Scholarly Research Excellence

Digital Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 48

Records of Lepidopteron Borers (Lepidoptera) on Stored Seeds of Indian Himalayan Conifers

Many of the regeneration failures in conifers are often being attributed to heavy insect attack and pathogens during the period of seed formation and under storage conditions. Conifer berries and seed insects occur throughout the known range of the hosts and also limit the production of seed for nursery stock. On occasion, even entire seed crops are lost due to insect attacks. The berry and seeds of both the species have been found to be infected with insects. Recently, heavy damage to the berry and seeds of Juniper and Chilgoza Pine was observed in the field as well as in stored conditions, leading to reduction in the viability of seeds to germinate. Both the species are under great threat and regeneration of the species is very low. Due to lack of adequate literature, the study on the damage potential of seed insects was urgently required to know the exact status of the insect-pests attacking seeds/berries of both the pine species so as to develop pest management practices against the insect pests attack. As both the species are also under threat and are fighting for survival, so the study is important to develop management practices for the insect-pests of seeds/berries of Juniper and Chilgoza pine so as to evaluate in the nursery, as these species form major vegetation of their distribution zones. A six-year study on the management of insect pests of seeds of Chilgoza revealed that seeds of this species are prone to insect pests mainly borers. During present investigations, it was recorded that cones of are heavily attacked only by Dioryctria abietella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in natural conditions, but seeds which are economically important are heavily infected, (sometimes up to 100% damage was also recorded) by insect borer, Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and is recorded for the first time ‘to author’s best knowledge’ infesting the stored Chilgoza seeds. Similarly, Juniper berries and seeds were heavily attacked only by a single borer, Homaloxestis cholopis (Lepidoptera: Lecithoceridae) recorded as a new report in natural habitat as well as in stored conditions. During the present investigation details of insect pest attack on Juniper and Chilgoza pine seeds and berries was observed and suitable management practices were also developed to contain the insect-pests attack.

Investigation on a Wave-Powered Electrical Generator Consisted of a Geared Motor-Generator Housed by a Double-Cone Rolling on Concentric Circular Rails

An electrical generator able to harness energy from the water waves and designed as a double-cone geared motor-generator (DCGMG), is proposed and theoretically investigated. Similar to a differential gear mechanism, used in the transmission system of the auto vehicle wheels, an angular speed differential is created between the cones rolling on two concentric circular rails. Water wave acting on the floating DCGMG produces and a gear-box amplifies the speed differential to gain sufficient torque for power generation. A model that allows computation of the speed differential, torque, and power of the DCGMG is suggested. Influence of various parameters, regarding the construction of the DCGMG, as well as the contact between the double-cone and rails, on the electro-mechanical output, is emphasized. Results obtained indicate that the generated electrical power can be increased by augmenting the mass of the double-cone, the span of the rails, the apex angle of the cones, the friction between cones and rails, the amplification factor of the gear-box, and the efficiency of the motor-generator. Such findings are useful to formulate a design methodology for the proposed wave-powered generator.

Positive Solutions for Systems of Nonlinear Third-Order Differential Equations with p-Laplacian
In this paper, by constructing a special set and utilizing fixed point theory, we study the existence and multiplicity of the positive solutions for systems of nonlinear third-order differential equations with p-laplacian, which improve and generalize the result of related paper.
Evaluation of TRIS-DMA-NVP Hydrogels for Making Silicone-Based Contact Lenses

In this study, contact lenses were prepared through the polymerization of tris-(trimethyl-silyl-propyl-methacrylate) (TRIS), N,N-dimethylacrylamide (DMA), N-vinylpyrrolidone (NVP), and cross-linked with ethylene glycol dimethylacrylate (EGDMA). The equilibrium water content (EWC), oxygen permeability (Dk), light transmittance, and in vitro cytotoxicity of TRIS-DMA-NVP with various ratios were measured. The results showed that the EWC increased while the Dk decreased with the increase of NVP content. For the sample with 25 wt% NVP, the EWC attained 53% whereas the Dk decreased to 46 barrers. All these lenses exhibited light transmittance over than 95%. In addition, all these lenses exhibited no inhibition to the growth of L292 fibroblasts. Thus, this study showed that TRIS-DMA-NVP can be applicable for making contact lens.

Bluetooth Piconet System for Child Care Applications

This study mainly concerns a safety device designed for child care. When children are out of sight or the caregivers cannot always pay attention to the situation, through the functions of this device, caregivers can immediately be informed to make sure that the children do not get lost or hurt, and thus, ensure their safety. Starting from this concept, a device is produced based on the relatively low-cost Bluetooth piconet system and a three-axis gyroscope sensor. This device can transmit data to a mobile phone app through Bluetooth, in order that the user can learn the situation at any time. By simply clipping the device in a pocket or on the waist, after switching on/starting the device, it will send data to the phone to detect the child’s fall and distance. Once the child is beyond the angle or distance set by the app, it will issue a warning to inform the phone owner.

On the Efficiency of a Double-Cone Gravitational Motor and Generator

In this paper, following the study-case of an inclined plane gravitational machine, efficiency of a double-cone gravitational motor and generator is evaluated. Two types of efficiency ratios, called translational efficiency and rotational efficiency, are defined relative to the intended duty of the gravitational machine, which can be either the production of translational kinetic energy, or rotational kinetic energy. One proved that, for pure rolling movement of the double- cone, in the absence of rolling friction, the total mechanical energy is conserved. In such circumstances, as the motion of the double-cone progresses along rails, the translational efficiency decreases and the rotational efficiency increases, in such way that sum of the rotational and translational efficiencies remains unchanged and equal to 1. Results obtained allow a comparison of the gravitational machine with other types of motor-generators, in terms of the achievable efficiency.

Frictional Effects on the Dynamics of a Truncated Double-Cone Gravitational Motor

In this work, effects of the friction and truncation on the dynamics of a double-cone gravitational motor, self-propelled on a straight V-shaped horizontal rail, are evaluated. Such mechanism has a variable radius of contact, and, on one hand, it is similar to a pulley mechanism that changes the potential energy into the kinetic energy of rotation, but on the other hand, it is similar to a pendulum mechanism that converts the potential energy of the suspended body into the kinetic energy of translation along a circular path. Movies of the self- propelled double-cones, made of S45C carbon steel and wood, along rails made of aluminum alloy, were shot for various opening angles of the rails. Kinematical features of the double-cones were estimated through the slow-motion processing of the recorded movies. Then, a kinematical model is derived under assumption that the distance traveled by the contact points on the rectilinear rails is identical with the distance traveled by the contact points on the truncated conical surface. Additionally, a dynamic model, for this particular contact problem, was proposed and validated against the experimental results. Based on such model, the traction force and the traction torque acting on the double-cone are identified. One proved that the rolling traction force is always smaller than the sliding friction force; i.e., the double-cone is rolling without slipping. Results obtained in this work can be used to achieve the proper design of such gravitational motor.

Electric Field Analysis and Experimental Evaluation of 400 kV Silicone Composite Insulator
In electrical power system, high voltage insulators are necessary for consistent performance. All insulators are exposed to different mechanical and electrical stresses. Mechanical stresses occur due to various loads such as wind load, hardware and conductors weight. Electrical stresses are due to over voltages and operating voltages. The performance analysis of polymer insulators is an essential, as most of the electrical utility companies are employing polymer insulators for new and updated transmission lines. In this paper, electric field is analyzed for 400 kV silicone (SiR) composite insulator by COULOMB 3D software based on boundary element method. The field results are compared with EPRI reference values. Our results proved that values at critical regions are very less compared to EPRI reference values. And also experimentally 400 kV single V suspension string is evaluated as per IEC standards.
Optimization of Process Parameters in Wire Electrical Discharge Machining of Inconel X-750 for Dimensional Deviation Using Taguchi Technique

The effective optimization of machining process parameters affects dramatically the cost and production time of machined components as well as the quality of the final products. This paper presents the optimization aspects of a Wire Electrical Discharge Machining operation using Inconel X-750 as work material. The objective considered in this study is minimization of the dimensional deviation. Six input process parameters of WEDM namely spark gap voltage, pulse-on time, pulse-off time, wire feed rate, peak current and wire tension, were chosen as variables to study the process performance. Taguchi's design of experiments methodology has been used for planning and designing the experiments. The analysis of variance was carried out for raw data as well as for signal to noise ratio. Four input parameters and one two-factor interaction have been found to be statistically significant for their effects on the response of interest. The confirmation experiments were also performed for validating the predicted results.

Evaluation of Soil Stiffness and Strength for Quality Control of Compacted Earthwork
Microstructure and fabric of soils play an important role on structural properties e.g. stiffness and strength of compacted earthwork. Traditional quality control monitoring based on moisturedensity tests neither reflects the variability of soil microstructure nor provides a direct assessment of structural property, which is the ultimate objective of the earthwork quality control. Since stiffness and strength are sensitive to soil microstructure and fabric, any independent test methods that provide simple, rapid, and direct measurement of stiffness and strength are anticipated to provide an effective assessment of compacted earthen materials’ uniformity. In this study, the soil stiffness gauge (SSG) and the dynamic cone penetrometer (DCP) were respectively utilized to measure and monitor the stiffness and strength in companion with traditional moisture-density measurements of various earthen materials used in Thailand road construction projects. The practical earthwork quality control criteria are presented herein in order to assure proper earthwork quality control and uniform structural property of compacted earthworks.
Magnetic Field Effects on Parabolic Graphene Quantum Dots with Topological Defects
In this paper, we investigate the low-lying energy levels of the two-dimensional parabolic graphene quantum dots (GQDs) in the presence of topological defects with long range Coulomb impurity and subjected to an external uniform magnetic field. The low-lying energy levels of the system are obtained within the framework of the perturbation theory. We theoretically demonstrate that a valley splitting can be controlled by geometrical parameters of the graphene quantum dots and/or by tuning a uniform magnetic field, as well as topological defects. It is found that, for parabolic graphene dots, the valley splitting occurs due to the introduction of spatial confinement. The corresponding splitting is enhanced by the introduction of a uniform magnetic field and it increases by increasing the angle of the cone in subcritical regime.
Finite Element Analysis of the Blanking and Stamping Processes of Nuclear Fuel Spacer Grids
Spacer grid assembly supporting the nuclear fuel rods is an important concern in the design of structural components of a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). The spacer grid is composed by springs and dimples which are formed from a strip sheet by means of blanking and stamping processes. In this paper, the blanking process and tooling parameters are evaluated by means of a 2D plane-strain finite element model in order to evaluate the punch load and quality of the sheared edges of Inconel 718 strips used for nuclear spacer grids. A 3D finite element model is also proposed to predict the tooling loads resulting from the stamping process of a preformed Inconel 718 strip and to analyse the residual stress effects upon the spring and dimple design geometries of a nuclear spacer grid.
Comparative Study of Static and Dynamic Bending Forces during 3-Roller Cone Frustum Bending Process
3-roller conical bending process is widely used in the industries for manufacturing of conical sections and shells. It involves static as well dynamic bending stages. Analytical models for prediction of bending force during static as well as dynamic bending stage are available in the literature. In this paper bending forces required for static bending stage and dynamic bending stages have been compared using the analytical models. It is concluded that force required for dynamic bending is very less as compared to the bending force required during the static bending stage.
Influential Parameters in Estimating Soil Properties from Cone Penetrating Test: An Artificial Neural Network Study

The Cone Penetration Test (CPT) is a common in-situ test which generally investigates a much greater volume of soil more quickly than possible from sampling and laboratory tests. Therefore, it has the potential to realize both cost savings and assessment of soil properties rapidly and continuously. The principle objective of this paper is to demonstrate the feasibility and efficiency of using artificial neural networks (ANNs) to predict the soil angle of internal friction (Φ) and the soil modulus of elasticity (E) from CPT results considering the uncertainties and non-linearities of the soil. In addition, ANNs are used to study the influence of different parameters and recommend which parameters should be included as input parameters to improve the prediction. Neural networks discover relationships in the input data sets through the iterative presentation of the data and intrinsic mapping characteristics of neural topologies. General Regression Neural Network (GRNN) is one of the powerful neural network architectures which is utilized in this study. A large amount of field and experimental data including CPT results, plate load tests, direct shear box, grain size distribution and calculated data of overburden pressure was obtained from a large project in the United Arab Emirates. This data was used for the training and the validation of the neural network. A comparison was made between the obtained results from the ANN's approach, and some common traditional correlations that predict Φ and E from CPT results with respect to the actual results of the collected data. The results show that the ANN is a very powerful tool. Very good agreement was obtained between estimated results from ANN and actual measured results with comparison to other correlations available in the literature. The study recommends some easily available parameters that should be included in the estimation of the soil properties to improve the prediction models. It is shown that the use of friction ration in the estimation of Φ and the use of fines content in the estimation of E considerable improve the prediction models.

Loudspeaker Parameters Inverse Problem for Improving Sound Frequency Response Simulation

The sound pressure level (SPL) of the moving-coil loudspeaker (MCL) is often simulated and analyzed using the lumped parameter model. However, the SPL of a MCL cannot be simulated precisely in the high frequency region, because the value of cone effective area is changed due to the geometry variation in different mode shapes, it is also related to affect the acoustic radiation mass and resistance. Herein, the paper presents the inverse method which has a high ability to measure the value of cone effective area in various frequency points, also can estimate the MCL electroacoustic parameters simultaneously. The proposed inverse method comprises the direct problem, adjoint problem, and sensitivity problem in collaboration with nonlinear conjugate gradient method. Estimated values from the inverse method are validated experimentally which compared with the measured SPL curve result. Results presented in this paper not only improve the accuracy of lumped parameter model but also provide the valuable information on loudspeaker cone design.

Investigation of the Flow Characteristics in a Catalytic Muffler with Perforated Inlet Cone

Emission regulations for diesel engines are being strengthened and it is impossible to meet the standards without exhaust after-treatment systems. Lack of the space in many diesel vehicles, however, make it difficult to design and install stand-alone catalytic converters such as DOC, DPF, and SCR in the vehicle exhaust systems. Accordingly, those have been installed inside the muffler to save the space, and referred to the catalytic muffler. However, that has complex internal structure with perforated plate and pipe for noise and monolithic catalyst for emission reduction. For this reason, flow uniformity and pressure drop, which affect efficiency of catalyst and engine performance, respectively, should be examined when the catalytic muffler is designed. In this work, therefore, the flow uniformity and pressure drop to improve the performance of the catalytic converter and the engine have been numerically investigated by changing various design parameters such as inlet shape, porosity, and outlet shape of the muffler using the three-dimensional turbulent flow of the incompressible, non-reacting, and steady state inside the catalytic muffler. Finally, it can be found that the shape, in which the muffler has perforated pipe inside the inlet part, has higher uniformity index and lower pressure drop than others considered in this work.

Existence of Positive Solutions for Second-Order Difference Equation with Discrete Boundary Value Problem

We study the existence of positive solutions to the three points difference-summation boundary value problem. We show the existence of at least one positive solution if f is either superlinear or sublinear by applying the fixed point theorem due to Krasnoselskii in cones.

Influence of Nano-ATH on Electrical Performance of LSR for HVDC Insulation

Many studies have been conducted on DC transmission. Of power apparatus for DC transmission, high voltage direct current (HVDC) cable systems are being evaluated because of the increase in power demand and transmission distance. Therefore, dc insulation characteristics of liquid silicone rubber (LSR), which has various advantages such as short curing time and the ease of maintenance, were investigated to assess its performance as a HVDC insulation material for cable joints. The electrical performance of LSR added to nano-aluminum trihydrate (ATH) were confirmed by measurements of the breakdown strength and electrical conductivity. In addition, field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) was used as a means of confirmation of nanofiller dispersion state. The LSR nanocomposite was prepared by compounding LSR filled nano-sized ATH filler. The dc insulation properties of LSR added to nano-sized ATH fillers were found to be superior to those of the LSR without a filler. 

Soil Properties after Plowing with Vertical and Horizontal Axis Rotavator

In this research, performance of rotavator with horizontal rotary axis and vertical rotary axis has been evaluated and compared. The mean weight diameter (MWD), cross-sectional area disturbed and cone index of soil investigated. Factorial experiments based on a randomized complete block with 18 treatments, three different velocities 2.2, 3.5, 6.1 km/h; three different depth of 5, 10, 15cm and with two rotary plows horizontal axis and vertical axis with three replications were used. Result showed that maximum MWD in 6.1 km/h and 15cm of depth were 55.6 and 52.5mm for horizontal axis rotavator, respectively. The minimum MWD in 2.2 km/h and 5cm of depth for vertical axis rotavator were 34.9 and 35.1mm, respectively. The values of cone index 1861.1 and 2339.5 kPa for vertical axis rotavator and horizontal axis rotavator were obtained, respectively, also the values of cross-sectional area disturbed 687 and 497.2cm2 for vertical axis rotavator and horizontal axis rotavator were obtained, respectively.

The Effect in vitro of Flavonoid Aglycones Extracts from Roots of Date Palm Cultivars on Fusarium oxysporum F. Sp. albedinis

Date production in North Africa is facing a worrying slowdown and a decline because of Fusarium wilt or bayoud date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L., caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis (F. o. a). The objective of this work is to study the in vitro effect of flavonoid aglycones extracted from the roots of two cultivars of date palm (one sensitive to bayoud (Deglet Nour) and the other resistant (Takerboucht)) on the growth and production fusaric acid of the pathogen. Results show that during the first week of development of F. o. a on potato dextrose liquid medium, the flavonoid aglycones extracts of the susceptible cultivar roots stimulates mycelial growth as well as conidiogenesis of F.o.a, nevertheless it has no effect on the synthesis of fusaric acid. However, the flavonoid aglycones extract of resistant cultivar roots stimulates mycelial growth and decreases both the number of conidia production and fusaric acid. It therefore appears possible that the resistant cultivar aglycones have two types of action: they either inhibit the synthesis of fusaric acid, or they metabolize this toxin into hydrosoluble product, this is called detoxification.

The Positive Solution for Singular Eigenvalue Problem of One-dimensional p-Laplace Operator

In this paper, by constructing a special cone and using fixed point theorem and fixed point index theorem of cone, we get the existence of positive solution for a class of singular eigenvalue value problems with p-Laplace operator, which improved and generalized the result of related paper.

The Symmetric Solutions for Three-Point Singular Boundary Value Problems of Differential Equation

In this paper, by constructing a special operator and using fixed point index theorem of cone, we get the sufficient conditions for symmetric positive solution of a class of nonlinear singular boundary value problems with p-Laplace operator, which improved and generalized the result of related paper.

Positive Solutions of Initial Value Problem for the Systems of Second Order Integro-Differential Equations in Banach Space

In this paper, by establishing a new comparison result, we investigate the existence of positive solutions for initial value problems of nonlinear systems of second order integro-differential equations in Banach space.We improve and generalize some results  (see[5,6]), and the results is new even in finite dimensional spaces.

Positive Solutions for Three-Point Boundary Value Problems of Third-Order Nonlinear Singular Differential Equations in Banach Space

In this paper, by constructing a special set and utilizing fixed point index theory, we study the existence of solution for singular differential equation in Banach space, which improved and generalize the result of related paper.

Positive Solutions for Boundary Value Problems of Fourth-Order Nonlinear Singular Differential Equations in Banach Space

In this paper, by constructing a special non-empty closed convex set and utilizing M¨onch fixed point theory, we investigate the existence of solution for a class of fourth-order singular differential equation in Banach space, which improved and generalized the result of related paper.

The Symmetric Solutions for Boundary Value Problems of Second-Order Singular Differential Equation

In this paper, by constructing a special operator and using fixed point index theorem of cone, we get the sufficient conditions for symmetric positive solution of a class of nonlinear singular boundary value problems with p-Laplace operator, which improved and generalized the result of related paper.

Mixed Convection Boundary Layer Flow from a Vertical Cone in a Porous Medium Filled with a Nanofluid
The steady mixed convection boundary layer flow from a vertical cone in a porous medium filled with a nanofluid is numerically investigated using different types of nanoparticles as Cu (copper), Al2O3 (alumina) and TiO2 (titania). The boundary value problem is solved by using the shooting technique by reducing it into an ordinary differential equation. Results of interest for the local Nusselt number with various values of the constant mixed convection parameter and nanoparticle volume fraction parameter are evaluated. It is found that dual solutions exist for a certain range of mixed convection parameter.
A Parametric Study on Deoiling Hydrocyclones Flow Field

Hydrocyclones flow field study is conducted by performing a parametric study. Effect of cone angle on deoiling hydrocyclones flow behaviour is studied in this research. Flow field of hydrocyclone is obtained by three-dimensional simulations with OpenFOAM code. Because of anisotropic behaviour of flow inside hydrocyclones LES is a suitable method to predict the flow field since it resolves large scales and model isotropic small scales. Large eddy simulation is used to predict the flow behavior of three different cone angles. Differences in tangential velocity and pressure distribution are reported in some figures.

Incident Shock Wave Interaction with an Axisymmetric Cone Body Placed in Shock Tube

This work presents a numerical simulation of the interaction of an incident shock wave propagates from the left to the right with a cone placed in a tube at shock. The Mathematical model is based on a non stationary, viscous and axisymmetric flow. The Discretization of the Navier-stokes equations is carried out by the finite volume method in the integral form along with the Flux Vector Splitting method of Van Leer. Here, adequate combination of time stepping parameter, CFL coefficient and mesh size level is selected to ensure numerical convergence. The numerical simulation considers a shock tube filled with air. The incident shock wave propagates to the right with a determined Mach number and crosses the cone by leaving behind it a stationary detached shock wave in front of the nose cone. This type of interaction is observed according to the time of flow.

Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch as a New Organic Filler for Electrical Tree Inhibition
The use of synthetic retardants in polymeric insulated cables is not uncommon in the high voltage engineering to study electrical treeing phenomenon. However few studies on organic materials for the same investigation have been carried. .This paper describes the study on the effects of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB) microfiller on the tree initiation and propagation in silicone rubber with different weight percentages (wt %) of filler to insulation bulk material. The weight percentages used were 0 wt % and 1 wt % respectively. It was found that the OPEFB retards the propagation of the electrical treeing development. For tree inception study, the addition of 1(wt %) OPEFB has increase the tree inception voltage of silicone rubber. So, OPEFB is a potential retardant to the initiation and growth of electrical treeing occurring in polymeric materials for high voltage application. However more studies on the effects of physical and electrical properties of OPEFB as a tree retardant material are required.
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