Design of Parity-Preserving Reversible Logic Signed Array Multipliers
Reversible logic as a new favorable design domain can be used for various fields especially creating quantum computers because of its speed and intangible power consumption. However, its susceptibility to a variety of environmental effects may lead to yield the incorrect results. In this paper, because of the importance of multiplication operation in various computing systems, some novel reversible logic array multipliers are proposed with error detection capability by incorporating the parity-preserving gates. The new designs are presented for two main parts of array multipliers, partial product generation and multi-operand addition, by exploiting the new arrangements of existing gates, which results in two signed parity-preserving array multipliers. The experimental results reveal that the best proposed 4×4 multiplier in this paper reaches 12%, 24%, and 26% enhancements in the number of constant inputs, number of required gates, and quantum cost, respectively, compared to previous design. Moreover, the best proposed design is generalized for n×n multipliers with general formulations to estimate the main reversible logic criteria as the functions of the multiplier size.
Investigation of Utilizing L-Band Horn Antenna in Landmine Detection
Landmine detection is an important and yet challenging problem remains to be solved. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is a powerful and rapidly maturing technology for subsurface threat identification. The detection methodology of GPR depends mainly on the contrast of the dielectric properties of the searched target and its surrounding soil. This contrast produces a partial reflection of the electromagnetic pulses that are being transmitted into the soil and then being collected by the GPR. One of the most critical hardware components for the performance of GPR is the antenna system. The current paper explores the design and simulation of a pyramidal horn antenna operating at L-band frequencies (1- 2 GHz) to detect a landmine. A prototype model of the GPR system setup is developed to simulate full wave analysis of the electromagnetic fields in different soil types. The contrast in the dielectric permittivity of the landmine and the sandy soil is the most important parameter to be considered for detecting the presence of landmine. L-band horn antenna is proved to be well-versed in the investigation of landmine detection.
Non-Revenue Water Management in Palestine
Water is the most important and valuable resource not only for human life but also for all living things on the planet. The water supply utilities should fulfill the water requirement quantitatively and qualitatively. Drinking water systems are exposed to both natural (hurricanes and flood) and manmade hazards (risks) that are common in Palestine. Non-Revenue Water (NRW) is a manmade risk which remains a major concern in Palestine, as the NRW levels are estimated to be at a high level. In this research, Hebron city water distribution network was taken as a case study to estimate and audit the NRW levels. The research also investigated the state of the existing water distribution system in the study area by investigating the water losses and obtained more information on NRW prevention and management practices. Data and information have been collected from the Palestinian Water Authority (PWA) and Hebron Municipality (HM) archive. In addition to that, a questionnaire has been designed and administered by the researcher in order to collect the necessary data for water auditing. The questionnaire also assessed the views of stakeholder in PWA and HM (staff) on the current status of the NRW in the Hebron water distribution system. The important result obtained by this research shows that NRW in Hebron city was high and in excess of 30%. The main factors that contribute to NRW were the inaccuracies in billing volumes, unauthorized consumption, and the method of estimating consumptions through faulty meters. Policy for NRW reduction is available in Palestine; however, it is clear that the number of qualified staff available to carry out the activities related to leak detection is low, and that there is a lack of appropriate technologies to reduce water losses and undertake sufficient system maintenance, which needs to be improved to enhance the performance of the network and decrease the level of NRW losses.
Research and Design on a Portable Intravehicular Ultrasonic Leak Detector for Manned Spacecraft
Based on the acoustics cascade sound theory, the mechanism of air leak sound producing, transmitting and signal detecting has been analyzed. A formula of the sound power, leak size and air pressure in the spacecraft has been built, and the relationship between leak sound pressure and receiving direction and distance has been studied. The center frequency in millimeter diameter leak is more than 20 kHz. The situation of air leaking from spacecraft to space has been simulated and an experiment of different leak size and testing distance and direction has been done. The sound pressure is in direct proportion to the cosine of the angle of leak to sensor. The portable ultrasonic leak detector has been developed, whose minimal leak rate is 10-1 Pa·m3/s, the testing radius is longer than 20 mm, the mass is less than 1.0 kg, and the electric power is less than 2.2 W.
Moving Object Detection Using Histogram of Uniformly Oriented Gradient
Moving object detection (MOD) is an important issue in advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS). There are two important moving objects, pedestrians and scooters in ADAS. In real-world systems, there exist two important challenges for MOD, including the computational complexity and the detection accuracy. The histogram of oriented gradient (HOG) features can easily detect the edge of object without invariance to changes in illumination and shadowing. However, to reduce the execution time for real-time systems, the image size should be down sampled which would lead the outlier influence to increase. For this reason, we propose the histogram of uniformly-oriented gradient (HUG) features to get better accurate description of the contour of human body. In the testing phase, the support vector machine (SVM) with linear kernel function is involved. Experimental results show the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed method. With SVM classifiers, the real testing results show the proposed HUG features achieve better than classification performance than the HOG ones.
A Model Based Metaheuristic for Hybrid Hierarchical Community Structure in Social Networks
In recent years, the study of community detection
in social networks has received great attention. The hierarchical
structure of the network leads to the emergence of the convergence
to a locally optimal community structure. In this paper, we aim
to avoid this local optimum in the introduced hybrid hierarchical
method. To achieve this purpose, we present an objective function
where we incorporate the value of structural and semantic similarity
based modularity and a metaheuristic namely bees colonies algorithm
to optimize our objective function on both hierarchical level divisive
and agglomerative. In order to assess the efficiency and the accuracy
of the introduced hybrid bee colony model, we perform an extensive
experimental evaluation on both synthetic and real networks.
Evidence Theory Enabled Quickest Change Detection Using Big Time-Series Data from Internet of Things
Traditionally in sensor networks and recently in the
Internet of Things, numerous heterogeneous sensors are deployed
in distributed manner to monitor a phenomenon that often can be
model by an underlying stochastic process. The big time-series
data collected by the sensors must be analyzed to detect change
in the stochastic process as quickly as possible with tolerable
false alarm rate. However, sensors may have different accuracy
and sensitivity range, and they decay along time. As a result,
the big time-series data collected by the sensors will contain
uncertainties and sometimes they are conflicting. In this study, we
present a framework to take advantage of Evidence Theory (a.k.a.
Dempster-Shafer and Dezert-Smarandache Theories) capabilities of
representing and managing uncertainty and conflict to fast change
detection and effectively deal with complementary hypotheses.
Specifically, Kullback-Leibler divergence is used as the similarity
metric to calculate the distances between the estimated current
distribution with the pre- and post-change distributions. Then mass
functions are calculated and related combination rules are applied to
combine the mass values among all sensors. Furthermore, we applied
the method to estimate the minimum number of sensors needed to
combine, so computational efficiency could be improved. Cumulative
sum test is then applied on the ratio of pignistic probability to detect
and declare the change for decision making purpose. Simulation
results using both synthetic data and real data from experimental
setup demonstrate the effectiveness of the presented schemes.
Health Monitoring and Failure Detection of Electronic and Structural Components in Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles
Fully autonomous small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles
(UAVs) are increasingly being used in many commercial applications.
Although a lot of research has been done to develop safe, reliable
and durable UAVs, accidents due to electronic and structural failures
are not uncommon and pose a huge safety risk to the UAV operators
and the public. Hence there is a strong need for an automated health
monitoring system for UAVs with a view to minimizing mission
failures thereby increasing safety. This paper describes our approach
to monitoring the electronic and structural components in a small
UAV without the need for additional sensors to do the monitoring.
Our system monitors data from four sources; sensors, navigation
algorithms, control inputs from the operator and flight controller
outputs. It then does statistical analysis on the data and applies
a rule based engine to detect failures. This information can then
be fed back into the UAV and a decision to continue or abort the
mission can be taken automatically by the UAV and independent of
the operator. Our system has been verified using data obtained from
real flights over the past year from UAVs of various sizes that have
been designed and deployed by us for various applications.
Malware Detection in Mobile Devices by Analyzing Sequences of System Calls
With the increase in popularity of mobile devices,
new and varied forms of malware have emerged. Consequently,
the organizations for cyberdefense have echoed the need to deploy
more effective defensive schemes adapted to the challenges posed
by these recent monitoring environments. In order to contribute to
their development, this paper presents a malware detection strategy
for mobile devices based on sequence alignment algorithms. Unlike
the previous proposals, only the system calls performed during the
startup of applications are studied. In this way, it is possible to
efficiently study in depth, the sequences of system calls executed
by the applications just downloaded from app stores, and initialize
them in a secure and isolated environment. As demonstrated in the
performed experimentation, most of the analyzed malicious activities
were successfully identified in their boot processes.
Probability-Based Damage Detection of Structures Using Kriging Surrogates and Enhanced Ideal Gas Molecular Movement Algorithm
Surrogate model has received increasing attention for use in detecting damage of structures based on vibration modal parameters. However, uncertainties existing in the measured vibration data may lead to false or unreliable output result from such model. In this study, an efficient approach based on Monte Carlo simulation is proposed to take into account the effect of uncertainties in developing a surrogate model. The probability of damage existence (PDE) is calculated based on the probability density function of the existence of undamaged and damaged states. The kriging technique allows one to genuinely quantify the surrogate error, therefore it is chosen as metamodeling technique. Enhanced version of ideal gas molecular movement (EIGMM) algorithm is used as main algorithm for model updating. The developed approach is applied to detect simulated damage in numerical models of 72-bar space truss and 120-bar dome truss. The simulation results show the proposed method can perform well in probability-based damage detection of structures with less computational effort compared to direct finite element model.
Detection of New Attacks on Ubiquitous Services in Cloud Computing and Countermeasures
Cloud computing provides infrastructure to the enterprise through the Internet allowing access to cloud services at anytime and anywhere. This pervasive aspect of the services, the distributed nature of data and the wide use of information make cloud computing vulnerable to intrusions that violate the security of the cloud. This requires the use of security mechanisms to detect malicious behavior in network communications and hosts such as intrusion detection systems (IDS). In this article, we focus on the detection of intrusion into the cloud sing IDSs. We base ourselves on client authentication in the computing cloud. This technique allows to detect the abnormal use of ubiquitous service and prevents the intrusion of cloud computing. This is an approach based on client authentication data. Our IDS provides intrusion detection inside and outside cloud computing network. It is a double protection approach: The security user node and the global security cloud computing.
Probability-Based Damage Detection of Structures Using Model Updating with Enhanced Ideal Gas Molecular Movement Algorithm
Model updating method has received increasing
attention in damage detection structures based on measured modal
parameters. Therefore, a probability-based damage detection
(PBDD) procedure based on a model updating procedure is
presented in this paper, in which a one-stage model-based damage
identification technique based on the dynamic features of a structure
is investigated. The presented framework uses a finite element
updating method with a Monte Carlo simulation that considers the
uncertainty caused by measurement noise. Enhanced ideal gas
molecular movement (EIGMM) is used as the main algorithm for
model updating. Ideal gas molecular movement (IGMM) is a multiagent
algorithm based on the ideal gas molecular movement. Ideal
gas molecules disperse rapidly in different directions and cover all
the space inside. This is embedded in the high speed of molecules,
collisions between them and with the surrounding barriers. In IGMM
algorithm to accomplish the optimal solutions, the initial population
of gas molecules is randomly generated and the governing equations
related to the velocity of gas molecules and collisions between those
are utilized. In this paper, an enhanced version of IGMM, which
removes unchanged variables after specified iterations, is developed.
The proposed method is implemented on two numerical examples in
the field of structural damage detection. The results show that the
proposed method can perform well and competitive in PBDD of
Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor-Only Process Corner Monitoring Circuit
A process corner monitoring circuit (PCMC) is presented in this work. The circuit generates a signal, the logical value of which depends on the process corner only. The signal can be used in both digital and analog circuits for testing and compensation of process variations (PV). The presented circuit uses only metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) transistors, which allow increasing its detection accuracy, decrease power consumption and area. Due to its simplicity the presented circuit can be easily modified to monitor parametrical variations of only n-type and p-type MOS (NMOS and PMOS, respectively) transistors, resistors, as well as their combinations. Post-layout simulation results prove correct functionality of the proposed circuit, i.e. ability to monitor the process corner (equivalently die-to-die variations) even in the presence of within-die variations.
Collision Detection Algorithm Based on Data Parallelism
Modern computing technology enters the era of parallel computing with the trend of sustainable and scalable parallelism. Single Instruction Multiple Data (SIMD) is an important way to go along with the trend. It is able to gather more and more computing ability by increasing the number of processor cores without the need of modifying the program. Meanwhile, in the field of scientific computing and engineering design, many computation intensive applications are facing the challenge of increasingly large amount of data. Data parallel computing will be an important way to further improve the performance of these applications. In this paper, we take the accurate collision detection in building information modeling as an example. We demonstrate a model for constructing a data parallel algorithm. According to the model, a complex object is decomposed into the sets of simple objects; collision detection among complex objects is converted into those among simple objects. The resulting algorithm is a typical SIMD algorithm, and its advantages in parallelism and scalability is unparalleled in respect to the traditional algorithms.
A Comparison of Inverse Simulation-Based Fault Detection in a Simple Robotic Rover with a Traditional Model-Based Method
Robotic rovers which are designed to work in
extra-terrestrial environments present a unique challenge in terms
of the reliability and availability of systems throughout the mission.
Should some fault occur, with the nearest human potentially millions
of kilometres away, detection and identification of the fault must
be performed solely by the robot and its subsystems. Faults in
the system sensors are relatively straightforward to detect, through
the residuals produced by comparison of the system output with
that of a simple model. However, faults in the input, that is, the
actuators of the system, are harder to detect. A step change in
the input signal, caused potentially by the loss of an actuator,
can propagate through the system, resulting in complex residuals
in multiple outputs. These residuals can be difficult to isolate or
distinguish from residuals caused by environmental disturbances.
While a more complex fault detection method or additional sensors
could be used to solve these issues, an alternative is presented here.
Using inverse simulation (InvSim), the inputs and outputs of the
mathematical model of the rover system are reversed. Thus, for a
desired trajectory, the corresponding actuator inputs are obtained.
A step fault near the input then manifests itself as a step change
in the residual between the system inputs and the input trajectory
obtained through inverse simulation. This approach avoids the need
for additional hardware on a mass- and power-critical system such
as the rover. The InvSim fault detection method is applied to a
simple four-wheeled rover in simulation. Additive system faults and
an external disturbance force and are applied to the vehicle in turn,
such that the dynamic response and sensor output of the rover
are impacted. Basic model-based fault detection is then employed
to provide output residuals which may be analysed to provide
information on the fault/disturbance. InvSim-based fault detection
is then employed, similarly providing input residuals which provide
further information on the fault/disturbance. The input residuals are
shown to provide clearer information on the location and magnitude
of an input fault than the output residuals. Additionally, they can
allow faults to be more clearly discriminated from environmental
Detecting Financial Bubbles Using Gap between Common Stocks and Preferred Stocks
How to detecting financial bubble? Addressing this simple question has been the focus of a vast amount of empirical research spanning almost half a century. However, financial bubble is hard to observe and varying over the time; there needs to be more research on this area. In this paper, we used abnormal difference between common stocks price and those preferred stocks price to explain financial bubble. First, we proposed the ‘W-index’ which indicates spread between common stocks and those preferred stocks in stock market. Second, to prove that this ‘W-index’ is valid for measuring financial bubble, we showed that there is an inverse relationship between this ‘W-index’ and S&P500 rate of return. Specifically, our hypothesis is that when ‘W-index’ is comparably higher than other periods, financial bubbles are added up in stock market and vice versa; according to our hypothesis, if investors made long term investments when ‘W-index’ is high, they would have negative rate of return; however, if investors made long term investments when ‘W-index’ is low, they would have positive rate of return. By comparing correlation values and adjusted R-squared values of between W-index and S&P500 return, VIX index and S&P500 return, and TED index and S&P500 return, we showed only W-index has significant relationship between S&P500 rate of return. In addition, we figured out how long investors should hold their investment position regard the effect of financial bubble. Using this W-index, investors could measure financial bubble in the market and invest with low risk.
Mutation Analysis of the ATP7B Gene in 43 Vietnamese Wilson’s Disease Patients
Wilson’s disease (WD) is an autosomal recessive disorder of the copper metabolism, which is caused by a mutation in the copper-transporting P-type ATPase (ATP7B). The mechanism of this disease is the failure of hepatic excretion of copper to bile, and leads to copper deposits in the liver and other organs. The ATP7B gene is located on the long arm of chromosome 13 (13q14.3). This study aimed to investigate the gene mutation in the Vietnamese patients with WD, and make a presymptomatic diagnosis for their familial members. Forty-three WD patients and their 65 siblings were identified as having ATP7B gene mutations. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples; 21 exons and exon-intron boundaries of the ATP7B gene were analyzed by direct sequencing. We recognized four mutations ([R723=; H724Tfs*34], V1042Cfs*79, D1027H, and IVS6+3A>G) in the sum of 20 detectable mutations, accounting for 87.2% of the total. Mutation S105* was determined to have a high rate (32.6%) in this study. The hotspot regions of ATP7B were found at exons 2, 16, and 8, and intron 14, in 39.6 %, 11.6 %, 9.3%, and 7 % of patients, respectively. Among nine homozygote/compound heterozygote siblings of the patients with WD, three individuals were determined as asymptomatic by screening mutations of the probands. They would begin treatment after diagnosis. In conclusion, 20 different mutations were detected in 43 WD patients. Of this number, four novel mutations were explored, including [R723=; H724Tfs*34], V1042Cfs*79, D1027H, and IVS6+3A>G. The mutation S105* is the most prevalent and has been considered as a biomarker that can be used in a rapid detection assay for diagnosis of WD patients. Exons 2, 8, and 16, and intron 14 should be screened initially for WD patients in Vietnam. Based on risk profile for WD, genetic testing for presymptomatic patients is also useful in diagnosis and treatment.
Challenges in Video Based Object Detection in Maritime Scenario Using Computer Vision
This paper discusses the technical challenges in
maritime image processing and machine vision problems for video
streams generated by cameras. Even well documented problems
of horizon detection and registration of frames in a video are
very challenging in maritime scenarios. More advanced problems
of background subtraction and object detection in video streams
are very challenging. Challenges arising from the dynamic nature
of the background, unavailability of static cues, presence of small
objects at distant backgrounds, illumination effects, all contribute to
the challenges as discussed here.
Thermal Effect on Wave Interaction in Composite Structures
There exist a wide range of failure modes in composite
structures due to the increased usage of the structures especially in
aerospace industry. Moreover, temperature dependent wave response
of composite and layered structures have been continuously studied,
though still limited, in the last decade mainly due to the broad
operating temperature range of aerospace structures. A wave finite
element (WFE) and finite element (FE) based computational method
is presented by which the temperature dependent wave dispersion
characteristics and interaction phenomenon in composite structures
can be predicted. Initially, the temperature dependent mechanical
properties of the panel in the range of -100 ◦C to 150 ◦C are
measured experimentally using the Thermal Mechanical Analysis
(TMA). Temperature dependent wave dispersion characteristics of
each waveguide of the structural system, which is discretized as a
system of a number of waveguides coupled by a coupling element, is
calculated using the WFE approach. The wave scattering properties,
as a function of temperature, is determined by coupling the WFE
wave characteristics models of the waveguides with the full FE
modelling of the coupling element on which defect is included.
Numerical case studies are exhibited for two waveguides coupled
through a coupling element.
Detecting Geographically Dispersed Overlay Communities Using Community Networks
Community detection is an extremely useful technique
in understanding the structure and function of a social network.
Louvain algorithm, which is based on Newman-Girman modularity
optimization technique, is extensively used as a computationally
efficient method extract the communities in social networks. It
has been suggested that the nodes that are in close geographical
proximity have a higher tendency of forming communities. Variants
of the Newman-Girman modularity measure such as dist-modularity
try to normalize the effect of geographical proximity to extract
geographically dispersed communities, at the expense of losing
the information about the geographically proximate communities.
In this work, we propose a method to extract geographically
dispersed communities while preserving the information about the
geographically proximate communities, by analyzing the ‘community
network’, where the centroids of communities would be considered as
network nodes. We suggest that the inter-community link strengths,
which are normalized over the community sizes, may be used
to identify and extract the ‘overlay communities’. The overlay
communities would have relatively higher link strengths, despite
being relatively apart in their spatial distribution. We apply this
method to the Gowalla online social network, which contains
the geographical signatures of its users, and identify the overlay
communities within it.
Detecting Tomato Flowers in Greenhouses Using Computer Vision
This paper presents an image analysis algorithm to detect and count yellow tomato flowers in a greenhouse with uneven illumination conditions, complex growth conditions and different flower sizes. The algorithm is designed to be employed on a drone that flies in greenhouses to accomplish several tasks such as pollination and yield estimation. Detecting the flowers can provide useful information for the farmer, such as the number of flowers in a row, and the number of flowers that were pollinated since the last visit to the row. The developed algorithm is designed to handle the real world difficulties in a greenhouse which include varying lighting conditions, shadowing, and occlusion, while considering the computational limitations of the simple processor in the drone. The algorithm identifies flowers using an adaptive global threshold, segmentation over the HSV color space, and morphological cues. The adaptive threshold divides the images into darker and lighter images. Then, segmentation on the hue, saturation and volume is performed accordingly, and classification is done according to size and location of the flowers. 1069 images of greenhouse tomato flowers were acquired in a commercial greenhouse in Israel, using two different RGB Cameras – an LG G4 smartphone and a Canon PowerShot A590. The images were acquired from multiple angles and distances and were sampled manually at various periods along the day to obtain varying lighting conditions. Ground truth was created by manually tagging approximately 25,000 individual flowers in the images. Sensitivity analyses on the acquisition angle of the images, periods throughout the day, different cameras and thresholding types were performed. Precision, recall and their derived F1 score were calculated. Results indicate better performance for the view angle facing the flowers than any other angle. Acquiring images in the afternoon resulted with the best precision and recall results. Applying a global adaptive threshold improved the median F1 score by 3%. Results showed no difference between the two cameras used. Using hue values of 0.12-0.18 in the segmentation process provided the best results in precision and recall, and the best F1 score. The precision and recall average for all the images when using these values was 74% and 75% respectively with an F1 score of 0.73. Further analysis showed a 5% increase in precision and recall when analyzing images acquired in the afternoon and from the front viewpoint.
Degraded Document Analysis and Extraction of Original Text Document: An Approach without Optical Character Recognition
Document Image Analysis recognizes text and graphics in documents acquired as images. An approach without Optical Character Recognition (OCR) for degraded document image analysis has been adopted in this paper. The technique involves document imaging methods such as Image Fusing and Speeded Up Robust Features (SURF) Detection to identify and extract the degraded regions from a set of document images to obtain an original document with complete information. In case, degraded document image captured is skewed, it has to be straightened (deskew) to perform further process. A special format of image storing known as YCbCr is used as a tool to convert the Grayscale image to RGB image format. The presented algorithm is tested on various types of degraded documents such as printed documents, handwritten documents, old script documents and handwritten image sketches in documents. The purpose of this research is to obtain an original document for a given set of degraded documents of the same source.
Reduction of False Positives in Head-Shoulder Detection Based on Multi-Part Color Segmentation
The paper presents a method that utilizes figure-ground color segmentation to extract effective global feature in terms of false positive reduction in the head-shoulder detection. Conventional detectors that rely on local features such as HOG due to real-time operation suffer from false positives. Color cue in an input image provides salient information on a global characteristic which is necessary to alleviate the false positives of the local feature based detectors. An effective approach that uses figure-ground color segmentation has been presented in an effort to reduce the false positives in object detection. In this paper, an extended version of the approach is presented that adopts separate multipart foregrounds instead of a single prior foreground and performs the figure-ground color segmentation with each of the foregrounds. The multipart foregrounds include the parts of the head-shoulder shape and additional auxiliary foregrounds being optimized by a search algorithm. A classifier is constructed with the feature that consists of a set of the multiple resulting segmentations. Experimental results show that the presented method can discriminate more false positive than the single prior shape-based classifier as well as detectors with the local features. The improvement is possible because the presented approach can reduce the false positives that have the same colors in the head and shoulder foregrounds.
Ship Detection Requirements Analysis for Different Sea States: Validation on Real SAR Data
Ship detection is nowadays quite an important issue
in tasks related to sea traffic control, fishery management and ship
search and rescue. Although it has traditionally been carried out
by patrol ships or aircrafts, coverage and weather conditions and
sea state can become a problem. Synthetic aperture radars can
surpass these coverage limitations and work under any climatological
condition. A fast CFAR ship detector based on a robust statistical
modeling of sea clutter with respect to sea states in SAR images
is used. In this paper, the minimum SNR required to obtain a
given detection probability with a given false alarm rate for any
sea state is determined. A Gaussian target model using real SAR
data is considered. Results show that SNR does not depend heavily
on the class considered. Provided there is some variation in the
backscattering of targets in SAR imagery, the detection probability
is limited and a post-processing stage based on morphology would
Multimedia Firearms Training System
The goal of the article is to present a novel Multimedia Firearms Training System. The system was developed in order to compensate for major problems of existing shooting training systems. The designed and implemented solution can be characterized by five major advantages: algorithm for automatic geometric calibration, algorithm of photometric recalibration, firearms hit point detection using thermal imaging camera, IR laser spot tracking algorithm for after action review analysis, and implementation of ballistics equations. The combination of the abovementioned advantages in a single multimedia firearms training system creates a comprehensive solution for detecting and tracking of the target point usable for shooting training systems and improving intervention tactics of uniformed services. The introduced algorithms of geometric and photometric recalibration allow the use of economically viable commercially available projectors for systems that require long and intensive use without most of the negative impacts on color mapping of existing multi-projector multimedia shooting range systems. The article presents the results of the developed algorithms and their application in real training systems.
Design and Implementation of a Counting and Differentiation System for Vehicles through Video Processing
This paper presents a self-sustaining mobile system for
counting and classification of vehicles through processing video. It
proposes a counting and classification algorithm divided in four steps
that can be executed multiple times in parallel in a SBC (Single
Board Computer), like the Raspberry Pi 2, in such a way that it
can be implemented in real time. The first step of the proposed
algorithm limits the zone of the image that it will be processed.
The second step performs the detection of the mobile objects using
a BGS (Background Subtraction) algorithm based on the GMM
(Gaussian Mixture Model), as well as a shadow removal algorithm
using physical-based features, followed by morphological operations.
In the first step the vehicle detection will be performed by using
edge detection algorithms and the vehicle following through Kalman
filters. The last step of the proposed algorithm registers the vehicle
passing and performs their classification according to their areas.
An auto-sustainable system is proposed, powered by batteries and
photovoltaic solar panels, and the data transmission is done through
GPRS (General Packet Radio Service)eliminating the need of using
external cable, which will facilitate it deployment and translation to
any location where it could operate. The self-sustaining trailer will
allow the counting and classification of vehicles in specific zones
with difficult access.
Topology-Based Character Recognition Method for Coin Date Detection
For recognizing coins, the graved release date is important information to identify precisely its monetary type. However, reading characters in coins meets much more obstacles than traditional character recognition tasks in the other fields, such as reading scanned documents or license plates. To address this challenging issue in a numismatic context, we propose a training-free approach dedicated to detection and recognition of the release date of the coin. In the first step, the date zone is detected by comparing histogram features; in the second step, a topology-based algorithm is introduced to recognize coin numbers with various font types represented by binary gradient map. Our method obtained a recognition rate of 92% on synthetic data and of 44% on real noised data.
A Robust Eyelashes and Eyelid Detection in Transformation Invariant Iris Recognition: In Application with LRC Security System
Biometric authentication is an essential task for any
kind of real-life applications. In this paper, we contribute two
primary paradigms to Iris recognition such as Robust Eyelash
Detection (RED) using pathway kernels and hair curve fitting
synthesized model. Based on these two paradigms, rotation invariant
iris recognition is enhanced. In addition, the presented framework
is tested with real-life iris data to provide the authentication for
LRC (Learning Resource Center) users. Recognition performance
is significantly improved based on the contributed schemes by
evaluating real-life irises. Furthermore, the framework has been
implemented using Java programming language. Experiments are
performed based on 1250 diverse subjects in different angles of
variations on the authentication process. The results revealed that the
methodology can deploy in the process on LRC management system
and other security required applications.
Video Based Ambient Smoke Detection By Detecting Directional Contrast Decrease
Fire-related incidents account for extensive loss of life and
material damage. Quick and reliable detection of occurring fires has high
real world implications. Whereas a major research focus lies on the detection
of outdoor fires, indoor camera-based fire detection is still an open issue.
Cameras in combination with computer vision helps to detect flames and
smoke more quickly than conventional fire detectors. In this work, we present
a computer vision-based smoke detection algorithm based on contrast changes
and a multi-step classification. This work accelerates computer vision-based
fire detection considerably in comparison with classical indoor-fire detection.
Real Time Video Based Smoke Detection Using Double Optical Flow Estimation
In this paper, we present a video based smoke detection
algorithm based on TVL1 optical flow estimation. The main part
of the algorithm is an accumulating system for motion angles and
upward motion speed of the flow field. We optimized the usage of
TVL1 flow estimation for the detection of smoke with very low smoke
density. Therefore, we use adapted flow parameters and estimate the
flow field on difference images. We show in theory and in evaluation
that this improves the performance of smoke detection significantly.
We evaluate the smoke algorithm using videos with different smoke
densities and different backgrounds. We show that smoke detection
is very reliable in varying scenarios. Further we verify that our
algorithm is very robust towards crowded scenes disturbance videos.