A Genetic Algorithm Approach Considering Zero Injection Bus Constraint Modeling for Optimal Phasor Measurement Unit Placement
This paper presents optimal Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) Placement in network using a genetic algorithm approach as it is infeasible and require high installation cost to place PMUs at every bus in network. This paper proposes optimal PMU allocation considering observability and redundancy utilizing Genetic Algorithm (GA) approach. The nonlinear constraints of buses are modeled to give accurate results. Constraints associated with Zero Injection (ZI) buses and radial buses are modeled to optimize number of locations for PMU placement. GA is modeled with ZI bus constraints to minimize number of locations without losing complete observability. Redundancy of every bus in network is computed to show optimum redundancy of complete system network. The performance of method is measured by Bus Observability Index (BOI) and Complete System Observability Performance Index (CSOPI). MATLAB simulations are carried out on IEEE -14, -30 and -57 bus-systems and compared with other methods in literature survey to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
A Comparative Study of GTC and PSP Algorithms for Mining Sequential Patterns Embedded in Database with Time Constraints
This paper will consider the problem of sequential
mining patterns embedded in a database by handling the time
constraints as defined in the GSP algorithm (level wise algorithms).
We will compare two previous approaches GTC and PSP, that
resumes the general principles of GSP. Furthermore this paper will
discuss PG-hybrid algorithm, that using PSP and GTC. The results
show that PSP and GTC are more efficient than GSP. On the other
hand, the GTC algorithm performs better than PSP. The PG-hybrid
algorithm use PSP algorithm for the two first passes on the database,
and GTC approach for the following scans. Experiments show that
the hybrid approach is very efficient for short, frequent sequences.
Adaptive Motion Planning for 6-DOF Robots Based on Trigonometric Functions
Building an appropriate motion model is crucial for trajectory planning of robots and determines the operational quality directly. An adaptive acceleration and deceleration motion planning based on trigonometric functions for the end-effector of 6-DOF robots in Cartesian coordinate system is proposed in this paper. This method not only achieves the smooth translation motion and rotation motion by constructing a continuous jerk model, but also automatically adjusts the parameters of trigonometric functions according to the variable inputs and the kinematic constraints. The results of computer simulation show that this method is correct and effective to achieve the adaptive motion planning for linear trajectories.
Numerical Simulations on Feasibility of Stochastic Model Predictive Control for Linear Discrete-Time Systems with Random Dither Quantization
The random dither quantization method enables us
to achieve much better performance than the simple uniform
quantization method for the design of quantized control systems.
Motivated by this fact, the stochastic model predictive control
method in which a performance index is minimized subject to
probabilistic constraints imposed on the state variables of systems
has been proposed for linear feedback control systems with random
dither quantization. In other words, a method for solving optimal
control problems subject to probabilistic state constraints for linear
discrete-time control systems with random dither quantization has
been already established. To our best knowledge, however, the
feasibility of such a kind of optimal control problems has not
yet been studied. Our objective in this paper is to investigate the
feasibility of stochastic model predictive control problems for linear
discrete-time control systems with random dither quantization. To
this end, we provide the results of numerical simulations that verify
the feasibility of stochastic model predictive control problems for
linear discrete-time control systems with random dither quantization.
Implementation of Congestion Management Strategies on Arterial Roads: Case Study of Geelong
Natural disasters are inevitable to the biodiversity. Disasters such as flood, tsunami and tornadoes could be brutal, harsh and devastating. In Australia, flooding is a major issue experienced by different parts of the country. In such crisis, delays in evacuation could decide the life and death of the people living in those regions. Congestion management could become a mammoth task if there are no steps taken before such situations. In the past to manage congestion in such circumstances, many strategies were utilised such as converting the road shoulders to extra lanes or changing the road geometry by adding more lanes. However, expansion of road to resolving congestion problems is not considered a viable option nowadays. The authorities avoid this option due to many reasons, such as lack of financial support and land space. They tend to focus their attention on optimising the current resources they possess and use traffic signals to overcome congestion problems. Traffic Signal Management strategy was considered a viable option, to alleviate congestion problems in the City of Geelong, Victoria. Arterial road with signalised intersections considered in this paper and the traffic data required for modelling collected from VicRoads. Traffic signalling software SIDRA used to model the roads, and the information gathered from VicRoads. In this paper, various signal parameters utilised to assess and improve the corridor performance to achieve the best possible Level of Services (LOS) for the arterial road.
Job Shop Scheduling: Classification, Constraints and Objective Functions
The job-shop scheduling problem (JSSP) is an important decision facing those involved in the fields of industry, economics and management. This problem is a class of combinational optimization problem known as the NP-hard problem. JSSPs deal with a set of machines and a set of jobs with various predetermined routes through the machines, where the objective is to assemble a schedule of jobs that minimizes certain criteria such as makespan, maximum lateness, and total weighted tardiness. Over the past several decades, interest in meta-heuristic approaches to address JSSPs has increased due to the ability of these approaches to generate solutions which are better than those generated from heuristics alone. This article provides the classification, constraints and objective functions imposed on JSSPs that are available in the literature.
Stochastic Model Predictive Control for Linear Discrete-Time Systems with Random Dither Quantization
Recently, feedback control systems using random dither
quantizers have been proposed for linear discrete-time systems.
However, the constraints imposed on state and control variables
have not yet been taken into account for the design of feedback
control systems with random dither quantization. Model predictive
control is a kind of optimal feedback control in which control
performance over a finite future is optimized with a performance
index that has a moving initial and terminal time. An important
advantage of model predictive control is its ability to handle
constraints imposed on state and control variables. Based on the
model predictive control approach, the objective of this paper is to
present a control method that satisfies probabilistic state constraints
for linear discrete-time feedback control systems with random dither
quantization. In other words, this paper provides a method for
solving the optimal control problems subject to probabilistic state
constraints for linear discrete-time feedback control systems with
random dither quantization.
Operation Strategy of Multi-Energy Storage System Considering Power System Reliability
As the penetration of Energy Storage System (ESS) increases in the power system due to higher performance and lower cost than ever, ESS is expanding its role to the ancillary service as well as the storage of extra energy from the intermittent renewable energy resources. For multi-ESS with different capacity and SOC level each other, it is required to make the optimal schedule of SOC level use the multi-ESS effectively. This paper proposes the energy allocation method for the multiple battery ESS with reliability constraint, in order to make the ESS discharge the required energy as long as possible. A simple but effective method is proposed in this paper, to satisfy the power for the spinning reserve requirement while improving the system reliability. Modelling of ESS is also proposed, and reliability is evaluated by using the combined reliability model which includes the proposed ESS model and conventional generation one. In the case study, it can be observed that the required power is distributed to each ESS adequately and accordingly, the SOC is scheduled to improve the reliability indices such as Loss of Load Probability (LOLP) and Loss of Load Expectation (LOLE).
Solutions to Probabilistic Constrained Optimal Control Problems Using Concentration Inequalities
Recently, optimal control problems subject to probabilistic
constraints have attracted much attention in many research field. Although
probabilistic constraints are generally intractable in optimization problems,
several methods haven been proposed to deal with probabilistic constraints.
In most methods, probabilistic constraints are transformed to deterministic
constraints that are tractable in optimization problems. This paper examines
a method for transforming probabilistic constraints into deterministic
constraints for a class of probabilistic constrained optimal control problems.
Context, Challenges, Constraints and Strategies of Non-Profit Organisations in Responding to the Needs of Asylum Seekers and Refugees in Cape Town, South Africa
While South Africa has been the chosen host country for over 1,2 million asylum seekers/refugees it has at the same time, been struggling to address the needs of its own people who are still trapped in poverty with little prospects of employment. This limited exploratory, qualitative study was undertaken in Cape Town with a purposive sample of 21 key personnel from various NPOs providing a service to asylum seekers/refugees. Individual in-depth face to face interviews were carried out and the main findings were: Some of the officials at the Department of Home Affairs, health personnel, landlords, school principals, employers, bank officials and police officers were prejudicial in their practices towards asylum seekers/ refugees. The major constraints experienced by NPOs in this study were linked to a lack of funding and minimal government support, strained relationship with the Department of Home Affairs and difficulties in accessing refugees. And finally, the strategies adopted by these NPOs included networking with other service providers, engaging in advocacy, raising community awareness and liaising with government. Thus, more focused intervention strategies are needed to build social cohesion, address prejudices which fuels xenophobic attacks and raise awareness/educate various sectors about refugee rights. Given this burgeoning global problem, social work education and training should include curriculum content on migrant issues. Furthermore, larger studies using mixed methodology approaches would yield more nuanced data and provide for more strategic interventions.
Several Aspects of the Conceptual Framework of Financial Reporting
The conceptual framework of International Financial Reporting Standards determines the basic principles of accounting. The said principles have multiple applications, with professional judgments being one of those. Recognition and assessment of the information contained in financial reporting, especially so the somewhat uncertain events and transactions and/or the ones regarding which there is no standard or interpretation are based on professional judgments. Professional judgments aim at the formulation of expert assumptions regarding the specifics of the circumstances and events to be entered into the report based on the conceptual framework terms and principles. Experts have to make a choice in favor of one of the aforesaid and simulate the situations applying multi-variant accounting estimates and judgment. In making the choice, one should consider all the factors, which may help represent the information in the best way possible. Professional judgment determines the relevance and faithful representation of the presented information, which makes it more useful for the existing and potential investors. In order to assess the prospected net cash flows, the information must be predictable and reliable. The publication contains critical analysis of the aforementioned problems. The fact that the International Financial Reporting Standards are developed continuously makes the issue all the more important and that is another point discussed in the study.
A Survey on the Requirements of University Course Timetabling
Course timetabling problems occur every semester in a university which includes the allocation of resources (subjects, lecturers and students) to a number of fixed rooms and timeslots. The assignment is carried out in a way such that there are no conflicts within rooms, students and lecturers, as well as fulfilling a range of constraints. The constraints consist of rules and policies set up by the universities as well as lecturers’ and students’ preferences of courses to be allocated in specific timeslots. This paper specifically focuses on the preferences of the course timetabling problem in one of the public universities in Malaysia. The demands will be considered into our existing mathematical model to make it more generalized and can be used widely. We have distributed questionnaires to a number of lecturers and students of the university to investigate their demands and preferences for their desired course timetable. We classify the preferences thus converting them to construct one mathematical model that can produce such timetable.
Approximating Maximum Speed on Road from Curvature Information of Bezier Curve
Bezier curves have useful properties for path
generation problem, for instance, it can generate the reference
trajectory for vehicles to satisfy the path constraints. Both algorithms
join cubic Bezier curve segment smoothly to generate the path. Some
of the useful properties of Bezier are curvature. In mathematics,
curvature is the amount by which a geometric object deviates from
being flat, or straight in the case of a line. Another extrinsic example
of curvature is a circle, where the curvature is equal to the reciprocal
of its radius at any point on the circle. The smaller the radius, the
higher the curvature thus the vehicle needs to bend sharply. In this
study, we use Bezier curve to fit highway-like curve. We use
different approach to find the best approximation for the curve so that
it will resembles highway-like curve. We compute curvature value by
analytical differentiation of the Bezier Curve. We will then compute
the maximum speed for driving using the curvature information
obtained. Our research works on some assumptions; first, the Bezier
curve estimates the real shape of the curve which can be verified
visually. Even though, fitting process of Bezier curve does not
interpolate exactly on the curve of interest, we believe that the
estimation of speed are acceptable. We verified our result with the
manual calculation of the curvature from the map.
Conservativeness of Probabilistic Constrained Optimal Control Method for Unknown Probability Distribution
In recent decades, probabilistic constrained optimal
control problems have attracted much attention in many research
fields. Although probabilistic constraints are generally intractable
in an optimization problem, several tractable methods haven been
proposed to handle probabilistic constraints. In most methods,
probabilistic constraints are reduced to deterministic constraints
that are tractable in an optimization problem. However, there is a
gap between the transformed deterministic constraints in case of
known and unknown probability distribution. This paper examines
the conservativeness of probabilistic constrained optimization method
for unknown probability distribution. The objective of this paper is
to provide a quantitative assessment of the conservatism for tractable
constraints in probabilistic constrained optimization with unknown
Redefining the Croatian Economic Sentiment Indicator
Based on Business and Consumer Survey (BCS) data,
the European Commission (EC) regularly publishes the monthly
Economic Sentiment Indicator (ESI) for each EU member state. ESI
is conceptualized as a leading indicator, aimed ad tracking the overall
economic activity. In calculating ESI, the EC employs arbitrarily
chosen weights on 15 BCS response balances. This paper raises the
predictive quality of ESI by applying nonlinear programming to find
such weights that maximize the correlation coefficient of ESI and
year-on-year GDP growth. The obtained results show that the highest
weights are assigned to the response balances of industrial sector
questions, followed by questions from the retail trade sector. This
comes as no surprise since the existing literature shows that the
industrial production is a plausible proxy for the overall Croatian
economic activity and since Croatian GDP is largely influenced by
the aggregate personal consumption.
Optimal Economic Load Dispatch Using Genetic Algorithms
In a practical power system, the power plants are not
located at the same distance from the center of loads and their fuel
costs are different. Also, under normal operating conditions, the
generation capacity is more than the total load demand and losses.
Thus, there are many options for scheduling generation. In an
interconnected power system, the objective is to find the real and
reactive power scheduling of each power plant in such a way as to
minimize the operating cost. This means that the generator’s real and
reactive powers are allowed to vary within certain limits so as to meet
a particular load demand with minimum fuel cost. This is called
optimal power flow problem. In this paper, Economic Load Dispatch
(ELD) of real power generation is considered. Economic Load
Dispatch (ELD) is the scheduling of generators to minimize total
operating cost of generator units subjected to equality constraint of
power balance within the minimum and maximum operating limits of
the generating units. In this paper, genetic algorithms are considered.
ELD solutions are found by solving the conventional load flow
equations while at the same time minimizing the fuel costs.
Some Considerations on UML Class Diagram Formalisation Approaches
Unified Modelling Language (UML) is a software modelling language that is widely used and accepted. One significant drawback, of which, is that the language lacks formality. This makes carrying out any type of rigorous analysis difficult process. Many researchers attempt to introduce their approaches to formalise UML diagrams. However, it is always hard to decide what language and/or approach to use. Therefore, in this paper, we highlight some of the advantages and disadvantages of number of those approaches. We also try to compare different counterpart approaches. In addition, we draw some guidelines to help in choosing the suitable approach. Special concern is given to the formalisation of the static aspects of UML shown is class diagrams.
Non-Smooth Economic Dispatch Solution by Using Enhanced Bat-Inspired Optimization Algorithm
Economic dispatch (ED) has been considered to be one of the key functions in electric power system operation which can help to build up effective generating management plans. The practical ED problem has non-smooth cost function with nonlinear constraints which make it difficult to be effectively solved. This paper presents a novel heuristic and efficient optimization approach based on the new Bat algorithm (BA) to solve the practical non-smooth economic dispatch problem. The proposed algorithm easily takes care of different constraints. In addition, two newly introduced modifications method is developed to improve the variety of the bat population when increasing the convergence speed simultaneously. The simulation results obtained by the proposed algorithms are compared with the results obtained using other recently develop methods available in the literature.
Optimal Risk Reduction in the Railway Industry by Using Dynamic Programming
The paper suggests for the first time the use of dynamic programming techniques for optimal risk reduction in the railway industry. It is shown that by using the concept ‘amount of removed risk by a risk reduction option’, the problem related to optimal allocation of a fixed budget to achieve a maximum risk reduction in the railway industry can be reduced to an optimisation problem from dynamic programming. For n risk reduction options and size of the available risk reduction budget B (expressed as integer number), the worst-case running time of the proposed algorithm is O (n x (B+1)), which makes the proposed method a very efficient tool
for solving the optimal risk reduction problem in the railway industry.
Quantum Computing: A New Era of Computing
Nature conducts its action in a very private manner. To
reveal these actions classical science has done a great effort. But
classical science can experiment only with the things that can be seen
with eyes. Beyond the scope of classical science quantum science
works very well. It is based on some postulates like qubit,
superposition of two states, entanglement, measurement and
evolution of states that are briefly described in the present paper.
One of the applications of quantum computing i.e.
implementation of a novel quantum evolutionary algorithm(QEA) to
automate the time tabling problem of Dayalbagh Educational Institute
(Deemed University) is also presented in this paper. Making a good
timetable is a scheduling problem. It is NP-hard, multi-constrained,
complex and a combinatorial optimization problem. The solution of
this problem cannot be obtained in polynomial time. The QEA uses
genetic operators on the Q-bit as well as updating operator of
quantum gate which is introduced as a variation operator to converge
toward better solutions.
A Direct Probabilistic Optimization Method for Constrained Optimal Control Problem
A new stochastic algorithm called Probabilistic Global Search Johor (PGSJ) has recently been established for global optimization of nonconvex real valued problems on finite dimensional Euclidean space. In this paper we present convergence guarantee for this algorithm in probabilistic sense without imposing any more condition. Then, we jointly utilize this algorithm along with control
parameterization technique for the solution of constrained optimal control problem. The numerical simulations are also included to illustrate the efficiency and effectiveness of the PGSJ algorithm in the solution of control problems.
Perceived Constraints on Sport Participation among Young Koreans in Australia
The purpose of this study was to examine a broader range of sport constraints perceived by young Koreans in Australia who may need to adjust to changing behavioral expectations due to the socio-cultural transitions. Regardless of gender, in terms of quantitative findings, the most important participation constraints within the seven categories were resources, access, interpersonal, affective, religious, socio-cultural, and physical in that order. The most important constraining items were a lack of time, access, information, adaptive skills, and parental and family support in that order. Qualitative research found young Korean’s participation constraints among three categories (time, parental control and interpersonal constraints). It is possible that different ethnic groups would be constrained by different factors; however, this is outside the scope of this study.
Sustainable Urban Development of Slum Prone Area of Dhaka City
Dhaka, the capital city of Bangladesh, is one of the
densely populated cities in the world. Due to rapid urbanization 60%
of its population lives in slum and squatter settlements. The reason
behind this poverty is low economic growth, inequitable distribution
of income, unequal distribution of productive assets, unemployment
and underemployment, high rate of population growth, low level of
human resource development, natural disasters, and limited access to
public services. Along with poverty, creating pressure on urban land,
shelter, plots, open spaces this creates environmental and ecological
degradation. These constraints are mostly resulted from the failures
of the government policies and measures and only Government can
solve this problem. This is now prime time to establish planning and
environmental management policy and sustainable urban
development for the city and for the urban slum dwellers which are
free from eviction, criminals, rent seekers and other miscreants.
Qmulus – A Cloud Driven GPS Based Tracking System for Real-Time Traffic Routing
This paper presents Qmulus- a Cloud Based GPS
Model. Qmulus is designed to compute the best possible route which
would lead the driver to the specified destination in the shortest time
while taking into account real-time constraints. Intelligence
incorporated to Qmulus-s design makes it capable of generating and
assigning priorities to a list of optimal routes through customizable
dynamic updates. The goal of this design is to minimize travel and
cost overheads, maintain reliability and consistency, and implement
scalability and flexibility. The model proposed focuses on
reducing the bridge between a Client Application and a Cloud
service so as to render seamless operations. Qmulus-s system
model is closely integrated and its concept has the potential to be
extended into several other integrated applications making it capable
of adapting to different media and resources.
Autonomous Control of Multiple Mobile Manipulators
This paper considers the autonomous navigation
problem of multiple n-link nonholonomic mobile manipulators within
an obstacle-ridden environment. We present a set of nonlinear
acceleration controllers, derived from the Lyapunov-based control
scheme, which generates collision-free trajectories of the mobile
manipulators from initial configurations to final configurations in a
constrained environment cluttered with stationary solid objects of
different shapes and sizes. We demonstrate the efficiency of the
control scheme and the resulting acceleration controllers of the
mobile manipulators with results through computer simulations of an
Economic Load Dispatch with Daily Load Patterns and Generator Constraints by Particle Swarm Optimization
This paper presents an optimization technique to economic load dispatch (ELD) problems with considering the daily load patterns and generator constraints using a particle swarm optimization (PSO). The objective is to minimize the fuel cost. The optimization problem is subject to system constraints consisting of power balance and generation output of each units. The application of a constriction factor into PSO is a useful strategy to ensure convergence of the particle swarm algorithm. The proposed method is able to determine, the output power generation for all of the power generation units, so that the total constraint cost function is minimized. The performance of the developed methodology is demonstrated by case studies in test system of fifteen-generation units. The results show that the proposed algorithm scan give the minimum total cost of generation while satisfying all the constraints and benefiting greatly from saving in power loss reduction
Efficient Design Optimization of Multi-State Flow Network for Multiple Commodities
The network of delivering commodities has been an important design problem in our daily lives and many transportation applications. The delivery performance is evaluated based on the system reliability of delivering commodities from a source node to a sink node in the network. The system reliability is thus maximized to find the optimal routing. However, the design problem is not simple because (1) each path segment has randomly distributed attributes; (2) there are multiple commodities that consume various path capacities; (3) the optimal routing must successfully complete the delivery process within the allowable time constraints. In this paper, we want to focus on the design optimization of the Multi-State Flow Network (MSFN) for multiple commodities. We propose an efficient approach to evaluate the system reliability in the MSFN with respect to randomly distributed path attributes and find the optimal routing subject to the allowable time constraints. The delivery rates, also known as delivery currents, of the path segments are evaluated and the minimal-current arcs are eliminated to reduce the complexity of the MSFN. Accordingly, the correct optimal routing is found and the worst-case reliability is evaluated. It has been shown that the reliability of the optimal routing is at least higher than worst-case measure. Two benchmark examples are utilized to demonstrate the proposed method. The comparisons between the original and the reduced networks show that the proposed method is very efficient.
Factors Having Impact on Marketing and Improvement Measures in the Real Estate Sector of Turkey
Marketing is an essential issue to the survival of any
real estate company in Turkey. There are some factors which are
constraining the achievements of the marketing and sales strategies in
the Turkey real estate industry. This study aims to identify and
prioritise the most significant constraints to marketing in real estate
sector and new strategies based on those constraints. This study is
based on survey method, where the respondents such as credit
counsellors, real estate investors, consultants, academicians and
marketing representatives in Turkey were asked to rank forty seven
sub-factors according to their levels of impact. The results of Multiattribute
analytical technique indicated that the main subcomponents
having impact on marketing in real estate sector are interest rates, real
estate credit availability, accessibility, company image and consumer
real income, respectively. The identified constraints are expected to
guide the marketing team in a sales-effective way.
Autonomous Control of a Mobile Manipulator
This paper considers the design of a motion planner
that will simultaneously accomplish control and motion planning of a
n-link nonholonomic mobile manipulator, wherein, a n-link
holonomic manipulator is coupled with a nonholonomic mobile
platform, within an obstacle-ridden environment. This planner,
derived from the Lyapunov-based control scheme, generates
collision-free trajectories from an initial configuration to a final
configuration in a constrained environment cluttered with stationary
solid objects of different shapes and sizes. We demonstrate the
efficiency of the control scheme and the resulting acceleration
controllers of the mobile manipulator with results through computer
simulations of an interesting scenario.
GenCos- Optimal Bidding Strategy Considering Market Power and Transmission Constraints: A Cournot-based Model
Restructured electricity markets may provide
opportunities for producers to exercise market power maintaining
prices in excess of competitive levels. In this paper an oligopolistic
market is presented that all Generation Companies (GenCos) bid in a
Cournot model. Genetic algorithm (GA) is applied to obtain
generation scheduling of each GenCo as well as hourly market
clearing prices (MCP). In order to consider network constraints a
multiperiod framework is presented to simulate market clearing
mechanism in which the behaviors of market participants are
modelled through piecewise block curves. A mixed integer linear
programming (MILP) is employed to solve the problem. Impacts of
market clearing process on participants- characteristic and final
market prices are presented. Consequently, a novel multi-objective
model is addressed for security constrained optimal bidding strategy
of GenCos. The capability of price-maker GenCos to alter MCP is
evaluated through introducing an effective-supply curve. In addition,
the impact of exercising market power on the variation of market
characteristics as well as GenCos scheduling is studied.