Design Optimization of Doubly Fed Induction Generator Performance by Differential Evolution
Doubly-fed induction generators (DFIG) due to their advantages like speed variation and four-quadrant operation, find its application in wind turbines. DFIG besides supplying power to the grid has to support reactive power (kvar) under grid voltage variations, should contribute minimum fault current during faults, have high efficiency, minimum weight, adequate rotor protection during crow-bar-operation from +20% to -20% of rated speed. To achieve the optimum performance, a good electromagnetic design of DFIG is required. In this paper, a simple and heuristic global optimization – Differential Evolution has been used. Variables considered are lamination details such as slot dimensions, stack diameters, air gap length, and generator stator and rotor stack length. Two operating conditions have been considered - voltage and speed variations. Constraints included were reactive power supplied to the grid and limiting fault current and torque. The optimization has been executed separately for three objective functions - maximum efficiency, weight reduction, and grid fault stator currents. Subsequent calculations led to the conclusion that designs determined through differential evolution help in determining an optimum electrical design for each objective function.
An Evolutionary Algorithm for Optimal Fuel-Type Configurations in Car Lines
Although environmental concern is on the rise across Europe, current market data indicate that adoption rates of environmentally friendly vehicles remain extremely low. Against this background, the aim of this paper is to a) assess preferences of European consumers for clean-fuel cars and their characteristics and b) design car lines that optimize the combination of fuel types among models in the line-up. In this direction, the authors introduce a new evolutionary mechanism and implement it to stated-preference data derived from a large-scale choice-based conjoint experiment that measures consumer preferences for various factors affecting clean-fuel vehicle (CFV) adoption. The proposed two-step methodology provides interesting insights into how new and existing fuel-types can be combined in a car line that maximizes customer satisfaction.
Type–2 Fuzzy Programming for Optimizing the Heat Rate of an Industrial Gas Turbine via Absorption Chiller Technology
Terms set in power purchase agreements (PPA) challenge power utility companies in balancing between the returns (from maximizing power production) and securing long term supply contracts at capped production. The production limitation set in the PPA has driven efforts to maximize profits through efficient and economic power production. In this paper, a combined industrial-scale gas turbine (GT) - absorption chiller (AC) system is considered to cool the GT air intake for reducing the plant’s heat rate (HR). This GT-AC system is optimized while considering power output limitations imposed by the PPA. In addition, the proposed formulation accounts for uncertainties in the ambient temperature using Type-2 fuzzy programming. Using the enhanced chaotic differential evolution (CEDE), the Pareto frontier was constructed and the optimization results are analyzed in detail.
Radial Basis Surrogate Model Integrated to Evolutionary Algorithm for Solving Computation Intensive Black-Box Problems
For design optimization with high-dimensional expensive problems, an effective and efficient optimization methodology is desired. This work proposes a series of modification to the Differential Evolution (DE) algorithm for solving computation Intensive Black-Box Problems. The proposed methodology is called Radial Basis Meta-Model Algorithm Assisted Differential Evolutionary (RBF-DE), which is a global optimization algorithm based on the meta-modeling techniques. A meta-modeling assisted DE is proposed to solve computationally expensive optimization problems. The Radial Basis Function (RBF) model is used as a surrogate model to approximate the expensive objective function, while DE employs a mechanism to dynamically select the best performing combination of parameters such as differential rate, cross over probability, and population size. The proposed algorithm is tested on benchmark functions and real life practical applications and problems. The test results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is promising and performs well compared to other optimization algorithms. The proposed algorithm is capable of converging to acceptable and good solutions in terms of accuracy, number of evaluations, and time needed to converge.
DEA-Based Variable Structure Position Control of DC Servo Motor
This paper presents Differential Evolution Algorithm (DEA) based Variable Structure Position Control (VSPC) of Laboratory DC servomotor (LDCSM). DEA is employed for the optimal tuning of Variable Structure Control (VSC) parameters for position control of a DC servomotor. The VSC combines the techniques of Sliding Mode Control (SMC) that gives the advantages of small overshoot, improved step response characteristics, faster dynamic response and adaptability to plant parameter variations, suppressed influences of disturbances and uncertainties in system behavior. The results of the simulation responses of the VSC parameters adjustment by DEA were performed in Matlab Version 2010a platform and yield better dynamic performance compared with the untuned VSC designed.
A Cuckoo Search with Differential Evolution for Clustering Microarray Gene Expression Data
A DNA microarray technology is a collection of microscopic DNA spots attached to a solid surface. Scientists use DNA microarrays to measure the expression levels of large numbers of genes simultaneously or to genotype multiple regions of a genome. Elucidating the patterns hidden in gene expression data offers a tremendous opportunity for an enhanced understanding of functional genomics. However, the large number of genes and the complexity of biological networks greatly increase the challenges of comprehending and interpreting the resulting mass of data, which often consists of millions of measurements. It is handled by clustering which reveals the natural structures and identifying the interesting patterns in the underlying data. In this paper, gene based clustering in gene expression data is proposed using Cuckoo Search with Differential Evolution (CS-DE). The experiment results are analyzed with gene expression benchmark datasets. The results show that CS-DE outperforms CS in benchmark datasets. To find the validation of the clustering results, this work is tested with one internal and one external cluster validation indexes.
Comparative Dynamic Performance of Load Frequency Control of Nonlinear Interconnected Hydro-Thermal System Using Intelligent Techniques
This paper demonstrates dynamic performance evaluation of load frequency control (LFC) with different intelligent techniques. All non-linearities and physical constraints have been considered in simulation studies such as governor dead band (GDB), generation rate constraint (GRC) and boiler dynamics. The conventional integral time absolute error has been considered as objective function. The design problem is formulated as an optimisation problem and particle swarm optimisation (PSO), bacterial foraging optimisation algorithm (BFOA) and differential evolution (DE) are employed to search optimal controller parameters. The superiority of the proposed approach has been shown by comparing the results with published fuzzy logic control (FLC) for the same interconnected power system. The comparison is done using various performance measures like overshoot, undershoot, settling time and standard error criteria of frequency and tie-line power deviation following a step load perturbation (SLP). It is noticed that, the dynamic performance of proposed controller is better than FLC. Further, robustness analysis is carried out by varying the time constants of speed governor, turbine, tie-line power in the range of +40% to -40% to demonstrate the robustness of the proposed DE optimized PID controller.
Optimized Vector Quantization for Bayer Color Filter Array
Digital cameras to reduce cost, use an image sensor to
capture color images. Color Filter Array (CFA) in digital cameras
permits only one of the three primary (red-green-blue) colors to be
sensed in a pixel and interpolates the two missing components
through a method named demosaicking. Captured data is interpolated
into a full color image and compressed in applications. Color
interpolation before compression leads to data redundancy. This
paper proposes a new Vector Quantization (VQ) technique to
construct a VQ codebook with Differential Evolution (DE)
Algorithm. The new technique is compared to conventional Linde-
Buzo-Gray (LBG) method.
Trust and Reputation Mechanism with Path Optimization in Multipath Routing
A Mobile Adhoc Network (MANET) is a collection of mobile nodes that communicate with each other with wireless links and without pre-existing communication infrastructure. Routing is an important issue which impacts network performance. As MANETs lack central administration and prior organization, their security concerns are different from those of conventional networks. Wireless links make MANETs susceptible to attacks. This study proposes a new trust mechanism to mitigate wormhole attack in MANETs. Different optimization techniques find available optimal path from source to destination. This study extends trust and reputation to an improved link quality and channel utilization based Adhoc Ondemand Multipath Distance Vector (AOMDV). Differential Evolution (DE) is used for optimization.
Supremacy of Differential Evolution Algorithm in Designing Multiplier-Less Low-Pass FIR Filter
In this communication, we have made an attempt to design multiplier-less low-pass finite impulse response (FIR) filter with the aid of various mutation strategies of Differential Evolution (DE) algorithm. Impulse response coefficient of the designed FIR filter has been represented as sums or differences of powers of two. Performance of the proposed filter has been evaluated in terms of its frequency response and associated hardware cost. Supremacy of our approach has been substantiated by comparing our result with many of the existing multiplier-less filter design algorithms of recent interest. It has also been demonstrated that DE-optimized filter outperforms Genetic Algorithm (GA) based design by a large margin. Hardware efficiency of our algorithm has further been validated by implementing those filters on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) chip.
Load Frequency Control of Nonlinear Interconnected Hydro-Thermal System Using Differential Evolution Technique
This paper presents a differential evolution algorithm to design a robust PI and PID controllers for Load Frequency Control (LFC) of nonlinear interconnected power systems considering the boiler dynamics, Governor Dead Band (GDB), Generation Rate Constraint (GRC). Differential evolution algorithm is employed to search for the optimal controller parameters. The proposed method easily copes of with nonlinear constraints. Further the proposed controller is simple, effective and can ensure the desirable overall system performance. The superiority of the proposed approach has been shown by comparing the results with published fuzzy logic controller for the same power systems. The comparison is done using various performance measures like overshoot, settling time and standard error criteria of frequency and tie-line power deviation following a 1% step load perturbation in hydro area. It is noticed that, the dynamic performance of proposed controller is better than fuzzy logic controller. Furthermore, it is also seen that the proposed system is robust and is not affected by change in the system parameters.
Comparison of Two Interval Models for Interval-Valued Differential Evolution
The author previously proposed an extension of differential evolution. The proposed method extends the processes of DE to handle interval numbers as genotype values so that DE can be applied to interval-valued optimization problems. The interval DE can employ either of two interval models, the lower and upper model or the center and width model, for specifying genotype values. Ability of the interval DE in searching for solutions may depend on the model. In this paper, the author compares the two models to investigate which model contributes better for the interval DE to find better solutions. Application of the interval DE is evolutionary training of interval-valued neural networks. A result of preliminary study indicates that the CW model is better than the LU model: the interval DE with the CW model could evolve better neural networks.
STATCOM based Damping Controller in Power Systems for Enhance the Power System Stability
This paper describes the power-system stability improvement by a static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) based damping controller with Differential evolution (DE) algorithm is used to find out the optimal controller parameters. The present study considered both local and remote signals with associated time delays. The performances of the proposed controllers have been compared with different disturbances for both single-machine infinite bus power system and multi-machine power system. The performance of the proposed controllers with variations in the signal transmission delays has also been investigated. To show the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed controller the Simulation results are presented under different disturbances and loading conditions.
Differential Evolution Based Optimal Choice and Location of Facts Devices in Restructured Power System
This paper deals with the optimal choice and location of FACTS devices in deregulated power systems using Differential Evolution algorithm. The main objective of this paper is to achieve the power system economic generation allocation and dispatch in deregulated electricity market. Using the proposed method, the locations of the FACTS devices, their types and ratings are optimized simultaneously. Different kinds of FACTS devices such as TCSC and SVC are simulated in this study. Furthermore, their investment costs are also considered. Simulation results validate the capability of this new approach in minimizing the overall system cost function, which includes the investment costs of the FACTS devices and the bid offers of the market participants. The proposed algorithm is an effective and practical method for the choice and location of suitable FACTS devices in deregulated electricity market.
Power System Stability Improvement by Simultaneous Tuning of PSS and SVC Based Damping Controllers Employing Differential Evolution Algorithm
Power-system stability improvement by simultaneous tuning of power system stabilizer (PSS) and a Static Var Compensator (SVC) based damping controller is thoroughly investigated in this paper. Both local and remote signals with associated time delays are considered in the present study. The design problem of the proposed controller is formulated as an optimization problem, and differential evolution (DE) algorithm is employed to search for the optimal controller parameters. The performances of the proposed controllers are evaluated under different disturbances for both single-machine infinite bus power system and multi-machine power system. The performance of the proposed controllers with variations in the signal transmission delays has also been investigated. The proposed stabilizers are tested on a weakly connected power system subjected to different disturbances. Nonlinear simulation results are presented to show the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed control schemes over a wide range of loading conditions and disturbances. Further, the proposed design approach is found to be robust and improves stability effectively even under small disturbance conditions.
Active Vibration Control of Flexible Beam using Differential Evolution Optimisation
This paper presents the development of an active
vibration control using direct adaptive controller to suppress the
vibration of a flexible beam system. The controller is realized based
on linear parametric form. Differential evolution optimisation
algorithm is used to optimize the controller using single objective
function by minimizing the mean square error of the observed
vibration signal. Furthermore, an alternative approach is developed to
systematically search for the best controller model structure together
with it parameter values. The performance of the control scheme is
presented and analysed in both time and frequency domain.
Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed scheme is able to
suppress the unwanted vibration effectively.
DEMO Based Optimal Power Purchase Planning Under Electricity Price Uncertainty
Due to the deregulation of the Electric Supply
Industry and the resulting emergence of electricity market, the
volumes of power purchases are on the rise all over the world. In a
bid to meet the customer-s demand in a reliable and yet economic
manner, utilities purchase power from the energy market over and
above its own production. This paper aims at developing an optimal
power purchase model with two objectives viz economy and
environment ,taking various functional operating constraints such as
branch flow limits, load bus voltage magnitudes limits, unit capacity
constraints and security constraints into consideration.The price of
purchased power being an uncertain variable is modeled using fuzzy
logic. DEMO (Differential Evolution For Multi-objective
Optimization) is used to obtain the pareto-optimal solution set of the
multi-objective problem formulated. Fuzzy set theory has been
employed to extract the best compromise non-dominated solution.
The results obtained on IEEE 30 bus system are presented and
compared with that of NSGAII.
Reentry Trajectory Optimization Based on Differential Evolution
Reentry trajectory optimization is a multi-constraints
optimal control problem which is hard to solve. To tackle it, we
proposed a new algorithm named CDEN(Constrained Differential
Evolution Newton-Raphson Algorithm) based on Differential Evolution(
DE) and Newton-Raphson.We transform the infinite dimensional
optimal control problem to parameter optimization which is finite
dimensional by discretize control parameter. In order to simplify
the problem, we figure out the control parameter-s scope by process
constraints. To handle constraints, we proposed a parameterless constraints
handle process. Through comprehensive analyze the problem,
we use a new algorithm integrated by DE and Newton-Raphson to
solve it. It is validated by a reentry vehicle X-33, simulation results
indicated that the algorithm is effective and robust.
Robust FACTS Controller Design Employing Modern Heuristic Optimization Techniques
Recently, Genetic Algorithms (GA) and Differential
Evolution (DE) algorithm technique have attracted considerable
attention among various modern heuristic optimization techniques.
Since the two approaches are supposed to find a solution to a given
objective function but employ different strategies and computational
effort, it is appropriate to compare their performance. This paper
presents the application and performance comparison of DE and GA
optimization techniques, for flexible ac transmission system
(FACTS)-based controller design. The design objective is to enhance
the power system stability. The design problem of the FACTS-based
controller is formulated as an optimization problem and both the PSO
and GA optimization techniques are employed to search for optimal
controller parameters. The performance of both optimization
techniques has been compared. Further, the optimized controllers are
tested on a weekly connected power system subjected to different
disturbances, and their performance is compared with the
conventional power system stabilizer (CPSS). The eigenvalue
analysis and non-linear simulation results are presented and
compared to show the effectiveness of both the techniques in
designing a FACTS-based controller, to enhance power system
Frequency-Domain Design of Fractional-Order FIR Differentiators
In this paper, a fractional-order FIR differentiator
design method using the differential evolution (DE) algorithm is
presented. In the proposed method, the FIR digital filter is designed to
meet the frequency response of a desired fractal-order differentiator,
which is evaluated in the frequency domain. To verify the design
performance, another design method considered in the time-domain is
also provided. Simulation results reveal the efficiency of the proposed
EML-Estimation of Multivariate t Copulas with Heuristic Optimization
In recent years, copulas have become very popular in
financial research and actuarial science as they are more flexible in
modelling the co-movements and relationships of risk factors as compared
to the conventional linear correlation coefficient by Pearson.
However, a precise estimation of the copula parameters is vital in
order to correctly capture the (possibly nonlinear) dependence structure
and joint tail events. In this study, we employ two optimization
heuristics, namely Differential Evolution and Threshold Accepting to
tackle the parameter estimation of multivariate t distribution models
in the EML approach. Since the evolutionary optimizer does not rely
on gradient search, the EML approach can be applied to estimation of
more complicated copula models such as high-dimensional copulas.
Our experimental study shows that the proposed method provides
more robust and more accurate estimates as compared to the IFM
A Hybrid Metaheuristic Framework for Evolving the PROAFTN Classifier
In this paper, a new learning algorithm based on a
hybrid metaheuristic integrating Differential Evolution (DE) and
Reduced Variable Neighborhood Search (RVNS) is introduced to train
the classification method PROAFTN. To apply PROAFTN, values of
several parameters need to be determined prior to classification. These
parameters include boundaries of intervals and relative weights for
each attribute. Based on these requirements, the hybrid approach,
named DEPRO-RVNS, is presented in this study. In some cases, the
major problem when applying DE to some classification problems
was the premature convergence of some individuals to local optima.
To eliminate this shortcoming and to improve the exploration and
exploitation capabilities of DE, such individuals were set to iteratively
re-explored using RVNS. Based on the generated results on
both training and testing data, it is shown that the performance of
PROAFTN is significantly improved. Furthermore, the experimental
study shows that DEPRO-RVNS outperforms well-known machine
learning classifiers in a variety of problems.
Controller Design of Discrete Systems by Order Reduction Technique Employing Differential Evolution Optimization Algorithm
One of the main objectives of order reduction is to
design a controller of lower order which can effectively control the
original high order system so that the overall system is of lower
order and easy to understand. In this paper, a simple method is
presented for controller design of a higher order discrete system.
First the original higher order discrete system in reduced to a lower
order model. Then a Proportional Integral Derivative (PID)
controller is designed for lower order model. An error minimization
technique is employed for both order reduction and controller
design. For the error minimization purpose, Differential Evolution
(DE) optimization algorithm has been employed. DE method is
based on the minimization of the Integral Squared Error (ISE)
between the desired response and actual response pertaining to a
unit step input. Finally the designed PID controller is connected to
the original higher order discrete system to get the desired
specification. The validity of the proposed method is illustrated
through a numerical example.
Solving the Economic Dispatch Problem by Using Differential Evolution
This paper proposes an application of the differential
evolution (DE) algorithm for solving the economic dispatch problem
(ED). Furthermore, the regenerating population procedure added to
the conventional DE in order to improve escaping the local minimum
solution. To test performance of DE algorithm, three thermal
generating units with valve-point loading effects is used for testing.
Moreover, investigating the DE parameters is presented. The
simulation results show that the DE algorithm, which had been
adjusted parameters, is better convergent time than other optimization
Solving the Economic Dispatch Problem using Novel Particle Swarm Optimization
This paper proposes an improved approach based on
conventional particle swarm optimization (PSO) for solving an
economic dispatch(ED) problem with considering the generator
constraints. The mutation operators of the differential evolution (DE)
are used for improving diversity exploration of PSO, which called
particle swarm optimization with mutation operators (PSOM). The
mutation operators are activated if velocity values of PSO nearly to
zero or violated from the boundaries. Four scenarios of mutation
operators are implemented for PSOM. The simulation results of all
scenarios of the PSOM outperform over the PSO and other existing
approaches which appeared in literatures.
Fractional Delay FIR Filters Design with Enhanced Differential Evolution
Fractional delay FIR filters design method based on
the differential evolution algorithm is presented. Differential evolution
is an evolutionary algorithm for solving a global optimization problems in the continuous search space. In the proposed approach,
an evolutionary algorithm is used to determine the coefficients of
a fractional delay FIR filter based on the Farrow structure. Basic
differential evolution is enhanced with a restricted mating technique,
which improves the algorithm performance in terms of convergence
speed and obtained solution. Evolutionary optimization is carried out by minimizing an objective function which is based on the amplitude
response and phase delay errors. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm leads to a reduction in the amplitude response and phase delay errors relative to those achieved with the Least-Squares
Training Radial Basis Function Networks with Differential Evolution
In this paper, Differential Evolution (DE) algorithm, a new promising evolutionary algorithm, is proposed to train Radial Basis Function (RBF) network related to automatic configuration of network architecture. Classification tasks on data sets: Iris, Wine, New-thyroid, and Glass are conducted to measure the performance of neural networks. Compared with a standard RBF training algorithm in Matlab neural network toolbox, DE achieves more rational architecture for RBF networks. The resulting networks hence obtain strong generalization abilities.
No one Set of Parameter Values Can Simulate the Epidemics Due to SARS Occurring at Different Localities
A mathematical model for the transmission of SARS is developed. In addition to dividing the population into susceptible (high and low risk), exposed, infected, quarantined, diagnosed and recovered classes, we have included a class called untraced. The model simulates the Gompertz curves which are the best representation of the cumulative numbers of probable SARS cases in Hong Kong and Singapore. The values of the parameters in the model which produces the best fit of the observed data for each city are obtained by using a differential evolution algorithm. It is seen that the values for the parameters needed to simulate the observed daily behaviors of the two epidemics are different.
Self-Adaptive Differential Evolution Based Power Economic Dispatch of Generators with Valve-Point Effects and Multiple Fuel Options
This paper presents the solution of power economic dispatch (PED) problem of generating units with valve point effects and multiple fuel options using Self-Adaptive Differential Evolution (SDE) algorithm. The global optimal solution by mathematical approaches becomes difficult for the realistic PED problem in power systems. The Differential Evolution (DE) algorithm is found to be a powerful evolutionary algorithm for global optimization in many real problems. In this paper the key parameters of control in DE algorithm such as the crossover constant CR and weight applied to random differential F are self-adapted. The PED problem formulation takes into consideration of nonsmooth fuel cost function due to valve point effects and multi fuel options of generator. The proposed approach has been examined and tested with the numerical results of PED problems with thirteen-generation units including valve-point effects, ten-generation units with multiple fuel options neglecting valve-point effects and ten-generation units including valve-point effects and multiple fuel options. The test results are promising and show the effectiveness of proposed approach for solving PED problems.