Multiphase Flow Regime Detection Algorithm for Gas-Liquid Interface Using Ultrasonic Pulse-Echo Technique
Efficiency of the cooling process for cryogenic
propellant boiling in engine cooling channels on space applications is
relentlessly affected by the phase change occurs during the boiling.
The effectiveness of the cooling process strongly pertains to the
type of the boiling regime such as nucleate and film. Geometric
constraints like a non-transparent cooling channel unable to use
any of visualization methods. The ultrasonic (US) technique as a
non-destructive method (NDT) has therefore been applied almost
in every engineering field for different purposes. Basically, the
discontinuities emerge between mediums like boundaries among
different phases. The sound wave emitted by the US transducer is
both transmitted and reflected through a gas-liquid interface which
makes able to detect different phases. Due to the thermal and
structural concerns, it is impractical to sustain a direct contact
between the US transducer and working fluid. Hence the transducer
should be located outside of the cooling channel which results in
additional interfaces and creates ambiguities on the applicability
of the present method. In this work, an exploratory research is
prompted so as to determine detection ability and applicability of
the US technique on the cryogenic boiling process for a cooling
cycle where the US transducer is taken place outside of the channel.
Boiling of the cryogenics is a complex phenomenon which mainly
brings several hindrances for experimental protocol because of
thermal properties. Thus substitute materials are purposefully selected
based on such parameters to simplify experiments. Aside from
that, nucleate and film boiling regimes emerging during the boiling
process are simply simulated using non-deformable stainless steel
balls, air-bubble injection apparatuses and air clearances instead
of conducting a real-time boiling process. A versatile detection
algorithm is perennially developed concerning exploratory studies
afterward. According to the algorithm developed, the phases can be
distinguished 99% as no-phase, air-bubble, and air-film presences.
The results show the detection ability and applicability of the US
technique for an exploratory purpose.
Eco-friendly and Cleaner Process for Isolation of Essential Oil Using Photovoltaic Energy: Experimental and Theoretical Study
The use of renewable energies is growing significantly worldwide. Faced with the increasing demand for electrical energy, mainly for the needs of remote, deserted and mountainous regions, numerous applications use photovoltaic energy. In this sense, the proposed study concerns a mathematical modeling and an experimental validation for the recovery of essential oil by a steam distillation system using photovoltaic energy. In this paper, we proceed to a modeling of the solar system that includes a photovoltaic (PV) generator with an electronic power converter allowing a continuation of the optimum operating point. The results obtained are promising and are validated practically.
Multi-Modal Film Boiling Simulations on Adaptive Octree Grids
Multi-modal film boiling simulations are carried out on adaptive octree grids. The liquid-vapor interface is captured using the volume-of-fluid framework adjusted to account for exchanges of mass, momentum, and energy across the interface. Surface tension effects are included using a volumetric source term in the momentum equations. The phase change calculations are conducted based on the exact location and orientation of the interface; however, the source terms are calculated using the mixture variables to be consistent with the one field formulation used to represent the entire fluid domain. The numerical model on octree representation of the computational grid is first verified using test cases including advection tests in severely deforming velocity fields, gravity-based instabilities and bubble growth in uniformly superheated liquid under zero gravity. The model is then used to simulate both single and multi-modal film boiling simulations. The octree grid is dynamically adapted in order to maintain the highest grid resolution on the instability fronts using markers of interface location, volume fraction, and thermal gradients. The method thus provides an efficient platform to simulate fluid instabilities with or without phase change in the presence of body forces like gravity or shear layer instabilities.
Comparison of the Distillation Curve Obtained Experimentally with the Curve Extrapolated by a Commercial Simulator
True Boiling Point distillation (TBP) is one of the most common experimental techniques for the determination of petroleum properties. This curve provides information about the performance of petroleum in terms of its cuts. The experiment is performed in a few days. Techniques are used to determine the properties faster with a software that calculates the distillation curve when a little information about crude oil is known. In order to evaluate the accuracy of distillation curve prediction, eight points of the TBP curve and specific gravity curve (348 K and 523 K) were inserted into the HYSYS Oil Manager, and the extended curve was evaluated up to 748 K. The methods were able to predict the curve with the accuracy of 0.6%-9.2% error (Software X ASTM), 0.2%-5.1% error (Software X Spaltrohr).
CFD Study of Subcooled Boiling Flow at Elevated Pressure Using a Mechanistic Wall Heat Partitioning Model
The wide range of industrial applications involved with boiling flows promotes the necessity of establishing fundamental knowledge in boiling flow phenomena. For this purpose, a number of experimental and numerical researches have been performed to elucidate the underlying physics of this flow. In this paper, the improved wall boiling models, implemented on ANSYS CFX 14.5, were introduced to study subcooled boiling flow at elevated pressure. At the heated wall boundary, the Fractal model, Force balance approach and Mechanistic frequency model are given for predicting the nucleation site density, bubble departure diameter, and bubble departure frequency. The presented wall heat flux partitioning closures were modified to consider the influence of bubble sliding along the wall before the lift-off, which usually happens in the flow boiling. The simulation was performed based on the Two-fluid model, where the standard k-ω SST model was selected for turbulence modelling. Existing experimental data at around 5 bars were chosen to evaluate the accuracy of the presented mechanistic approach. The void fraction and Interfacial Area Concentration (IAC) are in good agreement with the experimental data. However, the predicted bubble velocity and Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) are over-predicted. This over-prediction may be caused by consideration of only dispersed and spherical bubbles in the simulations. In the future work, the important physical mechanisms of bubbles, such as merging and shrinking during sliding on the heated wall will be incorporated into this mechanistic model to enhance its capability for a wider range of flow prediction.
Electric Field Effect on the Rise of Single Bubbles during Boiling
An experimental study of saturated pool boiling on a single artificial nucleation site without and with the application of an electric field on the boiling surface has been conducted. N-pentane is boiling on a copper surface and is recorded with a high speed camera providing high quality pictures and movies. The accuracy of the visualization allowed establishing an experimental bubble growth law from a large number of experiments. This law shows that the evaporation rate is decreasing during the bubble growth, and underlines the importance of liquid motion induced by the preceding bubble. Bubble rise is therefore studied: once detached, bubbles accelerate vertically until reaching a maximum velocity in good agreement with a correlation from literature. The bubbles then turn to another direction. The effect of applying an electric field on the boiling surface in finally studied. In addition to changes of the bubble shape, changes are also shown in the liquid plume and the convective structures above the surface. Lower maximum rising velocities were measured in the presence of electric fields, especially with a negative polarity.
The Effect of Type of Nanoparticles on the Quenching Process
In this study, the experiments were carried out to
determine the best coolant for the quenching process among waterbased
silica, alumina, titania and copper oxide nanofluids (0.1 vol%).
A sphere made up off brass material was used in the experiments.
When the spherical test specimen was heated at high temperatures, it
was suddenly immersed into the nanofluids. All experiments were
carried out at saturated conditions and under atmospheric pressure.
After the experiments, the cooling curves were obtained by using the
temperature-time data of the specimen. The experimental results
showed that the cooling performance of test specimen depended on
the type of nanofluids. The silica nanoparticles enhanced the
performance of boiling heat transfer and it is the best coolant for the
quenching among other nanoparticles.
CFD Modeling of Boiling in a Microchannel Based On Phase-Field Method
The hydrodynamics and heat transfer characteristics
of a vaporized elongated bubble in a rectangular microchannel have
been simulated based on Cahn-Hilliard phase-field method. In the
simulations, the initially nucleated bubble starts growing as it comes
in contact with superheated water. The growing shape of the bubble
compared well with the available experimental data in the literature.
Operation Stability Enhancement in Once-Through Micro Evaporators
Equipment miniaturisation offers several opportunities such as an increased surface-to-volume ratio and higher heat transfer coefficients. However, moving towards small-diameter channels demands extra attention to fouling, reliability and stable operation of the system. The present investigation explores possibilities to enhance the stability of the once-through micro evaporator by reducing its flow boiling induced pressure fluctuations. Experimental comparison shows that the measured reduction factor approaches a theoretically derived value. Pressure fluctuations are reduced by a factor of ten in the solid conical channel and a factor of 15 in the porous conical channel. This presumably leads to less backflow and therefore to a better flow control.
Effect of Processing on Sensory Characteristics and Chemical Composition of Cottonseed (Gossypium hirsutum) and Its Extract
The seeds of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fall among the lesser known oil seeds. Cottonseeds are not normally consumed in their natural state due to their gossypol content, an antinutrient. The effect of processing on the sensory characteristics and chemical composition of cottonseed and its extract was studied by subjecting the cottonseed extract to heat treatment (boiling) and the cottonseed to fermentation. The cottonseed extract was boiled using the open pot and the pressure pot for 30 minutes respectively. The fermentation of the cottonseed was carried out for 6 days with samples withdrawn at intervals of 2 days. The extract and fermented samples were subjected to chemical analysis and sensory evaluated for colour, aroma, taste, mouth feel, appearance and overallacceptability. The open pot sample was more preferred. Fermentation for 6 days resulted into a significant reduction in gossypol level of the cottonseed; however, sample fermented for 2 days was most preferred.
Vapor Bubble Dynamics in Upward Subcooled Flow Boiling During Void Evolution
Bubble generation was observed using a high-speed
camera in subcooled flow boiling at low void fraction. Constant heat
flux was applied on one side of an upward rectangular channel to
make heated test channel. Water as a working fluid from high
subcooling to near saturation temperature was injected step by step to
investigate bubble behavior during void development. Experiments
were performed in two different pressures condition close to 2bar and
4bar. It was observed that in high subcooling when boiling was
commenced, bubble after nucleation departed its origin and slid
beside heated surface. In an observation window mean release
frequency of bubble fb,mean, nucleation site Ns and mean bubble
volume Vb,mean in each step of experiments were measured to
investigate wall vaporization rate. It was found that in proximity of
PNVG vaporization rate was increased significantly in compare with
condensation rate which remained in low value.
Effect of Nanofluids on the Saturated Pool Film Boiling
In this study, the effect of nanofluids on the pool film
boiling was experimentally investigated at saturated condition under
atmospheric pressure. For this purpose, four different water-based
nanofluids (Al2O3, SiO2, TiO2 and CuO) with 0.1% particle volume
fraction were prepared. To investigate the boiling heat transfer, a
cylindrical rod with high temperature was used. The rod heated up to
high temperatures was immersed into nanofluids. The center
temperature of rod during the cooling process was recorded by using
a K-type thermocouple. The quenching curves showed that the pool
boiling heat transfer was strongly dependent on the nanoparticle
materials. During the repetitive quenching tests, the cooling time
decreased and thus, the film boiling vanished. Consequently, the
primary reason of this was the change of the surface characteristics
due to the nanoparticles deposition on the rod-s surface.
Direct Numerical Simulation of Subcooled Nucleate Pool Boiling
With the long-term objective of Critical Heat Flux (CHF) prediction, a Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) framework for simulation of subcooled and saturated nucleate pool boiling is developed. One case of saturated, and three cases of subcooled boiling at different subcooling levels are simulated. Grid refinement study is also reported. Both boiling and condensation phenomena can be computed simultaneously in the proposed numerical framework. Computed bubble detachment diameters of the saturated nucleate pool boiling cases agree well with the experiment. The flow structures around the growing bubble are presented and the accompanying physics is described. The relation between heat flux evolution from the heated wall and the bubble growth is studied, along with investigations of temperature distribution and flow field evolutions.
Analysis and Study of Parboiling Method, and the Following Impact on Waste Reduction and Yield Increase of Iranian Rice in Paddy Conversion Phase
An important goal of parboiling is a decrease of rice broken percentage and at the beginning Selected paddy of variety of rice Tarom and soaked at three different temperatures 45 Cº, 65 Cº and 80 Cº orderly for 5 hours, 4 hours and 1.5 hours to moisture of 40 % and then in steaming stage to operate these action two steaming methods are selected steaming under pressure condition and steaming in atmosphere pressure and In the first method after exerting air, the steam pressure is increase to 1 Kg/Cm2 which is done in two different duration times of 2.5 and 5 minutes and in second method used of three times of 5,10 and 15 minutes and dry to 8% moisture and decreases of rice broken percentage at best condition in variety of Tarom of 37.2 % to 7.3 % and increases yield percentage at best condition in variety of Tarom of 69.4 % to 75.93 % and bran percentage decreased in variety of Tarom of 9.53 % to 2.2-3.2 % and this issue cause increases yield percentage in rice and use of This method is very significant for our country because broken percentage of rice in our country is 23-33 %.
Nonlinear Thermal Hydraulic Model to Analyze Parallel Channel Density Wave Instabilities in Natural Circulation Boiling Water Reactor with Asymmetric Power Distribution
The paper investigates parallel channel instabilities of
natural circulation boiling water reactor. A thermal-hydraulic model
is developed to simulate two-phase flow behavior in the natural circulation boiling water reactor (NCBWR) with the incorporation of
ex-core components and recirculation loop such as steam separator, down-comer, lower-horizontal section and upper-horizontal section
and then, numerical analysis is carried out for parallel channel
instabilities of the reactor undergoing both in-phase and out-of-phase
modes of oscillations. To analyze the relative effect on stability of the reactor due to inclusion of various ex-core components and
recirculation loop, marginal stable point is obtained at a particular inlet enthalpy of the reactor core without the inclusion of ex-core
components and recirculation loop and then with the inclusion of the
same. Numerical simulations are also conducted to determine the
relative dominance between two modes of oscillations i.e. in-phase and out-of-phase. Simulations are also carried out when the channels
are subjected to asymmetric power distribution keeping the inlet enthalpy same.
Roughness Effects on Nucleate Pool Boiling of R-113 on Horizontal Circular Copper Surfaces
The present paper is an experimental investigation of
roughness effects on nucleate pool boiling of refrigerant R113 on
horizontal circular copper surfaces. The copper samples were treated
by different sand paper grit sizes to achieve different surface
roughness. The average surface roughness of the four samples was
0.901, 0.735, 0.65, and 0.09, respectively. The experiments were
performed in the heat flux range of 8 to 200kW/m2. The heat transfer
coefficient was calculated by measuring wall superheat of the
samples and the input heat flux. The results show significant
improvement of heat transfer coefficient as the surface roughness is
increased. It is found that the heat transfer coefficient of the sample
with Ra=0.901 is 3.4, 10.5, and 38.5% higher in comparison with
surfaces with Ra of 0.735, 0.65, and 0.09 at heat flux of 170 kW/m2.
Moreover, the results are compared with literature data and the well
known Cooper correlation.
Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Annular Flow Boiling in a Microchannel with 70000 Atoms
Molecular dynamics simulation of annular flow
boiling in a nanochannel with 70000 particles is numerically
investigated. In this research, an annular flow model is developed to
predict the superheated flow boiling heat transfer characteristics in a
nanochannel. To characterize the forced annular boiling flow in a
nanochannel, an external driving force F ext ranging from 1to12PN
(PN= Pico Newton) is applied along the flow direction to inlet fluid
particles during the simulation. Based on an annular flow model
analysis, it is found that saturation condition and superheat degree
have great influences on the liquid-vapor interface. Also, the results
show that due to the relatively strong influence of surface tension in
small channel, the interface between the liquid film and vapor core is
fairly smooth, and the mean velocity along the stream-wise direction
does not change anymore.
Influence of Artificial Roughness on Heat Transfer in the Rotating Flow
The results of an experimental study of the process of
convective and boiling heat transfer in the vessel with stirrer for
smooth and rough ring-shaped pipes are presented. It is established
that creation of two-dimensional artificial roughness on the heated
surface causes the essential (~100%) intensification of convective
heat transfer. In case of boiling the influence of roughness appears on
the initial stage of boiling and in case of fully developed nucleate
boiling there was no intensification of heat transfer. The similitude
equation for calculating convective heat transfer coefficient, which
generalizes well experimental data both for the smooth and the rough
surfaces is proposed.
Visual Study on Flow Patterns and Heat Transfer during Convective Boiling Inside Horizontal Smooth and Microfin Tubes
Evaporator is an important and widely used heat
exchanger in air conditioning and refrigeration industries. Different
methods have been used by investigators to increase the heat transfer
rates in evaporators. One of the passive techniques to enhance heat
transfer coefficient is the application of microfin tubes. The
mechanism of heat transfer augmentation in microfin tubes is
dependent on the flow regime of two-phase flow. Therefore many
investigations of the flow patterns for in-tube evaporation have been
reported in literatures. The gravitational force, surface tension and
the vapor-liquid interfacial shear stress are known as three dominant
factors controlling the vapor and liquid distribution inside the tube. A
review of the existing literature reveals that the previous
investigations were concerned with the two-phase flow pattern for
flow boiling in horizontal tubes , . Therefore, the objective of
the present investigation is to obtain information about the two-phase
flow patterns for evaporation of R-134a inside horizontal smooth and
microfin tubes. Also Investigation of heat transfer during flow
boiling of R-134a inside horizontal microfin and smooth tube have
been carried out experimentally The heat transfer coefficients for
annular flow in the smooth tube is shown to agree well with Gungor
and Winterton-s correlation . All the flow patterns occurred in the
test can be divided into three dominant regimes, i.e., stratified-wavy
flow, wavy-annular flow and annular flow. Experimental data are
plotted in two kinds of flow maps, i.e., Weber number for the vapor
versus weber number for the liquid flow map and mass flux versus
vapor quality flow map. The transition from wavy-annular flow to
annular or stratified-wavy flow is identified in the flow maps.
Thermo-mechanical Behavior of Pressure Tube of Indian PHWR at 20 bar Pressure
In a nuclear reactor Loss of Coolant accident (LOCA)
considers wide range of postulated damage or rupture of pipe in the
heat transport piping system. In the case of LOCA with/without
failure of emergency core cooling system in a Pressurised Heavy
water Reactor, the Pressure Tube (PT) temperature could rise
significantly due to fuel heat up and gross mismatch of the heat
generation and heat removal in the affected channel. The extent and
nature of deformation is important from reactor safety point of view.
Experimental set-ups have been designed and fabricated to simulate
ballooning (radial deformation) of PT for 220 MWe IPHWRs.
Experiments have been conducted by covering the CT by ceramic
fibers and then by submerging CT in water of voided PTs. In both
the experiments, it is observed that ballooning initiates at a
temperature around 665´┐¢C and complete contact between PT and
Caldaria Tube (CT) occurs at around 700´┐¢C approximately. The
strain rate is found to be 0.116% per second. The structural integrity
of PT is retained (no breach) for all the experiments. The PT heatup
is found to be arrested after the contact between PT and CT, thus
establishing moderator acting as an efficient heat sink for IPHWRs.
CFD Simulation of Condensing Vapor Bubble using VOF Model
In this study, direct numerical simulation for the bubble condensation in the subcooled boiling flow was performed. The main goal was to develop the CFD modeling for the bubble condensation and to evaluate the accuracy of the VOF model with the developed CFD modeling. CFD modeling for the bubble condensation was developed by modeling the source terms in the governing equations of VOF model using UDF. In the modeling, the amount of condensation was determined using the interfacial heat transfer coefficient obtained from the bubble velocity, liquid temperature and bubble diameter every time step. To evaluate the VOF model using the CFD modeling for the bubble condensation, CFD simulation results were compared with SNU experimental results such as bubble volume and shape, interfacial area, bubble diameter and bubble velocity. Simulation results predicted well the behavior of the actual condensing bubble. Therefore, it can be concluded that the VOF model using the CFD modeling for the bubble condensation will be a useful computational fluid dynamics tool for analyzing the behavior of the condensing bubble in a wide range of the subcooled boiling flow.
Evaluation of Exerting Force on the Heating Surface Due to Bubble Ebullition in Subcooled Flow Boiling
Vibration characteristics of subcooled flow boiling on
thin and long structures such as a heating rod were recently
investigated by the author. The results show that the intensity of the
subcooled boiling-induced vibration (SBIV) was influenced strongly
by the conditions of the subcooling temperature, linear power density
and flow velocity. Implosive bubble formation and collapse are the
main nature of subcooled boiling, and their behaviors are the only
sources to originate from SBIV. Therefore, in order to explain the
phenomenon of SBIV, it is essential to obtain reliable information
about bubble behavior in subcooled boiling conditions. This was
investigated at different conditions of coolant subcooling
temperatures of 25 to 75°C, coolant flow velocities of 0.16 to
0.53m/s, and linear power densities of 100 to 600 W/cm. High speed
photography at 13,500 frames per second was performed at these
conditions. The results show that even at the highest subcooling
condition, the absolute majority of bubbles collapse very close to the
surface after detaching from the heating surface. Based on these
observations, a simple model of surface tension and momentum
change is introduced to offer a rough quantitative estimate of the
force exerted on the heating surface during the bubble ebullition. The
formation of a typical bubble in subcooled boiling is predicted to
exert an excitation force in the order of 10-4 N.