Modern Spectrum Sensing Techniques for Cognitive Radio Networks: Practical Implementation and Performance Evaluation
Spectrum underutilization has made cognitive
radio a promising technology both for current and future
telecommunications. This is due to the ability to exploit the unused
spectrum in the bands dedicated to other wireless communication
systems, and thus, increase their occupancy. The essential function,
which allows the cognitive radio device to perceive the occupancy
of the spectrum, is spectrum sensing. In this paper, the performance
of modern adaptations of the four most widely used spectrum
sensing techniques namely, energy detection (ED), cyclostationary
feature detection (CSFD), matched filter (MF) and eigenvalues-based
detection (EBD) is compared. The implementation has been
accomplished through the PlutoSDR hardware platform and the
GNU Radio software package in very low Signal-to-Noise Ratio
(SNR) conditions. The optimal detection performance of the
examined methods in a realistic implementation-oriented model is
found for the common relevant parameters (number of observed
samples, sensing time and required probability of false alarm).
Reliability Factors Based Fuzzy Logic Scheme for Spectrum Sensing
The accurate spectrum sensing is a fundamental requirement of dynamic spectrum access for deployment of Cognitive Radio Network (CRN). To acheive this requirement a Reliability factors based Fuzzy Logic (RFL) Scheme for Spectrum Sensing has been proposed in this paper. Cognitive Radio User (CRU) predicts the presence or absence of Primary User (PU) using energy detector and calculates the Reliability factors which are SNR of sensing node, threshold of energy detector and decision difference of each node with other nodes in a cooperative spectrum sensing environment. Then the decision of energy detector is combined with Reliability factors of sensing node using Fuzzy Logic. These Reliability Factors used in RFL Scheme describes the reliability of decision made by a CRU to improve the local spectrum sensing. This Fuzzy combining scheme provides the accuracy of decision made by sensornode. The simulation results have shown that the proposed technique provide better PU detection probability than existing Spectrum Sensing Techniques.
Performance Analysis of the Time-Based and Periodogram-Based Energy Detector for Spectrum Sensing
Classically, an energy detector is implemented in time domain (TD). However, frequency domain (FD) based energy detector has demonstrated an improved performance. This paper presents a comparison between the two approaches as to analyze their pros and cons. A detailed performance analysis of the classical TD energy-detector and the periodogram based detector is performed. Exact and approximate mathematical expressions for probability of false alarm (Pf) and probability of detection (Pd) are derived for both approaches. The derived expressions naturally lead to an analytical as well as intuitive reasoning for the improved performance of (Pf) and (Pd) in different scenarios. Our analysis suggests the dependence improvement on buffer sizes. Pf is improved in FD, whereas Pd is enhanced in TD based energy detectors. Finally, Monte Carlo simulations results demonstrate the analysis reached by the derived expressions.
Sidelobe Reduction in Cognitive Radio Systems Using Hybrid Technique
Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is one of the best candidates for dynamic spectrum access due to its flexibility of spectrum shaping. However, the high sidelobes of the OFDM signal that result in high out-of-band radiation, introduce significant interference to the users operating in its vicinity. This problem becomes more critical in cognitive radio (CR) system that enables the secondary users (SUs) users to access the spectrum holes not used by the primary users (PUs) at that time. In this paper, we present a generalized OFDM framework that has a capability of describing any sidelobe suppression techniques, despite of whether one or a number of techniques are used. Based on that framework, we propose cancellation carrier (CC) technique in conjunction with the generalized sidelobe canceller (GSC) to reduce the out-of-band radiation in the region where the licensed users are operating. Simulation results show that the proposed technique can reduce the out-of-band radiation better when compared with the existing techniques found in the literature.
Algorithm and Software Based on Multilayer Perceptron Neural Networks for Estimating Channel Use in the Spectral Decision Stage in Cognitive Radio Networks
The use of the Multilayer Perceptron Neural Networks (MLPNN) technique is presented to estimate the future state of use of a licensed channel by primary users (PUs); this will be useful at the spectral decision stage in cognitive radio networks (CRN) to determine approximately in which time instants of future may secondary users (SUs) opportunistically use the spectral bandwidth to send data through the primary wireless network. To validate the results, sequences of occupancy data of channel were generated by simulation. The results show that the prediction percentage is greater than 60% in some of the tests carried out.
An Algorithm for Determining the Arrival Behavior of a Secondary User to a Base Station in Cognitive Radio Networks
This paper presents the development of an algorithm that predicts the arrival of a secondary user (SU) to a base station (BS) in a cognitive network based on infrastructure, requesting a Best Effort (BE) or Real Time (RT) type of service with a determined bandwidth (BW) implementing neural networks. The algorithm dynamically uses a neural network construction technique using the geometric pyramid topology and trains a Multilayer Perceptron Neural Networks (MLPNN) based on the historical arrival of an SU to estimate future applications. This will allow efficiently managing the information in the BS, since it precedes the arrival of the SUs in the stage of selection of the best channel in CRN. As a result, the software application determines the probability of arrival at a future time point and calculates the performance metrics to measure the effectiveness of the predictions made.
An Energy Detection-Based Algorithm for Cooperative Spectrum Sensing in Rayleigh Fading Channel
Cognitive radios have been recognized as one of the most promising technologies dealing with the scarcity of the radio spectrum. In cognitive radio systems, secondary users are allowed to utilize the frequency bands of primary users when the bands are idle. Hence, how to accurately detect the idle frequency bands has attracted many researchers’ interest. Detection performance is sensitive toward noise power and gain fluctuation. Since signal to noise ratio (SNR) between primary user and secondary users are not the same and change over the time, SNR and noise power estimation is essential. In this paper, we present a cooperative spectrum sensing algorithm using SNR estimation to improve detection performance in the real situation.
Energy Detection Based Sensing and Primary User Traffic Classification for Cognitive Radio
As wireless communication services grow quickly; the seriousness of spectrum utilization has been on the rise gradually. An emerging technology, cognitive radio has come out to solve today’s spectrum scarcity problem. To support the spectrum reuse functionality, secondary users are required to sense the radio frequency environment, and once the primary users are found to be active, the secondary users are required to vacate the channel within a certain amount of time. Therefore, spectrum sensing is of significant importance. Once sensing is done, different prediction rules apply to classify the traffic pattern of primary user. Primary user follows two types of traffic patterns: periodic and stochastic ON-OFF patterns. A cognitive radio can learn the patterns in different channels over time. Two types of classification methods are discussed in this paper, by considering edge detection and by using autocorrelation function. Edge detection method has a high accuracy but it cannot tolerate sensing errors. Autocorrelation-based classification is applicable in the real environment as it can tolerate some amount of sensing errors.
Hybrid Algorithm for Frequency Channel Selection in Wi-Fi Networks
This article proposes a hybrid algorithm for spectrum
allocation in cognitive radio networks based on the algorithms
Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) and Technique for Order of
Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) to improve the
performance of the spectrum mobility of secondary users in cognitive
radio networks. To calculate the level of performance of the proposed algorithm a
comparative analysis between the proposed AHP-TOPSIS, Grey
Relational Analysis (GRA) and Multiplicative Exponent Weighting
(MEW) algorithm is performed. Four evaluation metrics are used.
These metrics are accumulative average of failed handoffs,
accumulative average of handoffs performed, accumulative average
of transmission bandwidth, and accumulative average of the
transmission delay. The results of the comparison show that AHP-TOPSIS Algorithm
provides 2.4 times better performance compared to a GRA Algorithm
and, 1.5 times better than the MEW Algorithm.
MCDM Spectrum Handover Models for Cognitive Wireless Networks
Spectrum handover is a significant topic in the
cognitive radio networks to assure an efficient data transmission in
the cognitive radio user’s communications. This paper proposes a
comparison between three spectrum handover models: VIKOR, SAW
and MEW. Four evaluation metrics are used. These metrics are,
accumulative average of failed handover, accumulative average of
handover performed, accumulative average of transmission
bandwidth and, accumulative average of the transmission delay. As a difference with related work, the performance of the three
spectrum handover models was validated with captured data of
spectrum occupancy in experiments performed at the GSM frequency
band (824 MHz - 849 MHz). These data represent the actual behavior
of the licensed users for this wireless frequency band. The results of the comparison show that VIKOR Algorithm
provides a 15.8% performance improvement compared to SAW
Algorithm and, it is 12.1% better than the MEW Algorithm.
Key Concepts of 5th Generation Mobile Technology
The 5th generation of mobile networks is term used in
various research papers and projects to identify the next major phase
of mobile telecommunications standards. 5G wireless networks will
support higher peak data rate, lower latency and provide best
connections with QoS guarantees.
In this article, we discuss various promising technologies for 5G
wireless communication systems, such as IPv6 support, World Wide
Wireless Web (WWWW), Dynamic Adhoc Wireless Networks
(DAWN), BEAM DIVISION MULTIPLE ACCESS (BDMA), Cloud
Computing, cognitive radio technology and FBMC/OQAM.
This paper is organized as follows: First, we will give introduction
to 5G systems, present some goals and requirements of 5G. In the
next, basic differences between 4G and 5G are given, after we talk
about key technology innovations of 5G systems and finally we will
conclude in last Section.
Artificial Neural Networks for Cognitive Radio Network: A Survey
The main aim of a communication system is to
achieve maximum performance. In Cognitive Radio any user or
transceiver has ability to sense best suitable channel, while channel is
not in use. It means an unlicensed user can share the spectrum of a
licensed user without any interference. Though, the spectrum sensing
consumes a large amount of energy and it can reduce by applying
various artificial intelligent methods for determining proper spectrum
holes. It also increases the efficiency of Cognitive Radio Network
(CRN). In this survey paper we discuss the use of different learning
models and implementation of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to
increase the learning and decision making capacity of CRN without
affecting bandwidth, cost and signal rate.
Cognitive Radio Spectrum Management
The emerging Cognitive Radio is combo of both the
technologies i.e. Radio dynamics and software technology. It involve
wireless system with efficient coding, designing, and making them
artificial intelligent to take the decision according to the surrounding
environment and adopt themselves accordingly, so as to deliver the
best QoS. This is the breakthrough from fixed hardware and fixed
utilization of the spectrum. This software-defined approach of
research is centralized at user-definition and application driven
model, various software method are used for the optimization of the
wireless communication. This paper focused on the Spectrum
allocation technique using genetic algorithm GA to evolve radio,
represented by chromosomes. The chromosomes gene represents the
adjustable parameters in given radio and by using GA, evolving over
the generations, the optimized set of parameters are evolved, as per
the requirement of user and availability of the spectrum, in our
prototype the gene consist of 6 different parameters, and the best set
of parameters are evolved according to the application need and
availability of the spectrum holes and thus maintaining best QoS for
user, simultaneously maintaining licensed user rights. The analyzing
tool Matlab is used for the performance of the prototype.
BER Analysis of Energy Detection Spectrum Sensing in Cognitive Radio Using GNU Radio
Cognitive Radio is a turning out technology that
empowers viable usage of the spectrum. Energy Detector-based
Sensing is the most broadly utilized spectrum sensing strategy.
Besides, it's a lot of generic as receivers doesn't would like any
information on the primary user's signals, channel data, of even the
sort of modulation. This paper puts forth the execution of energy
detection sensing for AM (Amplitude Modulated) signal at 710 KHz,
FM (Frequency Modulated) signal at 103.45 MHz (local station
frequency), Wi-Fi signal at 2.4 GHz and WiMAX signals at 6 GHz.
The OFDM/OFDMA based WiMAX physical layer with
convolutional channel coding is actualized utilizing USRP N210
(Universal Software Radio Peripheral) and GNU Radio based
Software Defined Radio (SDR). Test outcomes demonstrated the
BER (Bit Error Rate) augmentation with channel noise and BER
execution is dissected for different Eb/N0 (the energy per bit to noise
power spectral density ratio) values.
Single Port Overlay Cognitive Radio Using Reconfigurable Filtennas
In this paper cognitive radio is presented and the
spectrum overlay cognitive radio antenna system is detailed. A UWB
antenna with frequency reconfigurable characteristics is proposed.
The reconfigurability is achieved when the filter is integrated to the
feeding line of the single port overlay cognitive radio. When
activated, the filter can transform the UWB frequency response into a
reconfigurable narrowband one, which is suitable for the
communication operation of the CR system. Here single port overlay
cognitive radio antenna is designed and simulated using Ansoft High
Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS).
An Investigation of Performance versus Security in Cognitive Radio Networks with Supporting Cloud Platforms
The growth of wireless devices affects the availability
of limited frequencies or spectrum bands as it has been known that
spectrum bands are a natural resource that cannot be added.
Meanwhile, the licensed frequencies are idle most of the time.
Cognitive radio is one of the solutions to solve those problems.
Cognitive radio is a promising technology that allows the unlicensed
users known as secondary users (SUs) to access licensed bands
without making interference to licensed users or primary users (PUs).
As cloud computing has become popular in recent years, cognitive
radio networks (CRNs) can be integrated with cloud platform. One of
the important issues in CRNs is security. It becomes a problem since
CRNs use radio frequencies as a medium for transmitting and CRNs
share the same issues with wireless communication systems. Another
critical issue in CRNs is performance. Security has adverse effect to
performance and there are trade-offs between them. The goal of this
paper is to investigate the performance related to security trade-off in
CRNs with supporting cloud platforms. Furthermore, Queuing
Network Models with preemptive resume and preemptive repeat
identical priority are applied in this project to measure the impact of
security to performance in CRNs with or without cloud platform. The
generalized exponential (GE) type distribution is used to reflect the
bursty inter-arrival and service times at the servers. The results show
that the best performance is obtained when security is disabled and
cloud platform is enabled.
Performance of Hybrid-MIMO Receiver Scheme in Cognitive Radio Network
In this paper, we evaluate the performance of the
Hybrid-MIMO Receiver Scheme (HMRS) in Cognitive Radio
network (CR-network). We investigate the efficiency of the proposed
scheme which the energy level and user number of primary user are
varied according to the characteristic of CR-network. HMRS can
allow users to transmit either Space-Time Block Code (STBC) or
Spatial-Multiplexing (SM) streams simultaneously by using
Successive Interference Cancellation (SIC) and Maximum Likelihood
Detection (MLD). From simulation, the results indicate that the
interference level effects to the performance of HMRS. Moreover,
the exact closed-form capacity of the proposed scheme is derived and
compared with STBC scheme.
In Cognitive Radio the Analysis of Bit-Error- Rate (BER) by using PSO Algorithm
The electromagnetic spectrum is a natural resource
and hence well-organized usage of the limited natural resources is the
necessities for better communication. The present static frequency
allocation schemes cannot accommodate demands of the rapidly
increasing number of higher data rate services. Therefore, dynamic
usage of the spectrum must be distinguished from the static usage to
increase the availability of frequency spectrum. Cognitive radio is not
a single piece of apparatus but it is a technology that can incorporate
components spread across a network. It offers great promise for
improving system efficiency, spectrum utilization, more effective
applications, reduction in interference and reduced complexity of
usage for users. Cognitive radio is aware of its environmental,
internal state, and location, and autonomously adjusts its operations
to achieve designed objectives. It first senses its spectral environment
over a wide frequency band, and then adapts the parameters to
maximize spectrum efficiency with high performance. This paper
only focuses on the analysis of Bit-Error-Rate in cognitive radio by
using Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm. It is theoretically as
well as practically analyzed and interpreted in the sense of
advantages and drawbacks and how BER affects the efficiency and
performance of the communication system.
Efficient Detection Using Sequential Probability Ratio Test in Mobile Cognitive Radio Systems
This paper proposes a smart design strategy for a sequential detector to reliably detect the primary user-s signal, especially in fast fading environments. We study the computation of the log-likelihood ratio for coping with a fast changing received signal and noise sample variances, which are considered random variables. First, we analyze the detectability of the conventional generalized log-likelihood ratio (GLLR) scheme when considering fast changing statistics of unknown parameters caused by fast fading effects. Secondly, we propose an efficient sensing algorithm for performing the sequential probability ratio test in a robust and efficient manner when the channel statistics are unknown. Finally, the proposed scheme is compared to the conventional method with simulation results with respect to the average number of samples required to reach a detection decision.
Evaluation of Protocol Applied to Network Routing WCETT Cognitive Radio
This article presents the results of researchrelated to the assessment protocol weightedcumulative expected transmission time (WCETT)applied to cognitive radio networks.The development work was based on researchdone by different authors, we simulated a network,which communicates wirelessly, using a licensedchannel, through which other nodes are notlicensed, try to transmit during a given time nodeuntil the station's owner begins its transmission.
A Cooperative Weighted Discriminator Energy Detector Technique in Fading Environment
The need in cognitive radio system for a simple, fast, and independent technique to sense the spectrum occupancy has led to the energy detection approach. Energy detector is known by its dependency on noise variation in the system which is one of its major drawbacks. In this paper, we are aiming to improve its performance by utilizing a weighted collaborative spectrum sensing, it is similar to the collaborative spectrum sensing methods introduced previously in the literature. These weighting methods give more improvement for collaborative spectrum sensing as compared to no weighting case. There is two method proposed in this paper: the first one depends on the channel status between each sensor and the primary user while the second depends on the value of the energy measured in each sensor.
Wavelet-Based Spectrum Sensing for Cognitive Radios using Hilbert Transform
For cognitive radio networks, there is a major
spectrum sensing problem, i.e. dynamic spectrum management. It is
an important issue to sense and identify the spectrum holes in
cognitive radio networks. The first-order derivative scheme is usually
used to detect the edge of the spectrum. In this paper, a novel
spectrum sensing technique for cognitive radio is presented. The
proposed algorithm offers efficient edge detection. Then, simulation
results show the performance of the first-order derivative scheme and
the proposed scheme and depict that the proposed scheme obtains
better performance than does the first-order derivative scheme.
A Quality Optimization Approach: An Application on Next Generation Networks
The next generation wireless systems, especially the
cognitive radio networks aim at utilizing network resources more
efficiently. They share a wide range of available spectrum in an
opportunistic manner. In this paper, we propose a quality
management model for short-term sub-lease of unutilized spectrum
bands to different service providers. We built our model on
competitive secondary market architecture. To establish the
necessary conditions for convergent behavior, we utilize techniques
from game theory. Our proposed model is based on potential game
approach that is suitable for systems with dynamic decision making.
The Nash equilibrium point tells the spectrum holders the ideal price
values where profit is maximized at the highest level of customer
satisfaction. Our numerical results show that the price decisions of
the network providers depend on the price and QoS of their own
bands as well as the prices and QoS levels of their opponents- bands.
Dynamic TDMA Slot Reservation Protocol for QoS Provisioning in Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks
In this paper, we propose a dynamic TDMA slot
reservation (DTSR) protocol for cognitive radio ad hoc networks.
Quality of Service (QoS) guarantee plays a critically important role
in such networks. We consider the problem of providing QoS
guarantee to users as well as to maintain the most efficient use of
scarce bandwidth resources. According to one hop neighboring
information and the bandwidth requirement, our proposed protocol
dynamically changes the frame length and the transmission schedule.
A dynamic frame length expansion and shrinking scheme that
controls the excessive increase of unassigned slots has been
proposed. This method efficiently utilizes the channel bandwidth by
assigning unused slots to new neighboring nodes and increasing the
frame length when the number of slots in the frame is insufficient to
support the neighboring nodes. It also shrinks the frame length when
half of the slots in the frame of a node are empty. An efficient slot
reservation protocol not only guarantees successful data
transmissions without collisions but also enhance channel spatial
reuse to maximize the system throughput. Our proposed scheme,
which provides both QoS guarantee and efficient resource utilization,
be employed to optimize the channel spatial reuse and maximize the
system throughput. Extensive simulation results show that the
proposed mechanism achieves desirable performance in multichannel
multi-rate cognitive radio ad hoc networks.
Performance Evaluation of Qos Parameters in Cognitive Radio Using Genetic Algorithm
The efficient use of available licensed spectrum is
becoming more and more critical with increasing demand and usage
of the radio spectrum. This paper shows how the use of spectrum as
well as dynamic spectrum management can be effectively managed
and spectrum allocation schemes in the wireless communication
systems be implemented and used, in future. This paper would be an
attempt towards better utilization of the spectrum. This research will
focus on the decision-making process mainly, with an
assumption that the radio environment has already been sensed and
the QoS requirements for the application have been specified either
by the sensed radio environment or by the secondary user itself. We
identify and study the characteristic parameters of Cognitive Radio
and use Genetic Algorithm for spectrum allocation. Performance
evaluation is done using MATLAB toolboxes.
Distributed Relay Selection and Channel Choice in Cognitive Radio Network
In this paper, we study the cooperative communications where multiple cognitive radio (CR) transmit-receive pairs competitive maximize their own throughputs. In CR networks, the influences of primary users and the spectrum availability are usually different among CR users. Due to the existence of multiple relay nodes and the different spectrum availability, each CR transmit-receive pair should not only select the relay node but also choose the appropriate channel. For this distributed problem, we propose a game theoretic framework to formulate this problem and we apply a regret-matching learning algorithm which is leading to correlated equilibrium. We further formulate a modified regret-matching learning algorithm which is fully distributed and only use the local information of each CR transmit-receive pair. This modified algorithm is more practical and suitable for the cooperative communications in CR network. Simulation results show the algorithm convergence and the modified learning algorithm can achieve comparable performance to the original regretmatching learning algorithm.
Cognitive Radio Networks (CRN): Resource Allocation Techniques Based On DNA-inspired Computing
Spectrum is a scarce commodity, and considering the spectrum scarcity faced by the wireless-based service providers led to high congestion levels. Technical inefficiencies from pooled, since all networks share a common pool of channels, exhausting the available channels will force networks to block the services. Researchers found that cognitive radio (CR) technology may resolve the spectrum scarcity. A CR is a self-configuring entity in a wireless networking that senses its environment, tracks changes, and frequently exchanges information with their networks. However, CRN facing challenges and condition become worst while tracks changes i.e. reallocation of another under-utilized channels while primary network user arrives. In this paper, channels or resource reallocation technique based on DNA-inspired computing algorithm for CRN has been proposed.
Capacity Optimization for Local and Cooperative Spectrum Sensing in Cognitive Radio Networks
The dynamic spectrum allocation solutions such as
cognitive radio networks have been proposed as a key technology to
exploit the frequency segments that are spectrally underutilized.
Cognitive radio users work as secondary users who need to
constantly and rapidly sense the presence of primary users or
licensees to utilize their frequency bands if they are inactive. Short
sensing cycles should be run by the secondary users to achieve
higher throughput rates as well as to provide low level of interference
to the primary users by immediately vacating their channels once
they have been detected. In this paper, the throughput-sensing time
relationship in local and cooperative spectrum sensing has been
investigated under two distinct scenarios, namely, constant primary
user protection (CPUP) and constant secondary user spectrum
usability (CSUSU) scenarios. The simulation results show that the
design of sensing slot duration is very critical and depends on the
number of cooperating users under CPUP scenario whereas under
CSUSU, cooperating more users has no effect if the sensing time
used exceeds 5% of the total frame duration.