A Case Study on the Value of Corporate Social Responsibility Systems
The relationship between Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and financial performance (FP) is a subject of great interest that has not yet been resolved. In this work, we have developed a new and original tool to measure this relation. The tool quantifies the value contributed to companies that are committed to CSR. The theoretical model used is the fuzzy discounted cash flow method. Two assumptions have been considered, the first, the company has implemented the IQNet SR10 certification, and the second, the company has not implemented that certification. For the first one, the growth rate used for the time horizon is the rate maintained by the company after obtaining the IQNet SR10 certificate. For the second one, both, the growth rates company prior to the implementation of the certification, and the evolution of the sector will be taken into account. By using triangular fuzzy numbers, it is possible to deal adequately with each company’s forecasts as well as the information corresponding to the sector. Once the annual growth rate of the sales is obtained, the profit and loss accounts are generated from the annual estimate sales. For the remaining elements of this account, their regression with the nets sales has been considered. The difference between these two valuations, made in a fuzzy environment, allows obtaining the value of the IQNet SR10 certification. Although this study presents an innovative methodology to quantify the relation between CSR and FP, the authors are aware that only one company has been analyzed. This is precisely the main limitation of this study which in turn opens up an interesting line for future research: to broaden the sample of companies.
Corporate Governance and Corporate Social Responsibility: Research on the Interconnection of Both Concepts and Its Impact on Non-Profit Organizations
The aim of non-profit organizations (NPO) is to provide services and goods for its clientele, with profit being a minor objective. By having this definition as the basic purpose of doing business, it is obvious that the goal of an organisation is to serve several bottom lines and not only the financial one. This approach is underpinned by the non-distribution constraint which means that NPO are allowed to make profits to a certain extent, but not to distribute them. The advantage is that there are no single shareholders who might have an interest in the prosperity of the organisation: there is no pie to divide. The gained profits remain within the organisation and will be reinvested in purposeful projects. Good governance is mandatory to support the aim of NPOs. Looking for a measure of good governance the principals of corporate governance (CG) will come in mind. The purpose of CG is direction and control, and in the field of NPO, CG is enlarged to consider the relationship to all important stakeholders who have an impact on the organisation. The recognition of more relevant parties than the shareholder is the link to corporate social responsibility (CSR). It supports a broader view of the bottom line: It is no longer enough to know how profits are used but rather how they are made. Besides, CSR addresses the responsibility of organisations for their impact on society. When transferring the concept of CSR to the non-profit area it will become obvious that CSR with its distinctive features will match the aims of NPOs. As a consequence, NPOs who apply CG apply also CSR to a certain extent. The research is designed as a comprehensive theoretical and empirical analysis. First, the investigation focuses on the theoretical basis of both concepts. Second, the similarities and differences are outlined and as a result the interconnection of both concepts will show up. The contribution of this research is manifold: The interconnection of both concepts when applied to NPOs has not got any attention in science yet. CSR and governance as integrated concept provides a lot of advantages for NPOs compared to for-profit organisations which are in a steady justification to show the impact they might have on the society. NPOs, however, integrate economic and social aspects as starting point. For NPOs CG is not a mere concept of compliance but rather an enhanced concept integrating a lot of aspects of CSR. There is no “either-nor” between the concepts for NPOs.
A Content Analysis of Sustainability Reporting to Frame the Heterogeneity in Corporate Environment Sustainability Practices
While extant research has examined many aspects of differential corporate environmental outcomes and behavior, a holistic and integrated view of heterogeneity in corporate environment sustainability (CES) practices remains a puzzle to be fully unraveled – its extent and nature, its relationship to macro or micro level influences, or strategic orientations. Such a perspective would be meaningful for the field given notable strides in CES practices and the corporate social responsibility agenda over the last two decades, in the backdrop of altered global socio-political sensitivities and technological advances. To partly address this gap, this exploratory research adopted a content analysis approach to code patterns in the sustainability disclosures of the 160 largest global firms spread over 8 years. The sample of firms spanned seven industries, nine countries and three continents thereby presenting data rich and diverse enough in several dimensions to be representative of global heterogeneity in CES practices. Through a factor analysis of the coded data, four strategic CES orientations were extracted through the analysis, that effectively straddles most of the variation observed in current CES practices – one that seeks to reduce environmental damage on account of the firm’s operations, another that prioritizes minimalism, a third that focuses on broader ecological status quo, and a final one that champions the ‘business of green’, extending the CES agenda beyond the firm’s boundaries. These environment sustainability strategy orientations are further examined to elicit prominent patterns and explore plausible antecedents.
The Management Accountant’s Roles for Creation of Corporate Shared Value
This study investigates the management accountant’s roles that link with the creation of corporate shared value to enable more effective decision-making and improve the information needs of stakeholders. Mixed method is employed to collect using triangulation for credibility. A quantitative approach is employed to conduct a survey of 200 Thai companies providing annual reports in the Stock Exchange of Thailand. The results of the study reveal that environmental and social data incorporated in a corporate social responsibility (CSR) disclosure are based on the indicators of the Global Reporting Initiatives (GRI) at a statistically significant level of 0.01. Environmental and social indicators in CSR are associated with environmental and social data disclosed in the annual report to support stakeholders’ and the public’s interests that are addressed and show that a significant relationship between environmental and social in CSR disclosures and the information in annual reports is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
Contemplating Preference Ratings of Corporate Social Responsibility Practices for Supply Chain Performance System Implementation
The objective of this research work is to identify and analyze the significant corporate social responsibility (CSR) practices with an aim to improve the supply chain performance of automobile industry located at National Capital Region (NCR) of India. To achieve the objective, 6 CSR practices have been considered and analyzed using expert’s preference rating (EPR) approach. The considered CSR practices are namely, Top management and employee awareness about CSR (P1), Employee involvement in social and environmental problems (P2), Protection of human rights (P3), Waste reduction, energy saving and water conservation (P4), Proper visibility of CSR guidelines (P5) and Broad perception towards CSR initiatives (P6). The outcomes of this research may help mangers in decision making processes and framing polices for SCP implementation under CSR context.
Corporate Social Responsibility and Its Impact on Corporate Governance: Comparative Study between Listed Companies on Bucharest and Bombay Stock Exchange
This article is a research on corporate governance. The aim of the study is to focus a special attention on the importance of corporate social responsibility and corporate governance, which are relevant, indeed necessary, for organizations. In this regard, we analyzed the corporate social responsibility in the context of corporate governance for companies listed on Bucharest and Bombay Stock Exchange. Therefore, we bring into the spotlight some differences between India and Romania linked with the importance ascribed to corporate social responsibility of a company. We presented the results of the demarche and we concluded suggestions regarding further research in this area. The study increases the awareness, identifies and articulates desirable behaviors, which are not intended to be exhaustive.
Assessment Tool for Social Responsibility Performance According to the ISO 26000
The present paper is concerned with a statistical approach involving latent and manifest variables applied in order to assess the organization's social responsibility performance. The main idea is to develop an assessment tool and a measurement of the Social Responsibility Performance, enabling the company to characterize her performance regarding to the ISO 26000 standard's seven core subjects. For this, we conceptualize a structural equation modeling (SEM) which describes various causal connections between the Social Responsibility’s components. The SEM’s resolution is based on the Partial Least squares (PLS) method and the implementation is running in the XLSTAT software.
Creating Shared Value: A Paradigm Shift from Corporate Social Responsibility to Creating Shared Value
Businesses operating in the modern business world are faced with varying challenges; amongst which is the need to ensure that they are performing their societal function of being responsible in the society in which they operate. This responsibility to society is generally termed as corporate social responsibility. For many years, the practice of corporate social responsibility (CSR) was solely philanthropic, where organizations gave ‘charity’ or ‘alms’ to society, without any link to the organization’s mission and objectives. However, there has arisen a shift in the application of CSR from an act of philanthropy to a strategy with a business model engaged in by organizations to create a win-win situation of performing their societal obligation, whilst simultaneously performing their economic obligation. In more recent times, the term has moved from CSR to creating shared value, which is simply corporate policies and practices that enhance the competitiveness of a business organization while simultaneously advancing social and economic conditions in the communities in which the company operates. Creating shared value has in more recent light found more meaning in underdeveloped countries, faced with deep societal challenges that businesses can solve whilst creating economic value. This study thus reviews literature on CSR, conceptualizing the shift to creating shared value and finally viewing its potential significance in Africa’s development.
An Analysis of Institutional Environments on Corporate Social Responsibility Practices in Nigerian Renewable Energy Firms
Several studies have proposed a one-size fit all approach to Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) practices, such that CSR as it applies to developed countries is adapted to developing countries, ignoring the differing institutional environments (such as the regulative, economic, social and political environments), which affects the profitability and practices of businesses operating in them. CSR as it applies to filling institutional gaps in developing countries, was categorized into four themes: environmental protection, product and service innovation, social innovation and local cluster development. Based on the four themes, the study employed a qualitative research approach through the use of interviews and review of available publications to study the influence of institutional environments on CSR practices engaged in by three renewable energy firms operating in Nigeria. Over the course of three 60-minutes sessions with the top management and selected workers of the firms, four propositions were made: regulatory environment influences environmental protection practice of Nigerian renewable firms, economic environment influences product and service innovation practice of Nigerian renewable energy firms, the social environment impacts on social innovation in Nigerian renewable energy firms, and political environment affects local cluster development practice of Nigerian renewable energy firms. It was also observed that beyond institutional environments, the international exposure of an organization’s managers reflected in their approach to CSR. This finding on the influence of international exposure on CSR practices creates an area for further study. Insights from this paper are set to help policy makers in developing countries, CSR managers, and future researchers.
Relationships between Social Entrepreneurship, CSR and Social Innovation: In Theory and Practice
The shared goal of social entrepreneurship, corporate social responsibility and social innovation is the advancement of society. The business model of social enterprises is characterized by unique strategies based on the competencies of the entrepreneurs, and is not aimed primarily at the maximization of profits, but rather at carrying out goals for the benefit of society. Corporate social responsibility refers to the active behavior of a company, by which it can create new solutions to meet the needs of society, either on its own or in cooperation with other social stakeholders. The objectives of this article are to define concepts, describe and integrate relevant theoretical models, develop a model and introduce some examples of international practice that can inspire initiatives for social development.
Corporate Philanthropy as a Source of Competitive Advantage
Objective: The paper aims to present various sources of competitive advantage which may occur when an enterprise strategically applies its concept of corporate philanthropy. Methodology: The review of the literature and available reports on the research regarding corporate philanthropy. Results: Strategic philanthropy is a positive phenomenon. Unfortunately, enterprises in Poland do not see all positive sides of such activities yet. Three kinds of corporate philanthropy may be described. They are to fulfil a social duty, improve the company reputation and gain a competitive edge. Practical implications: Showing enterprises the advantages of taking philanthropic actions, in particular, a large role of strategic philanthropy in gaining a competitive edge in the market as well as how to avoid negative consequences of corporate philanthropy. The paper presents corporate philanthropy on a few layers: as a CSR element, actions generating values in products, actions improving a corporate image in the market, altruist actions of employees.
The Effect of Corporate Social Responsibility in the National Commercial Bank in Saudi Arabia
The aim of the paper is to investigate the effect of
corporate social responsibility (CSR) CSR on the National
Commercial Bank (NCB) in Saudi Arabia. In order to achieve this, a
case study was made of the CSR activities of this bank from the
perspective of its branch managers. The NCB was chosen as it was
one of the first Saudi banks to engage in CSR and currently has a
wide range of CSR initiatives. A qualitative research method was
used. Open-ended questionnaires were administered to eighty branch
managers of the NCB, with fifty-five usable questionnaires returned
and twenty managers were interviewed as part of the primary
research. Data from both questionnaires and interviews were
analysed using qualitative content analysis. Six themes emerged from
the questionnaire findings were used to develop the interview
questions. These themes are the following: Awareness of employees
about CSR in the NCB; CSR activities as a type of investment;
Government and media support; Increased employee loyalty in the
NCB; Prestige and profit to the NCB; and View of CSR in Islam.
This paper makes a theoretical contribution in that it investigates and
increases understanding of the effect of CSR on the NCB in Saudi
Arabia. In addition, it makes a practical contribution by making
recommendations which can support the development of CSR in the
NCB. A limitation of the paper is that it is a case study of only one
bank. It is therefore recommended that future research could be
conducted with other banks in Saudi Arabia, or indeed, with a range
of other types of firm within the financial services area in Saudi
Arabia. In this way, the same issues could be explored but with a
greater potential generalisability of findings of CSR within the Saudi
Arabian financial services industry. In addition, this paper takes a
qualitative approach and it is suggested that future research be carried
out using mixed methods, which could provide a greater depth of
Mediating Role of Social Responsibility on the Relationship between Consumer Awareness of Green Marketing and Purchase Intentions
This research aims to examine the influence of mediating effect of corporate social responsibility on the relationship between consumer awareness of green marketing and purchase intentions in the retail setting. Data from 200 valid questionnaires was analyzed using the partial least squares (PLS) approach for the analysis of structural equation models with SmartPLS computer program version 2.0 as research data does not necessarily have a multivariate normal distribution and is less sensitive to sample size than other covariance approaches. PLS results revealed that corporate social responsibility partially mediated the link between consumer awareness of green marketing and purchase intentions of the product in the retail setting. Marketing managers should allocate a sufficient portion of their budget to appropriate corporate social responsibility activities by engaging in voluntary programs for positive return on investment leading to increased business profitability and long run business sustainability. The outcomes of the mediating effects of corporate social responsibility add a new impetus to the growing literature and preceding discoveries on consumer green marketing awareness, which is inadequately researched in the Malaysian setting. Direction for future research is also presented.
A Framework for University Social Responsibility and Sustainability: The Case of South Valley University, Egypt
The environmental, cultural, social, and technological
changes have led higher education institutes to question their
traditional roles. Many declarations and frameworks highlight the
importance of fulfilling social responsibility of higher education
institutes. The study aims at developing a framework of university
social responsibility and sustainability (USR&S) with focus on South
Valley University (SVU) as a case study of Egyptian Universities.
The study used meetings with 12 vice deans of community services
and environmental affairs on social responsibility and environmental
issues. The proposed framework integrates social responsibility with
strategic management through the establishment and maintenance of
the vision, mission, values, goals and management systems;
elaboration of policies; provision of actions; evaluation of services
and development of social collaboration with stakeholders to meet
current and future needs of the community and environment. The
framework links between different stakeholders internally and
externally using communication and reporting tools. The results show
that SVU integrates social responsibility and sustainability in its
strategic plans. It has policies and actions however fragmented and
lack of appropriate structure and budgeting. The proposed framework
could be valuable for researchers and decision makers of the
Egyptian Universities. The study proposed recommendations and
highlighted building on the results and conducting future research.
Opportunities and Options for Government to Promote Corporate Social Responsibility in the Czech Republic
The concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in the Czech Republic has evolved notably during the last few years and an issue that started as an interest- and motive-based activity for businesses is becoming more commonplace. Governments have a role to play in ensuring that corporations behave according to the rules and norms of society and can legislate, foster, collaborate with businesses and endorse good practice in order to facilitate the development of CSR. The purpose of this paper is to examine the opportunities and options of CSR in government policy and research its relevance to a business sector. An increasing number of companies is engaging in responsible activities, the public awareness of CSR is rising, and customers are giving higher importance to CSR of companies in their choice. By drawing on existing CSR approach in Czech and understanding of CSR are demonstrated. The paper provides an overview, more detailed government approach of CSR.
Corporate Social Responsibility in an Experimental Market
We present results from experimental price-setting oligopolies in which green firms undertake different levels of energy-saving investments motivated by public subsidies and demand-side advantages. We find that consumers reveal higher willingness to pay for greener sellers’ products. This observation in conjunction to the fact that greener sellers set higher prices is compatible with the use and interpretation of energy-saving behaviour as a differentiation strategy. However, sellers do not exploit the resulting advantage through sufficiently high price-cost margins, because they seem trapped into “run to stay still” competition. Regarding the use of public subsidies to energy-saving sellers we uncover an undesirable crowding-out effect of consumers’ intrinsic tendency to support green manufacturers. Namely, consumers may be less willing to support a green seller whose energy-saving strategy entails a direct financial benefit. Finally, we disentangle two alternative motivations for consumer’s attractions to pro-social firms; first, the self-interested recognition of the firm’s contribution to the public and private welfare and, second, the need to compensate a firm for the cost entailed in each pro-social action. Our results show the prevalence of the former over the latter.
Cost Benefit Analysis and Adjustments of Corporate Social Responsibility in the Airline Industry
The decision-making processes in Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) among firms in the airlines industry borders on the benefits that accrue to firms through those investments. The crux of the matter is how firms can quantify the benefits derived from such investments. This paper analyses the cost benefit adjustment strategies for firms in the airline industry in their CSR strategy adoption and implementation. The paper discusses the CBA model in order to understand the ways airlines can reduce costs and increase returns on CSR, or balance the cost and benefits. The analysis indicates that, economic concepts especially the CBA are useful, though they are not without challenges. This paper concludes that the CBA model gives a basic understanding of the motivations for investing in intangible assets like CSR. It sets the tone for formulating relevant hypothesis in empirical studies in investment in CSR and other intangible assets in business operations.
Using Strategic CSR to Achieve the Hybrid Middle Ground in Social Entrepreneurship: The Case of Telenor Hungary
To be considered a socially entrepreneurial organization today requires achieving what can be termed a “hybrid middle ground” equilibrium, comprising of economic as well as social sustainability. This middle ground requires some blend of both business and social commitments. In this paper, we use the case of Hungary's second ranked mobile operator, Telenor Hungary to illustrate an example of a company that is moving to the hybrid middle ground by transitioning from a for-profit company to a socially responsible business using the concept of strategic CSR. In this line of thinking, the organization explicitly supports programs and initiatives that have a direct link to the core business and bring operational and/or financial advantages for the company, while creating a positive social and/or environmental impact. The important lessons learned from the company transition are also discussed.
Ethics Perception of Pharmaceutical Companies
The paper is intended to declare and apply ethics, i. e.
moral principles, rules in marketing environment. Ethical behavior of
selected pharmaceutical companies in the Slovak Republic is the
object of our research. The aim of our research is to determine
perception of ethical behavior of the pharmaceutical industry in
Slovakia by the medicine representatives in comparison with the
assessment of doctors and patients. The experimental sample
included 90 participants who were divided into three groups:
medicine representatives of the pharmaceutical companies (N=30),
doctors (N=30) and patients (N=30). The research method was a
Questionnaire of ethical behavior, created by us, that describes
individual areas included in the Code of ethics of the pharmaceutical
industry in Slovakia. The results showed influence of professional
status on ethical behavior perception, not gender. Higher perception
was indicated at patients rather than doctors and medicine
Institutionalising Corporate Social Responsibility: A Study on the CSR Statements on Corporate Websites of Malaysian and Singapore Corporations
The purpose of this paper is to examine the current
state of corporate social responsibility statements on corporate
websites of Malaysian and Singaporean corporations and analyze
how the CSR statements contribute in building a unique corporate
identity of corporations. Content analysis is employed to examine the
websites of Malaysian and Singaporean consumer corporations. It is
believed that generally most companies tend to publish and
communicate their CSR statements visibly to general stakeholders.
However, there is a significantly different outcome of the articulation
of CSR on practices on websites between Malaysian and Singaporean
consumer corporations. A number of Singaporean organizations were
found less concerned with CSR practices as compared to Malaysian
organizations. The findings indicate a need for corporations in
Malaysia and Singapore to orchestrate their core competence of CSR
activities in order to develop a unique corporate identity in a global
Employees- Perceptions and Expectations toward Corporate Social Responsibility: A Case Study of Private Company Employees in Bangkok Metropolitan Area
This research aimed to study employees- perceptions and expectations toward their organization-s corporate social responsibility (CSR), to study the differences between employees- personal factors and level of perceptions and expectations toward CSR, and to study the relationship between employees- perceptions and expectations toward CSR. Purposive sampling and questionnaire were applied to collect information from 400 private company employees in Bangkok metropolitan area. The results revealed that employees had “high" level of perceptions and expectations toward CSR, of which the highest level were given on the area of “corporate governance and transparency". It was found that there was different level of expectations of employees with different period of employment, position and employment (by listed and non-listed companies). Employees of different age and period of employment also had different level of expectations. Employees- perceptions were correlated with their expectations toward CSR.
Measuring the CSR Company-Stakeholder Fit
As a company competitiveness depends more and more on the relationship with its stakeholders, the topic of companystakeholder fit is becoming increasingly important. This fit affects the extent to which a stakeholder perceives CSR company commitment, values and behaviors and, therefore, stakeholder identification in a company and his/her loyalty to it. Consequently, it is important to measure the alignment or the gap between stakeholder CSR demands, values, preferences and perceptions, and the company CSR disclosed commitment, values and policies. In this paper, in order to assess the company-stakeholder fit about corporate responsibility, an innovative CSR fit positioning matrix is proposed. This matrix is based on the measurement of a company CSR disclosed commitment and stakeholder perceived and required commitment. The matrix is part of a more complex methodology based on Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) indicators, content analysis and stakeholder questionnaires. This methodology provides appropriate indications for helping companies to achieve CSR company-stakeholder fit, by leveraging both CSR commitment and communication. Moreover, it could be used by top management for comparing different companies and stakeholders, and for planning specific CSR strategies, policies and activities.
A Positioning Matrix to Assess and to Develop CSR Strategies
A company CSR commitment, as stated in its Social
Report is, actually, perceived by its stakeholders?And in what
measure? Moreover, are stakeholders satisfied with the company
CSR efforts? Indeed, business returns from Corporate Social
Responsibility (CSR) practices, such as company reputation and
customer loyalty, depend heavily on how stakeholders perceive the
company social conduct. In this paper, we propose a methodology to
assess a company CSR commitment based on Global Reporting
Initiative (GRI) indicators, Content Analysis and a CSR positioning
matrix. We evaluate three aspects of CSR: the company commitment
disclosed through its Social Report; the company commitment
perceived by its stakeholders; the CSR commitment that stakeholders
require to the company. The positioning of the company under study
in the CSR matrix is based on the comparison among the three
commitment aspects (disclosed, perceived, required) and it allows
assessment and development of CSR strategies.
Corporate Social Responsibility and Creating Shared Value: Case of Latvia
Creating shared value (CSV) is a newly introduced
concept whose essence and expressions, relationship to Corporate
social responsibility (CSR) and implications for the business and
society is now at the core of management and social responsibility
debates of the scientific world. The aim of the paper is to gain clearer
understanding of the CSR and CSV concepts, their implementation
and role in sustainable development of organizations in Latvia. In this
paper the authors discuss and compare the two conceptsand, based on
the results of Sustainability Index (SI) initiative and analysis of
publically available company information, evaluate their
implementation in Latvia and draw conclusions on the development
trends and potential of these approaches in Latvian market.
Environmental Performance Assessment Model as a Sustainability Decision Tool for Small and Middle Sized Enterprises
Paper deals with environmental metrics and assessment systems devoted to Small and Medium Sized Enterprises. Authors are presenting proposed assessment model which has an ability to discover current environmental strengths and weaknesses of Small and Middle Sized Enterprise. Suggested model has also an ambition to become a Sustainability Decision Tool. Model is able to identify "best environmental devision" in the company, and to quantify how this decision contributed into overall environmental improvement. Authors understand environmental improvements as environmental innovations (product, process and organizational). Suggested model is based on its own concept; however, authors are also utilizing already existing environmental assessment tools.
CSR of top Portuguese Companies: Relation between Social Performance and Economic Performance
Modern times call organizations to have an active role
in the social arena, through Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR).
The objective of this research was to test the hypothesis that there is a
positive relation between social performance and economic
performance, and if there is a positive correlation between social
performance and financial-economic performance. To test these
theories a measure of social performance, based on the Green Book
of Commission of the European Community, was used in a group of
nineteen Portuguese top companies, listed on the PSI 20 index,
through a period of five years, since 2005 to 2009. A clusters
analysis was applied to group companies by their social performance
and to compare and correlate their economic performance. Results
indicate that companies that had a better social performance are not
the ones who had a better economic performance, and suggest that
the middle path might provide a good relation CSR-Economic
performance, as a basis to a sustainable development.
Identifying and Adopting Latter Instruments Determining the Sustainable Company Competitiveness
Nowadays companies in all sectors are looking for the
sources of competitive advantages. Holistic marketing approach
searches for their emergence based on the integration of all
components and elements across the organization. Modern marketing
sees the sources of competitive advantage in implementing the latest
managerial practices, motivation, intelligent project management,
knowledge management, collaborative marketing, CSR and, in the
recent years, also in the business process optimization. With the use
of modern tools including business process management and business
process modelling the company can markedly increase its internal
efficiency which can lead not only to lowering the costs but to
creating the environment for optimal customer care, positive
corporate culture and for origination of innovations as well. In the
article the authors analyze the recent trend in this area and introduce
suggestions to companies to identify and optimize the key processes
that have a significant impact of the company´s competitiveness.
Intellectual Capital Research through Corporate Social Responsibility: (Re) Constructing the Agenda
The business strategy of any company wanting to be
competitive on the market should be designed around the concept of
intangibles, with an increasingly decisive role in knowledge transfer
of the biggest corporations. Advancing the research in these areas,
this study integrates the two approaches, emphasizing the
relationships between the components of intellectual capital and
corporate social responsibility. The three dimensions of intellectual
capital in terms of sustainability requirements are debated. The paper
introduces the concept of sustainable intellectual capital and debates
it within an assessment model designed on the base of key
performance indicators. The results refer to the assessment of
possible ways for including the information on intellectual capital
and corporate responsibility within the corporate strategy. The
conclusions enhance the need for companies to be ready to support
the integration of this type of information the knowledge transfer
process, in order to develop competitive advantage on the market.
Islamic Corporate Social Responsibility, Corporate Reputation and Performance
This study examines the effect of Islamic Corporate
Social Responsibility disclosure and on corporate reputation as well
as performance. These relationships are examined based on content
analysis of of annual reports of 17 Islamic banks in Malaysia for
2008, 2009 and 2010. Results of this study provide evidence that
CSR activities communicated in corporate annual reports are
significantly positively related with corporate reputation as well as
firm performance. These results indicate that CSR activities and
disclosure from Islamic perspectives are equally important business
strategies in creating continuous superior performance for
organisations. In addition, it also highlights that organisations need to
develop a stakeholder orientation particularly in an environment of
increasing pressure from jurisdictions dominated by Islamic
stakeholders on organisations engaging in Islamic products to
increase their social responsibilities from the Islamic perspectives.
Corporate Sustainable Development Assessment Base on the Corporate Social Responsibility
With the resource exhaustion, bad affections of human
activities and the awakening of the human rights, the corporate social
responsibility became popular corporate strategy achieving
sustainable development of both corporation and society. The issue of
Guideline of Chinese Corporate Social Responsibility Report
promotes greatly corporation to take social responsibility. This paper
built the index system according to this guideline and takes the textile
industry as an example, uses the analytical hierarchy process to
identify the weightings of different responsibilities of corporation to
guide the corporate social responsibility performance assessment.