An IM-COH Algorithm Neural Network Optimization with Cuckoo Search Algorithm for Time Series Samples
Back propagation algorithm (BP) is a widely used
technique in artificial neural network and has been used as a tool
for solving the time series problems, such as decreasing training
time, maximizing the ability to fall into local minima, and optimizing
sensitivity of the initial weights and bias. This paper proposes an
improvement of a BP technique which is called IM-COH algorithm
(IM-COH). By combining IM-COH algorithm with cuckoo search
algorithm (CS), the result is cuckoo search improved control output
hidden layer algorithm (CS-IM-COH). This new algorithm has a
better ability in optimizing sensitivity of the initial weights and bias
than the original BP algorithm. In this research, the algorithm of
CS-IM-COH is compared with the original BP, the IM-COH, and the
original BP with CS (CS-BP). Furthermore, the selected benchmarks,
four time series samples, are shown in this research for illustration.
The research shows that the CS-IM-COH algorithm give the best
forecasting results compared with the selected samples.
A Distributed Mobile Agent Based on Intrusion Detection System for MANET
This study is about an algorithmic dependence of Artificial Neural Network on Multilayer Perceptron (MPL) pertaining to the classification and clustering presentations for Mobile Adhoc Network vulnerabilities. Moreover, mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is ubiquitous intelligent internetworking devices in which it has the ability to detect their environment using an autonomous system of mobile nodes that are connected via wireless links. Security affairs are the most important subject in MANET due to the easy penetrative scenarios occurred in such an auto configuration network. One of the powerful techniques used for inspecting the network packets is Intrusion Detection System (IDS); in this article, we are going to show the effectiveness of artificial neural networks used as a machine learning along with stochastic approach (information gain) to classify the malicious behaviors in simulated network with respect to different IDS techniques. The monitoring agent is responsible for detection inference engine, the audit data is collected from collecting agent by simulating the node attack and contrasted outputs with normal behaviors of the framework, whenever. In the event that there is any deviation from the ordinary behaviors then the monitoring agent is considered this event as an attack , in this article we are going to demonstrate the signature-based IDS approach in a MANET by implementing the back propagation algorithm over ensemble-based Traffic Table (TT), thus the signature of malicious behaviors or undesirable activities are often significantly prognosticated and efficiently figured out, by increasing the parametric set-up of Back propagation algorithm during the experimental results which empirically shown its effectiveness for the ratio of detection index up to 98.6 percentage. Consequently it is proved in empirical results in this article, the performance matrices are also being included in this article with Xgraph screen show by different through puts like Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR), Through Put(TP), and Average Delay(AD).
Air Quality Forecast Based on Principal Component Analysis-Genetic Algorithm and Back Propagation Model
Under the circumstance of environment deterioration, people are increasingly concerned about the quality of the environment, especially air quality. As a result, it is of great value to give accurate and timely forecast of AQI (air quality index). In order to simplify influencing factors of air quality in a city, and forecast the city’s AQI tomorrow, this study used MATLAB software and adopted the method of constructing a mathematic model of PCA-GABP to provide a solution. To be specific, this study firstly made principal component analysis (PCA) of influencing factors of AQI tomorrow including aspects of weather, industry waste gas and IAQI data today. Then, we used the back propagation neural network model (BP), which is optimized by genetic algorithm (GA), to give forecast of AQI tomorrow. In order to verify validity and accuracy of PCA-GABP model’s forecast capability. The study uses two statistical indices to evaluate AQI forecast results (normalized mean square error and fractional bias). Eventually, this study reduces mean square error by optimizing individual gene structure in genetic algorithm and adjusting the parameters of back propagation model. To conclude, the performance of the model to forecast AQI is comparatively convincing and the model is expected to take positive effect in AQI forecast in the future.
Artificial Neural Networks for Cognitive Radio Network: A Survey
The main aim of a communication system is to
achieve maximum performance. In Cognitive Radio any user or
transceiver has ability to sense best suitable channel, while channel is
not in use. It means an unlicensed user can share the spectrum of a
licensed user without any interference. Though, the spectrum sensing
consumes a large amount of energy and it can reduce by applying
various artificial intelligent methods for determining proper spectrum
holes. It also increases the efficiency of Cognitive Radio Network
(CRN). In this survey paper we discuss the use of different learning
models and implementation of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to
increase the learning and decision making capacity of CRN without
affecting bandwidth, cost and signal rate.
Two Day Ahead Short Term Load Forecasting Neural Network Based
This paper presents an Artificial Neural Network based approach for short-term load forecasting and exactly for two days ahead. Two seasons have been discussed for Iraqi power system, namely summer and winter; the hourly load demand is the most important input variables for ANN based load forecasting. The recorded daily load profile with a lead time of 1-48 hours for July and December of the year 2012 was obtained from the operation and control center that belongs to the Ministry of Iraqi electricity.
The results of the comparison show that the neural network gives a good prediction for the load forecasting and for two days ahead.
Software Effort Estimation Models Using Radial Basis Function Network
Software Effort Estimation is the process of estimating the effort required to develop software. By estimating the effort, the cost and schedule required to estimate the software can be determined. Accurate Estimate helps the developer to allocate the resource accordingly in order to avoid cost overrun and schedule overrun. Several methods are available in order to estimate the effort among which soft computing based method plays a prominent role. Software cost estimation deals with lot of uncertainty among all soft computing methods neural network is good in handling uncertainty. In this paper Radial Basis Function Network is compared with the back propagation network and the results are validated using six data sets and it is found that RBFN is best suitable to estimate the effort. The Results are validated using two tests the error test and the statistical test.
Improved Fuzzy Neural Modeling for Underwater Vehicles
The dynamics of the Autonomous Underwater
Vehicles (AUVs) are highly nonlinear and time varying and the hydrodynamic coefficients of vehicles are difficult to estimate
accurately because of the variations of these coefficients with
different navigation conditions and external disturbances. This study presents the on-line system identification of AUV dynamics to obtain
the coupled nonlinear dynamic model of AUV as a black box. This black box has an input-output relationship based upon on-line
adaptive fuzzy model and adaptive neural fuzzy network (ANFN)
model techniques to overcome the uncertain external disturbance and
the difficulties of modelling the hydrodynamic forces of the AUVs instead of using the mathematical model with hydrodynamic parameters estimation. The models- parameters are adapted according
to the back propagation algorithm based upon the error between the
identified model and the actual output of the plant. The proposed
ANFN model adopts a functional link neural network (FLNN) as the
consequent part of the fuzzy rules. Thus, the consequent part of the
ANFN model is a nonlinear combination of input variables. Fuzzy
control system is applied to guide and control the AUV using both
adaptive models and mathematical model. Simulation results show
the superiority of the proposed adaptive neural fuzzy network
(ANFN) model in tracking of the behavior of the AUV accurately
even in the presence of noise and disturbance.
Implementing a Visual Servoing System for Robot Controlling
Nowadays, with the emerging of the new applications
like robot control in image processing, artificial vision for visual
servoing is a rapidly growing discipline and Human-machine
interaction plays a significant role for controlling the robot. This
paper presents a new algorithm based on spatio-temporal volumes for
visual servoing aims to control robots. In this algorithm, after
applying necessary pre-processing on video frames, a spatio-temporal
volume is constructed for each gesture and feature vector is extracted.
These volumes are then analyzed for matching in two consecutive
stages. For hand gesture recognition and classification we tested
different classifiers including k-Nearest neighbor, learning vector
quantization and back propagation neural networks. We tested the
proposed algorithm with the collected data set and results showed the
correct gesture recognition rate of 99.58 percent. We also tested the
algorithm with noisy images and algorithm showed the correct
recognition rate of 97.92 percent in noisy images.
A Robust Al-Hawalees Gaming Automation using Minimax and BPNN Decision
Artificial Intelligence based gaming is an interesting topic in the state-of-art technology. This paper presents an automation of a tradition Omani game, called Al-Hawalees. Its related issues are resolved and implemented using artificial intelligence approach. An AI approach called mini-max procedure is incorporated to make a diverse budges of the on-line gaming. If number of moves increase, time complexity will be increased in terms of propositionally. In order to tackle the time and space complexities, we have employed a back propagation neural network (BPNN) to train in off-line to make a decision for resources required to fulfill the automation of the game. We have utilized Leverberg- Marquardt training in order to get the rapid response during the gaming. A set of optimal moves is determined by the on-line back propagation training fashioned with alpha-beta pruning. The results and analyses reveal that the proposed scheme will be easily incorporated in the on-line scenario with one player against the system.
A Grid-based Neural Network Framework for Multimodal Biometrics
Recent scientific investigations indicate that
multimodal biometrics overcome the technical limitations of
unimodal biometrics, making them ideally suited for everyday life
applications that require a reliable authentication system. However,
for a successful adoption of multimodal biometrics, such systems
would require large heterogeneous datasets with complex multimodal
fusion and privacy schemes spanning various distributed
environments. From experimental investigations of current
multimodal systems, this paper reports the various issues related to
speed, error-recovery and privacy that impede the diffusion of such
systems in real-life. This calls for a robust mechanism that caters to
the desired real-time performance, robust fusion schemes,
interoperability and adaptable privacy policies.
The main objective of this paper is to present a framework that
addresses the abovementioned issues by leveraging on the
heterogeneous resource sharing capacities of Grid services and the
efficient machine learning capabilities of artificial neural networks
(ANN). Hence, this paper proposes a Grid-based neural network
framework for adopting multimodal biometrics with the view of
overcoming the barriers of performance, privacy and risk issues that
are associated with shared heterogeneous multimodal data centres.
The framework combines the concept of Grid services for reliable
resources along with a momentum back propagation ANN (MBPANN)
model of machine learning for efficient multimodal fusion and
authentication schemes. Real-life applications would be able to adopt
the proposed framework to cater to the varying business requirements
and user privacies for a successful diffusion of multimodal
biometrics in various day-to-day transactions.
Improved Back Propagation Algorithm to Avoid Local Minima in Multiplicative Neuron Model
The back propagation algorithm calculates the weight
changes of artificial neural networks, and a common approach is to
use a training algorithm consisting of a learning rate and a
momentum factor. The major drawbacks of above learning algorithm
are the problems of local minima and slow convergence speeds. The
addition of an extra term, called a proportional factor reduces the
convergence of the back propagation algorithm. We have applied the
three term back propagation to multiplicative neural network
learning. The algorithm is tested on XOR and parity problem and
compared with the standard back propagation training algorithm.
Comparison of Artificial Neural Network and Multivariate Regression Methods in Prediction of Soil Cation Exchange Capacity
Investigation of soil properties like Cation Exchange
Capacity (CEC) plays important roles in study of environmental
reaserches as the spatial and temporal variability of this property
have been led to development of indirect methods in estimation of
this soil characteristic. Pedotransfer functions (PTFs) provide an
alternative by estimating soil parameters from more readily available
soil data. 70 soil samples were collected from different horizons of
15 soil profiles located in the Ziaran region, Qazvin province, Iran.
Then, multivariate regression and neural network model (feedforward
back propagation network) were employed to develop a
pedotransfer function for predicting soil parameter using easily
measurable characteristics of clay and organic carbon. The
performance of the multivariate regression and neural network model
was evaluated using a test data set. In order to evaluate the models,
root mean square error (RMSE) was used. The value of RMSE and
R2 derived by ANN model for CEC were 0.47 and 0.94 respectively,
while these parameters for multivariate regression model were 0.65
and 0.88 respectively. Results showed that artificial neural network
with seven neurons in hidden layer had better performance in
predicting soil cation exchange capacity than multivariate regression.
Artificial Neural Network with Steepest Descent Backpropagation Training Algorithm for Modeling Inverse Kinematics of Manipulator
Inverse kinematics analysis plays an important role in developing a robot manipulator. But it is not too easy to derive the inverse kinematic equation of a robot manipulator especially robot manipulator which has numerous degree of freedom. This paper describes an application of Artificial Neural Network for modeling the inverse kinematics equation of a robot manipulator. In this case, the robot has three degree of freedoms and the robot was implemented for drilling a printed circuit board. The artificial neural network architecture used for modeling is a multilayer perceptron networks with steepest descent backpropagation training algorithm. The designed artificial neural network has 2 inputs, 2 outputs and varies in number of hidden layer. Experiments were done in variation of number of hidden layer and learning rate. Experimental results show that the best architecture of artificial neural network used for modeling inverse kinematics of is multilayer perceptron with 1 hidden layer and 38 neurons per hidden layer. This network resulted a RMSE value of 0.01474.
Evaluation of the ANN Based Nonlinear System Models in the MSE and CRLB Senses
The System Identification problem looks for a
suitably parameterized model, representing a given process. The
parameters of the model are adjusted to optimize a performance
function based on error between the given process output and
identified process output. The linear system identification field is
well established with many classical approaches whereas most of
those methods cannot be applied for nonlinear systems. The problem
becomes tougher if the system is completely unknown with only the
output time series is available. It has been reported that the
capability of Artificial Neural Network to approximate all linear and
nonlinear input-output maps makes it predominantly suitable for the
identification of nonlinear systems, where only the output time series
is available. . The work reported here is an attempt to
implement few of the well known algorithms in the context of
modeling of nonlinear systems, and to make a performance
comparison to establish the relative merits and demerits.
Artificial Intelligence Techniques Applications for Power Disturbances Classification
Artificial Intelligence (AI) methods are increasingly being used for problem solving. This paper concerns using AI-type learning machines for power quality problem, which is a problem of general interest to power system to provide quality power to all appliances. Electrical power of good quality is essential for proper operation of electronic equipments such as computers and PLCs. Malfunction of such equipment may lead to loss of production or disruption of critical services resulting in huge financial and other losses. It is therefore necessary that critical loads be supplied with electricity of acceptable quality. Recognition of the presence of any disturbance and classifying any existing disturbance into a particular type is the first step in combating the problem. In this work two classes of AI methods for Power quality data mining are studied: Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) and Support Vector Machines (SVMs). We show that SVMs are superior to ANNs in two critical respects: SVMs train and run an order of magnitude faster; and SVMs give higher classification accuracy.
Illumination Invariant Face Recognition using Supervised and Unsupervised Learning Algorithms
In this paper, a comparative study of application of
supervised and unsupervised learning algorithms on illumination
invariant face recognition has been carried out. The supervised
learning has been carried out with the help of using a bi-layered
artificial neural network having one input, two hidden and one output
layer. The gradient descent with momentum and adaptive learning
rate back propagation learning algorithm has been used to implement
the supervised learning in a way that both the inputs and
corresponding outputs are provided at the time of training the
network, thus here is an inherent clustering and optimized learning of
weights which provide us with efficient results.. The unsupervised
learning has been implemented with the help of a modified
Counterpropagation network. The Counterpropagation network
involves the process of clustering followed by application of Outstar
rule to obtain the recognized face. The face recognition system has
been developed for recognizing faces which have varying
illumination intensities, where the database images vary in lighting
with respect to angle of illumination with horizontal and vertical
planes. The supervised and unsupervised learning algorithms have
been implemented and have been tested exhaustively, with and
without application of histogram equalization to get efficient results.
Comparing Autoregressive Moving Average (ARMA) Coefficients Determination using Artificial Neural Networks with Other Techniques
Autoregressive Moving average (ARMA) is a parametric based method of signal representation. It is suitable for problems in which the signal can be modeled by explicit known source functions with a few adjustable parameters. Various methods have been suggested for the coefficients determination among which are Prony, Pade, Autocorrelation, Covariance and most recently, the use of Artificial Neural Network technique. In this paper, the method of using Artificial Neural network (ANN) technique is compared with some known and widely acceptable techniques. The comparisons is entirely based on the value of the coefficients obtained. Result obtained shows that the use of ANN also gives accurate in computing the coefficients of an ARMA system.
Neural Networks for Short Term Wind Speed Prediction
Predicting short term wind speed is essential in order
to prevent systems in-action from the effects of strong winds. It also
helps in using wind energy as an alternative source of energy, mainly
for Electrical power generation. Wind speed prediction has
applications in Military and civilian fields for air traffic control,
rocket launch, ship navigation etc. The wind speed in near future
depends on the values of other meteorological variables, such as
atmospheric pressure, moisture content, humidity, rainfall etc. The
values of these parameters are obtained from a nearest weather
station and are used to train various forms of neural networks. The
trained model of neural networks is validated using a similar set of
data. The model is then used to predict the wind speed, using the
same meteorological information. This paper reports an Artificial
Neural Network model for short term wind speed prediction, which
uses back propagation algorithm.
One Hour Ahead Load Forecasting Using Artificial Neural Network for the Western Area of Saudi Arabia
Load forecasting has become in recent years one of the major areas of research in electrical engineering. Most traditional forecasting models and artificial intelligence neural network techniques have been tried out in this task. Artificial neural networks (ANN) have lately received much attention, and a great number of papers have reported successful experiments and practical tests. This article presents the development of an ANN-based short-term load forecasting model with improved generalization technique for the Regional Power Control Center of Saudi Electricity Company, Western Operation Area (SEC-WOA). The proposed ANN is trained with weather-related data and historical electric load-related data using the data from the calendar years 2001, 2002, 2003, and 2004 for training. The model tested for one week at five different seasons, typically, winter, spring, summer, Ramadan and fall seasons, and the mean absolute average error for one hour-ahead load forecasting found 1.12%.
Learning Flexible Neural Networks for Pattern Recognition
Learning the gradient of neuron's activity function
like the weight of links causes a new specification which is
flexibility. In flexible neural networks because of supervising and
controlling the operation of neurons, all the burden of the learning is
not dedicated to the weight of links, therefore in each period of
learning of each neuron, in fact the gradient of their activity function,
cooperate in order to achieve the goal of learning thus the number of
learning will be decreased considerably.
Furthermore, learning neurons parameters immunes them against
changing in their inputs and factors which cause such changing.
Likewise initial selecting of weights, type of activity function,
selecting the initial gradient of activity function and selecting a fixed
amount which is multiplied by gradient of error to calculate the
weight changes and gradient of activity function, has a direct affect
in convergence of network for learning.
Classifier Based Text Mining for Neural Network
Text Mining is around applying knowledge discovery techniques to unstructured text is termed knowledge discovery in text (KDT), or Text data mining or Text Mining. In Neural Network that address classification problems, training set, testing set, learning rate are considered as key tasks. That is collection of input/output patterns that are used to train the network and used to assess the network performance, set the rate of adjustments. This paper describes a proposed back propagation neural net classifier that performs cross validation for original Neural Network. In order to reduce the optimization of classification accuracy, training time. The feasibility the benefits of the proposed approach are demonstrated by means of five data sets like contact-lenses, cpu, weather symbolic, Weather, labor-nega-data. It is shown that , compared to exiting neural network, the training time is reduced by more than 10 times faster when the dataset is larger than CPU or the network has many hidden units while accuracy ('percent correct') was the same for all datasets but contact-lences, which is the only one with missing attributes. For contact-lences the accuracy with Proposed Neural Network was in average around 0.3 % less than with the original Neural Network. This algorithm is independent of specify data sets so that many ideas and solutions can be transferred to other classifier paradigms.
Applications of Cascade Correlation Neural Networks for Cipher System Identification
Crypto System Identification is one of the challenging tasks in Crypt analysis. The paper discusses the possibility of employing Neural Networks for identification of Cipher Systems from cipher texts. Cascade Correlation Neural Network and Back Propagation Network have been employed for identification of Cipher Systems. Very large collection of cipher texts were generated using a Block Cipher (Enhanced RC6) and a Stream Cipher (SEAL). Promising results were obtained in terms of accuracy using both the Neural Network models but it was observed that the Cascade Correlation Neural Network Model performed better compared to Back Propagation Network.