key elements such as operating site, mining equipment, manpower and mine services. Production drilling is the process of conducting long hole drilling for the purpose of charging and blasting these holes for the production of ore in underground metal mines. Thus, production drilling is the crucial segment in the underground metal mining value chain. This paper presents the process mapping tool to evaluate the production drilling process in the underground metal mining operation by dividing the given process into three segments namely Input, Process and Output. The three segments are further segregated into factors and sub-factors. As per the study, the major input factors crucial for the efficient functioning of production drilling process are power, drilling water, geotechnical support of the drilling site, skilled drilling operators, services installation crew, oils and drill accessories for drilling machine, survey markings at drill site, proper housekeeping, regular maintenance of drill machine, suitable transportation for reaching the drilling site and finally proper ventilation. The major outputs for the production drilling process are ore, waste as a result of dilution, timely reporting and investigation of unsafe practices, optimized process time and finally well fragmented blasted material within specifications set by the mining company. The paper also exhibits the drilling loss matrix, which is utilized to appraise the loss in planned production meters per day in a mine on account of availability loss in the machine due to breakdowns, underutilization of the machine and productivity loss in the machine measured in drilling meters per unit of percussion hour with respect to its planned productivity for the day. The given three losses would be essential to detect the bottlenecks in the process map of production drilling operation so as to instigate the action plan to suppress or prevent the causes leading to the operational performance deficiency. The given tool is beneficial to mine management to focus on the critical factors negatively impacting the production drilling operation and design necessary operational and maintenance strategies to mitigate them.
Lead in The Soil-Plant System Following Aged Contamination from Ceramic Wastes
Lead contamination of agricultural land mainly vegetated with perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) has been investigated. The metal derived from the discharge of sludge from a ceramic industry in the past had used lead paints. The results showed very high values of lead concentration in many soil samples. In order to assess the lead soil contamination, a sequential extraction with H2O, KNO3, EDTA was performed, and the chemical forms of lead in the soil were evaluated. More than 70% of lead was in a potentially bioavailable form. Analysis of Lolium perenne showed elevated lead concentration. A Freundlich-like model was used to describe the transferability of the metal from the soil to the plant.
Stochastic Repair and Replacement with a Single Repair Channel
This paper examines the behavior of a system, which upon failure is either replaced with certain probability p or imperfectly repaired with probability q. The system is analyzed using Kolmogorov's forward equations method; the analytical expression for the steady state availability is derived as an indicator of the system’s performance. It is found that the analysis becomes more complex as the number of imperfect repairs increases. It is also observed that the availability increases as the number of states and replacement probability increases. Using such an approach in more complex configurations and in dynamic systems is cumbersome; therefore, it is advisable to resort to simulation or heuristics. In this paper, an example is provided for demonstration.
Horizontal and Vertical Illuminance Correlations in a Case Study for Shaded South Facing Surfaces
Daylight utilization is a key factor in achieving visual and thermal comfort, and energy savings in integrated building design. However, lack of measured data related to this topic has become a major challenge with the increasing need for integrating lighting concepts and simulations in the early stages of design procedures. The current paper deals with the values of daylight illuminance on horizontal and south facing vertical surfaces; the data are estimated using IESNA model and measured values of the horizontal and vertical illuminance, and a regression model with an acceptable linear correlation is obtained. The resultant illuminance frequency curves are useful for estimating daylight availability on south facing surfaces in Tehran. In addition, the relationship between indirect vertical illuminance and the corresponding global horizontal illuminance is analyzed. A simple parametric equation is proposed in order to predict the vertical illumination on a shaded south facing surface. The equation correlates the ratio between the vertical and horizontal illuminance to the solar altitude and is used with another relationship for prediction of the vertical illuminance. Both equations show good agreement, which allows for calculation of indirect vertical illuminance on a south facing surface at any time throughout the year.
Factors Determining Selection of Essential Nutrition Supplements
There are numerous nutritional supplements, such as multivitamins and nutrition drinks, in the market today. Many of these supplements are expensive and tend to be driven commercially by business decisions and big marketing budgets. Many of the costs are ultimately borne by the end user in the quest for keeping to a healthy lifestyle. This paper proposes a system with a list of ten determinants to gauge how to decide the value of various supplements. It suggests variables such as composition, safety, efficacy and bioavailability, as well as several other considerations. These guidelines can help to tackle many of the issues that people of all ages face in the way that they receive essential nutrients. The system also aims to promote and improve the safety and choice of foods and supplements. In so doing, the system aims to promote the individual’s or population’s control over their own health and reduce the growing health care burden on the society.
Combinatory Nutrition Supplementation: A Case of Synergy for Increasing Calcium Bioavailability
This paper presents an overview of how calcium interacts with the various essential nutrients within an environment of cellular and hormonal interactions for the purpose of increasing bioavailability to the human body. One example of such interactions can be illustrated with calcium homeostasis. This paper gives an in-depth discussion on the possible interactive permutations with various nutrients and factors leading to the promotion of calcium bioavailability to the body. The review hopes to provide further insights into how calcium supplement formulations can be improved to better influence its bioavailability in the human body.
Availability Analysis of Milling System in a Rice Milling Plant
The paper describes the availability analysis of milling system of a rice milling plant using probabilistic approach. The subsystems under study are special purpose machines. The availability analysis of the system is carried out to determine the effect of failure and repair rates of each subsystem on overall performance (i.e. steady state availability) of system concerned. Further, on the basis of effect of repair rates on the system availability, maintenance repair priorities have been suggested. The problem is formulated using Markov Birth-Death process taking exponential distribution for probable failures and repair rates. The first order differential equations associated with transition diagram are developed by using mnemonic rule. These equations are solved using normalizing conditions and recursive method to drive out the steady state availability expression of the system. The findings of the paper are presented and discussed with the plant personnel to adopt a suitable maintenance policy to increase the productivity of the rice milling plant.
Formulation and Evaluation of Niosomes Containing an Antihypertensive Drug
Niosomes were formulated with an aim of enhancing the oral bioavailability of losartan potassium and formulated in different molar ratios of surfactant, cholesterol and dicetyl phosphate. The formulated niosomes were found in range of 54.98 µm to 107.85 µm in size. Formulations with 1:1 ratio of surfactant and cholesterol have shown maximum entrapment efficiencies. Niosomes with sorbitan monostearate showed maximum drug release and zero order release kinetics, at the end of 24 hours. The in vivo study has shown the significant enhancement in oral bioavailability of losartan potassium in rats, after a dose of 10 mg/kg. The average relative bioavailability in relation with pure drug solution was found 2.56, indicates more than two fold increase in oral bioavailability. A significant increment in MRT reflects the release retarding ability of the vesicles. In conclusion, niosomes could be a promising delivery of losartan potassium with improved oral bioavailability and prolonged release profiles.
Prediction of Metals Available to Maize Seedlings in Crude Oil Contaminated Soil
The study assessed the effect of crude oil applied at rates, 0, 2, 5, and 10% on the fractional chemical forms and availability of some metals in soils from Usen, Edo State, with no known crude oil contamination and soil from a crude oil spill site in Ubeji, Delta State, Nigeria. Three methods were used to determine the bioavailability of metals in the soils: maize (Zea mays) plant, EDTA and BCR sequential extraction. The sequential extract acid soluble fraction of the BCR extraction (most labile fraction of the soils, normally associated with bioavailability) were compared with total metal concentration in maize seedlings as a means to compare the chemical and biological measures of bioavailability. Total Fe was higher in comparison to other metals for the crude oil contaminated soils. The metal concentrations were below the limits of 4.7% Fe, 190mg/kg Cu and 720mg/kg Zn intervention values and 36mg/kg Cu and 140mg/kg Zn target values for soils provided by the Department of Petroleum Resources (DPR) guidelines. The concentration of the metals in maize seedlings increased with increasing rates of crude oil contamination. Comparison of the metal concentrations in maize seedlings with EDTA extractable concentrations showed that EDTA extracted more metals than maize plant.
An Integrated Mixed-Integer Programming Model to Address Concurrent Project Scheduling and Material Ordering
Concurrent planning of project scheduling and
material ordering can provide more flexibility to the project
scheduling problem, as the project execution costs can be enhanced.
Hence, the issue has been taken into account in this paper. To do so, a
mixed-integer mathematical model is developed which considers the
aforementioned flexibility, in addition to the materials quantity
discount and space availability restrictions. Moreover, the activities
duration has been treated as decision variables. Finally, the efficiency
of the proposed model is tested by different instances. Additionally,
the influence of the aforementioned parameters is investigated on the
Reliability Analysis of Computer Centre at Yobe State University Using LRU Algorithm
In this paper, we focus on the reliability and performance analysis of Computer Centre (CC) at Yobe State University, Damaturu, Nigeria. The CC consists of three servers: one database mail server, one redundant and one for sharing with the client computers in the CC (called as a local server). Observing the different possibilities of the functioning of the CC, the analysis has been done to evaluate the various popular measures of reliability such as availability, reliability, mean time to failure (MTTF), profit analysis due to the operation of the system. The system can ultimately fail due to the failure of router, redundant server before repairing the mail server and switch failure. The system can also partially fail when a local server fails. The failed devices have restored according to Least Recently Used (LRU) techniques. The system can also fail entirely due to a cooling failure of the server, electricity failure or some natural calamity like earthquake, fire tsunami, etc. All the failure rates are assumed to be constant and follow exponential time distribution, while the repair follows two types of distributions: i.e. general and Gumbel-Hougaard family copula distribution.
Tomato Lycopene: Functional Proprieties and Health Benefits
The growing concerns for physical wellbeing and
health have been reflected in the way we choose food in our table.
Nowadays, we are all more informed consumers and choose healthier
foods. On the other hand, stroke, cancer and atherosclerosis may be
somehow minimized by the intake of some bioactive compounds
present in food, the so-called nutraceuticals and functional foods. The
aim of this work was to make a revision of the published studies
about the effects of some bioactive compounds, namely lycopene in
human health, in the prevention of diseases, thus playing the role of a
functional food. Free radical in human body can induce cell damage
and consequently can be responsible for the development of some
cancers and chronic diseases. Lycopene is one of the most powerful
antioxidants known, being the predominant carotenoid in tomato. The
respective chemistry, bioavailability, and its functional role in the
prevention of several diseases will be object of this work. On the
other hand, the inclusion of lycopene in some foods can also be made
by biotechnology and represents a way to recover the wastes in the
tomato industry with nutritional positive effects in health.
Food Security in Nigeria: An Examination of Food Availability and Accessibility in Nigeria
As a basic physiology need, threat to sufficient food
production is threat to human survival. Food security has been an
issue that has gained global concern. This paper looks at the food
security in Nigeria by assessing the availability of food and
accessibility of the available food. The paper employed multiple
linear regression technique and graphic trends of growth rates of
relevant variables to show the situation of food security in Nigeria.
Results of the tests revealed that population growth rate was higher
than the growth rate of food availability in Nigeria for the earlier
period of the study. Commercial bank credit to agricultural sector,
foreign exchange utilization for food and the Agricultural Credit
Guarantee Scheme Fund (ACGSF) contributed significantly to food
availability in Nigeria. Food prices grew at a faster rate than the
average income level, making it difficult to access sufficient food. It
implies that prior to the year 2012; there was insufficient food to feed
the Nigerian populace. However, continued credit to the food and
agricultural sector will ensure sustained and sufficient production of
food in Nigeria. Microfinance banks should make sufficient credit
available to smallholder farmer. Government should further control
and subsidize the rising price of food to make it more accessible by
Increasing the System Availability of Data Centers by Using Virtualization Technologies
Like most entrepreneurs, data center operators pursue goals such as profit-maximization, improvement of the company’s reputation or basically to exist on the market. Part of those aims is to guarantee a given quality of service. Quality characteristics are specified in a contract called the service level agreement. Central part of this agreement is non-functional properties of an IT service. The system availability is one of the most important properties as it will be shown in this paper. To comply with availability requirements, data center operators can use virtualization technologies. A clear model to assess the effect of virtualization functions on the parts of a data center in relation to the system availability is still missing. This paper aims to introduce a basic model that shows these connections, and consider if the identified effects are positive or negative. Thus, this work also points out possible disadvantages of the technology. In consequence, the paper shows opportunities as well as risks of data center virtualization in relation to system availability.
Repair and Maintenance Capability and Facilities Availability for MF 285 Tractor Operators in North of Khouzestan Province
A repairable mechanical system (as agricultural
tractor) is subject to deterioration or repeated failure and needs a
repair shops and also operator’s capability for the repair and
maintenance operations. Data are based on field visits and interviews
with 48MF 285 tractor operators from 14 villages collected in north
of Khouzestan province. The results showed that most operators were
lack the technical skill to service and repair tractors due to
insufficient training, specific education and work experience.
Inadequate repair and maintenance facilities, such as workshops,
mechanics and spare parts depots cause delays in repair work in the
survey areas. Farmers do not keep accurate service records and most
of them disregard proper maintenance and service of their tractors,
such as changing engine oil without following the manufacturer’s
recommendations. Since, Repair and maintenance facilities should be
established in village areas to guarantee timely repair in case of
breakdowns and to make spare parts available at low price. The
operators should keep service records accurately and adhere to
maintenance and service schedules according to the manufacturer’s
instructions. They should also be encouraged to do the service and
maintain their tractors properly.
Availability Analysis of a Power Plant by Computer Simulation
Reliability and availability of power stations are extremely important in order to achieve a required level of power generation. In particular, in the hot desert climate of Kuwait, reliable power generation is extremely important because of cooling requirements at temperatures exceeding 50-centigrade degrees. In this paper, a particular power plant, named Sabiya Power Plant, which has 8 steam turbines and 13 gas turbine stations, has been studied in detail; extensive data are collected; and availability of station units are determined. Furthermore, a simulation model is developed and used to analyze the effects of different maintenance policies on availability of these stations. The results show that significant improvements can be achieved in power plant availabilities if appropriate maintenance policies are implemented.
Link Availability Estimation for Modified AOMDV Protocol
Routing in adhoc networks is a challenge as nodes are
mobile, and links are constantly created and broken. Present ondemand
adhoc routing algorithms initiate route discovery after a path
breaks, incurring significant cost to detect disconnection and
establish a new route. Specifically, when a path is about to be broken,
the source is warned of the likelihood of a disconnection. The source
then initiates path discovery early, avoiding disconnection totally. A
path is considered about to break when link availability decreases.
This study modifies Adhoc On-demand Multipath Distance Vector
routing (AOMDV) so that route handoff occurs through link
Reliability of Intra-Logistics Systems – Simulating Performance Availability
Logistics distributors face the issue of having to
provide increasing service levels while being forced to reduce costs at
the same time. Same-day delivery, quick order processing and rapidly
growing ranges of articles are only some of the prevailing challenges.
One key aspect of the performance of an intra-logistics system is how
often and in which amplitude congestions and dysfunctions affect the
processing operations. By gaining knowledge of the so called
‘performance availability’ of such a system during the planning stage,
oversizing and wasting can be reduced whereas planning
transparency is increased. State of the art for the determination of this
KPI is simulation studies. However, their structure and therefore their
results may vary unforeseeably. This article proposes a concept for
the establishment of ‘certified’ and hence reliable and comparable
Design of Ka-Band Satellite Links in Indonesia
There is an increasing demand for broadband services
in Indonesia. Therefore, the answer is the use of Ka-Band which has
some advantages such as wider bandwidth, the higher transmission
speeds, and smaller size of antenna in the ground. However, rain
attenuation is the primary factor in the degradation of signal at the
Kaband. In this paper, the author will determine whether the Ka-band
frequency can be implemented in Indonesia which has high intensity
Performance Evaluation and Cost Analysis of Standby Systems
Pumping systems are an integral part of water desalination plants, their effective functioning is vital for the operation of a plant. In this research work, the reliability and availability of pressurized pumps in a reverse osmosis desalination plant are studied with the objective of finding configurations that provides optimal performance. Six configurations of a series system with different number of warm and cold standby components were examined. Closed form expressions for the mean time to failure (MTTF) and the long run availability are derived and compared under the assumption that the time between failures and repair times of the primary and standby components are exponentially distributed. Moreover, a cost/ benefit analysis is conducted in order to identify a configuration with the best performance and least cost. It is concluded that configurations with cold standby components are preferable especially when the pumps are of the size.
Performance Modeling and Availability Analysis of Yarn Dyeing System of a Textile Industry
This paper discusses the performance modeling and availability analysis of Yarn Dyeing System of a Textile Industry. The Textile Industry is a complex and repairable engineering system. Yarn Dyeing System of Textile Industry consists of five subsystems arranged in series configuration. For performance modeling and analysis of availability, a performance evaluating model has been developed with the help of mathematical formulation based on Markov-Birth-Death Process. The differential equations have been developed on the basis of Probabilistic Approach using a Transition Diagram. These equations have further been solved using normalizing condition in order to develop the steady state availability, a performance measure of the system concerned. The system performance has been further analyzed with the help of decision matrices. These matrices provide various availability levels for different combinations of failure and repair rates for various subsystems. The findings of this paper are therefore, considered to be useful for the analysis of availability and determination of the best possible maintenance strategies which can be implemented in future to enhance the system performance.
Effect of Ionic Strength on Mercury Adsorption on Contaminated Soil
Mercury adsorption on soil was investigated at
different ionic strengths using Ca(NO3)2 as a background electrolyte.
Results fitted the Langmuir equation and the adsorption isotherms
reached a plateau at higher equilibrium concentrations. Increasing
ionic strength decreased the sorption of mercury, due to the
competition of Ca ions for the sorption sites in the soils. The
influence of ionic strength was related to the mechanisms of heavy
metal sorption by the soil. These results can be of practical
importance both in the agriculture and contaminated soils since the
solubility of mercury in soils are strictly dependent on the adsorption
and release process.
Food Security in India: A Case Study of Kandi Region of Punjab
Banishing hunger from the face of earth has been
frequently expressed in various international, national and regional
level conferences since 1974. Providing food security has become
important issue across the world particularly in developing countries.
In a developing country like India, where growth rate of population is
more than that of the food grains production, food security is a
question of great concern. According to the International Food Policy
Research Institute's Global Hunger Index, 2011, India ranks 67 of the
81 countries of the world with the worst food security status. After
Green Revolution, India became a food surplus country. Its
production has increased from 74.23 million tonnes in 1966-67 to
257.44 million tonnes in 2011-12. But after achieving selfsufficiency
in food during last three decades, the country is now
facing new challenges due to increasing population, climate change,
stagnation in farm productivity. Therefore, the main objective of the
present paper is to examine the food security situation at national
level in the country and further to explain the paradox of food
insecurity in a food surplus state of India i.e in Punjab at micro level.
In order to achieve the said objectives, secondary data collected from
the Ministry of Agriculture and the Agriculture department of Punjab
State was analyzed. The result of the study showed that despite
having surplus food production the country is still facing food
insecurity problem at micro level. Within the Kandi belt of Punjab
state, the area adjacent to plains is food secure while the area along
the hills falls in food insecure zone.
The present paper is divided into following three sections (i)
Introduction, (ii) Analysis of food security situation at national level
as well as micro level (Kandi belt of Punjab State) (iii) Concluding
Territorial Availability of Social and Economic Infrastructure in Kazakhstan: Comparative Analysis of Urban and Rural Households
The market transformation in Kazakhstan during the
last two decades has essentially strengthened a gap between
development of urban and rural areas. Implementation of market
institutes, transition from public financing to paid rendering of social
services, change of forms of financing of social and economic
infrastructure have led to strengthening of an economic inequality of
social groups, including growth of stratification of the city and the
village. Sociological survey of urban and rural households in Almaty
city and villages of Almaty region has been carried out within the
international research project “Livelihoods Strategies of Private
Households in Central Asia: A Rural–Urban Comparison in
Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan" (Germany, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan).
The analysis of statistical data and results of sociological research of
urban and rural households allows us to reveal issues of territorial
development, to investigate an availability of medical, educational
and other services in the city and the village, to reveal an evaluation
urban and rural dwellers of living conditions, to compare economic
strategies of households in the city and the village.
A Supplier-Manufacturer Relationship Model for Teak Forest Carbon Sequestration and Teak Log Demand Fulfillment with Sustainability Consideration
Availability of raw materials is important for
Indonesia as a furniture exporting country. Teak log as raw materials
is supplied to the furniture industry by Perum Perhutani (PP). PP
needs to involve carbon trading for nature conservation. PP also has
an obligation in the Corporate Social Responsibility program. PP and
furniture industry also must prosecute the regulations related to
ecological issues and labor rights. This study has the objective to
create the relationship model between supplier and manufacturer to
fulfill teak log demand that involving teak forest carbon
sequestration. A model is formulated as Goal Programming to get the
favorable solution for teak log procurement and support carbon
sequestration that considering economical, ecological, and social
aspects of both supplier and manufacturer. The results show that the
proposed model can be used to determine the teak log quantity
involving carbon trading to achieve the seven goals to be satisfied the
Development and in vitro Characterization of Self-nanoemulsifying Drug Delivery Systems of Valsartan
The present study is aim to prepare and evaluate the selfnanoemulsifying drug delivery (SNEDDS) system of a poorly water soluble drug valsartan in order to achieve a better dissolution rate which would further help in enhancing oral bioavailability. The present research work describes a SNEDDS of valsartan using labrafil M 1944 CS, Tween 80 and Transcutol HP. The pseudoternary phase diagrams with presence and absence of drug were plotted to check for the emulsification range and also to evaluate the effect of valsartan on the emulsification behavior of the phases. The mixtures consisting of oil (labrafil M 1944 CS) with surfactant (tween 80), co-surfactant (Transcutol HP) were found to be optimum formulations. Prepared formulations were evaluated for its particle size distribution, nanoemulsifying properties, robustness to dilution, self emulsication time, turbidity measurement, drug content and invitro dissolution. The optimized formulations are further evaluated for heating cooling cycle, centrifugation studies, freeze thaw cycling, particle size distribution and zeta potential were carried out to confirm the stability of the formed SNEDDS formulations. The prepared formulation revealed t a significant improvement in terms of the drug solubility as compared with marketed tablet and pure drug.
Mechanized Proof of Resistance of Denial of Service Attacks in Voting Protocol with ProVerif
Resistance of denial of service attacks is a key security requirement in voting protocols. Acquisti protocol plays an important role in development of internet voting protocols and claims its security without strong physical assumptions. In this study firstly Acquisti protocol is modeled in extended applied pi calculus, and then resistance of denial of service attacks is proved with ProVerif. The result is that it is not resistance of denial of service attacks because two denial of service attacks are found. Finally we give the method against the denial of service attacks.
Study on Radio Link Availability in Millimeter Wave Range
In this paper, the link quality in SHF and EHF ranges
are studied. In order to achieve high data rate higher frequencies must
be used – centimeter waves (SHF), millimeter waves (EHF) or optical
range. However, there are significant problem when a radio link work
in that diapason – rain attenuation and attenuation in earth-s
atmosphere. Based on statistical rain rates data for Bulgaria, the link
availability can be determined, depending on the working frequency,
the path length and the Power Budget of the link. For the calculations
of rain attenuation and atmosphere-s attenuation the ITU
recommendations are used.
Application of a Modified BCR Approach to Investigate the Mobility and Availability of Trace Elements (As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo,Ni, Pb, Zn, and Hg) from a Solid Residue Matrix Designed for Soil Amendment
Trace element speciation of an integrated soil
amendment matrix was studied with a modified BCR sequential
extraction procedure. The analysis included pseudo-total
concentration determinations according to USEPA 3051A and
relevant physicochemical properties by standardized methods. Based
on the results, the soil amendment matrix possessed neutralization
capacity comparable to commercial fertilizers. Additionally, the
pseudo-total concentrations of all trace elements included in the
Finnish regulation for agricultural fertilizers were lower than the
respective statutory limit values. According to chemical speciation,
the lability of trace elements increased in the following order: Hg <
Cr < Co < Cu < As < Zn < Ni < Pb < Cd < V < Mo < Ba. The
validity of the BCR approach as a tool for chemical speciation was
confirmed by the additional acid digestion phase. Recovery of trace
elements during the procedure assured the validity of the approach
and indicated good quality of the analytical work.