Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 4

4
10006923
Data Projects for “Social Good”: Challenges and Opportunities
Abstract:
One of the application fields for data analysis techniques and technologies gaining momentum is the area of social good or “common good”, covering cases related to humanitarian crises, global health care, or ecology and environmental issues, among others. The promotion of data-driven projects in this field aims at increasing the efficacy and efficiency of social initiatives, improving the way these actions help humanity in general and people in need in particular. This application field, however, poses its own barriers and challenges when developing data-driven projects, lagging behind in comparison with other scenarios. These challenges derive from aspects such as the scope and scale of the social issue to solve, cultural and political barriers, the skills of main stakeholders and the technological resources available, the motivation to be engaged in such projects, or the ethical and legal issues related to sensitive data. This paper analyzes the application of data projects in the field of social good, reviewing its current state and noteworthy initiatives, and presenting a framework covering the key aspects to analyze in such projects. The goal is to provide guidelines to understand the main challenges and opportunities for this type of data project, as well as identifying the main differential issues compared to “classical” data projects in general. A case study is presented on the initial steps and stakeholder analysis of a data project for the inclusion of refugees in the city of Frankfurt, Germany, in order to empirically confront the framework with a real example.
3
10002850
Dynamic Power Reduction in Sequential Circuits Using Look Ahead Clock Gating Technique
Abstract:
In this paper, a novel Linear Feedback Shift Register (LFSR) with Look Ahead Clock Gating (LACG) technique is presented to reduce the power consumption in modern processors and System-on-Chip. Clock gating is a predominant technique used to reduce unwanted switching of clock signals. Several clock gating techniques to reduce the dynamic power have been developed, of which LACG is predominant. LACG computes the clock enabling signals of each flip-flop (FF) one cycle ahead of time, based on the present cycle data of the flip-flops on which it depends. It overcomes the timing problems in the existing clock gating methods like datadriven clock gating and Auto-Gated flip-flops (AGFF) by allotting a full clock cycle for the determination of the clock enabling signals. Further to reduce the power consumption in LACG technique, FFs can be grouped so that they share a common clock enabling signal. Simulation results show that the novel grouped LFSR with LACG achieves 15.03% power savings than conventional LFSR with LACG and 44.87% than data-driven clock gating.
Keywords:
2
17386
Empirical Process Monitoring Via Chemometric Analysis of Partially Unbalanced Data
Authors:
Abstract:

Real-time or in-line process monitoring frameworks are designed to give early warnings for a fault along with meaningful identification of its assignable causes. In artificial intelligence and machine learning fields of pattern recognition various promising approaches have been proposed such as kernel-based nonlinear machine learning techniques. This work presents a kernel-based empirical monitoring scheme for batch type production processes with small sample size problem of partially unbalanced data. Measurement data of normal operations are easy to collect whilst special events or faults data are difficult to collect. In such situations, noise filtering techniques can be helpful in enhancing process monitoring performance. Furthermore, preprocessing of raw process data is used to get rid of unwanted variation of data. The performance of the monitoring scheme was demonstrated using three-dimensional batch data. The results showed that the monitoring performance was improved significantly in terms of detection success rate of process fault.

1
6574
Data-driven ASIC for Multichannel Sensors
Abstract:

An approach and its implementation in 0.18 m CMOS process of the multichannel ASIC for capacitive (up to 30 pF) sensors are described in the paper. The main design aim was to study an analog data-driven architecture. The design was done for an analog derandomizing function of the 128 to 16 structure. That means that the ASIC structure should provide a parallel front-end readout of 128 input analog sensor signals and after the corresponding fast commutation with appropriate arbitration logic their processing by means of 16 output chains, including analog-to-digital conversion. The principal feature of the ASIC is a low power consumption within 2 mW/channel (including a 9-bit 20Ms/s ADC) at a maximum average channel hit rate not less than 150 kHz.

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