Reduced Rule Based Fuzzy Logic Controlled Isolated Bidirectional Converter Operating in Extended Phase Shift Control for Bidirectional Energy Transfer
Bidirectional energy transfer capability with high efficiency and reduced cost is fast gaining prominence in the central part of a lot of power conversion systems in Direct Current (DC) microgrid. Preferably, under the economics constraints, these systems utilise a single high efficiency power electronics conversion system and a dual active bridge converter. In this paper, modeling and performance of Dual Active Bridge (DAB) converter with Extended Phase Shift (EPS) is evaluated with two batteries on both sides of DC bus and bidirectional energy transfer is facilitated and this is further compared with the Single Phase Shift (SPS) mode of operation. Optimum operating zone is identified through exhaustive simulations using MATLAB/Simulink and SimPowerSystem software. Reduced rules based fuzzy logic controller is implemented for closed loop control of DAB converter. The control logic enables the bidirectional energy transfer within the batteries even at lower duty ratios. Charging and discharging of batteries is supervised by the fuzzy logic controller. State of charge, current and voltage for both the batteries are plotted in the battery characteristics. Power characteristics of batteries are also obtained using MATLAB simulations.
The Influence of Directionality on the Giovanelli Illusion
In the Giovanelli illusion, some collinear dots appear misaligned, when each dot lies within a circle and the circles are not collinear. In this illusion, the role of the frame of reference, determined by the circles, is considered a crucial factor. Three experiments were carried out to study the influence of directionality of the circles on the misalignment. The adjustment method was used. Participants changed the orthogonal position of each dot, from the left to the right of the sequence, until a collinear sequence of dots was achieved. The first experiment verified the illusory effect of the misalignment. In the second experiment, the influence of two different directionalities of the circles (-0.58° and +0.58°) on the misalignment was tested. The results show an over-normalization on the sequences of the dots. The third experiment tested the misalignment of the dots without any inclination of the sequence of circles (0°). Only a local illusory effect was found. These results demonstrate that the directionality of the circles, as a global factor, can increase the misalignment. The findings also indicate that directionality and the frame of reference are independent factors in explaining the Giovanelli illusion.
The Design of Broadband 8x2 Phased Array 5G Antenna MIMO 28 GHz for Base Station
This paper proposed a design of 16 elements, 8x2 linear fed patch antenna array with 16 ports, for 28 GHz, mm-wave band 5G for base station. The phased array covers along the azimuth plane to provide the coverage to the users in omnidirectional. The proposed antenna is designed RT Duroid 5880 substrate with the overall size of 85x35.6x0.787 mm3. The array is operating from 27.43 GHz to 28.34 GHz with a 910 MHz impedance bandwidth. The gain of the array is 18.3 dB, while the suppression of the side lobes is -1.0 dB. The main lobe direction of the array is 15 deg. The array shows a high array gain throughout the impedance bandwidth with overall of VSWR is below 1.12. The design will be proposed in single element and 16 elements antenna.
Aggregation Scheduling Algorithms in Wireless Sensor Networks
In Wireless Sensor Networks which consist of tiny
wireless sensor nodes with limited battery power, one of the most
fundamental applications is data aggregation which collects nearby
environmental conditions and aggregates the data to a designated
destination, called a sink node. Important issues concerning the
data aggregation are time efficiency and energy consumption due
to its limited energy, and therefore, the related problem, named
Minimum Latency Aggregation Scheduling (MLAS), has been the
focus of many researchers. Its objective is to compute the minimum
latency schedule, that is, to compute a schedule with the minimum
number of timeslots, such that the sink node can receive the
aggregated data from all the other nodes without any collision or
interference. For the problem, the two interference models, the graph
model and the more realistic physical interference model known as
Signal-to-Interference-Noise-Ratio (SINR), have been adopted with
different power models, uniform-power and non-uniform power (with
power control or without power control), and different antenna
models, omni-directional antenna and directional antenna models.
In this survey article, as the problem has proven to be NP-hard,
we present and compare several state-of-the-art approximation
algorithms in various models on the basis of latency as its
Exciting Voltage Control for Efficiency Maximization for 2-D Omni-Directional Wireless Power Transfer Systems
The majority of wireless power transfer (WPT) systems transfer power in a directional manner. This paper describes a discrete exciting voltage control technique for WPT via magnetic resonant coupling with two orthogonal transmitter coils (2D omni-directional WPT system) which can maximize the power transfer efficiency in response to the change of coupling status. The theory allows the equations of the efficiency of the system to be determined at all the rate of the mutual inductance. The calculated results are included to confirm the advantage to one directional WPT system and the validity of the theory and the equations.
Numerical Analysis and Design of Dielectric to Plasmonic Waveguides Couplers
In this work, efficient directional coupler composed of
dielectric waveguides and metallic film has been analyzed in details
by simulations using finite element method (FEM). The structure
consists of a step-index fiber with dielectric core, silica cladding, and
a metal nanowire parallel to the core. The results show that an
efficient conversion of optical dielectric modes to long range
plasmonic is possible. Low insertion losses in conjunction with short
coupling length and a broadband operation can be achieved under
certain conditions. This kind of couplers has potential applications for
the design of photonic integrated circuits for signal routing between
dielectric/plasmonic waveguides, sensing, lithography, and optical
storage systems. A high efficient focusing of light in a very small
region can be obtained.
High Strength, High Toughness Polyhydroxybutyrate-Co-Valerate Based Biocomposites
Biocomposites is a field that has gained much scientific attention due to the current substantial consumption of non-renewable resources and the environmentally harmful disposal methods required for traditional polymer composites. Research on natural fiber reinforced polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) has gained considerable momentum over the past decade. There is little work on PHAs reinforced with unidirectional (UD) natural fibers and little work on using epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) as a toughening agent for PHA-based biocomposites. In this work, we prepared polyhydroxybutyrate-co-valerate (PHBV) biocomposites reinforced with UD 30 wt.% flax fibers and evaluated the use of ENR with 50% epoxidation (ENR50) as a toughening agent for PHBV biocomposites. Quasi-unidirectional flax/PHBV composites were prepared by hand layup, powder impregnation followed by compression molding. Toughening agents – polybutylene adiphate-co-terephthalate (PBAT) and ENR50 – were cryogenically ground into powder and mechanically mixed with main matrix PHBV to maintain the powder impregnation process. The tensile, flexural and impact properties of the biocomposites were measured and morphology of the composites examined using optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The UD biocomposites showed exceptionally high mechanical properties as compared to the results obtained previously where only short fibers have been used. The improved tensile and flexural properties were attributed to the continuous nature of the fiber reinforcement and the increased proportion of fibers in the loading direction. The improved impact properties were attributed to a larger surface area for fiber-matrix debonding and for subsequent sliding and fiber pull-out mechanisms to act on, allowing more energy to be absorbed. Coating cryogenically ground ENR50 particles with PHBV powder successfully inhibits the self-healing nature of ENR-50, preventing particles from coalescing and overcoming problems in mechanical mixing, compounding and molding. Cryogenic grinding, followed by powder impregnation and subsequent compression molding is an effective route to the production of high-mechanical-property biocomposites based on renewable resources for high-obsolescence applications such as plastic casings for consumer electronics.
Investigating Activity Recognition Using 9-Axis Sensors and Filters in Wearable Devices
In this paper, we analyze major components of activity recognition (AR) in wearable device with 9-axis sensors and sensor fusion filters. 9-axis sensors commonly include 3-axis accelerometer, 3-axis gyroscope and 3-axis magnetometer. We chose sensor fusion filters as Kalman filter and Direction Cosine Matrix (DCM) filter. We also construct sensor fusion data from each activity sensor data and perform classification by accuracy of AR using Naïve Bayes and SVM. According to the classification results, we observed that the DCM filter and the specific combination of the sensing axes are more effective for AR in wearable devices while classifying walking, running, ascending and descending.
Fault and Theft Recognition Using Toro Dial Sensor in Programmable Current Relay for Feeder Security
Feeder protection is important in transmission and distribution side because if any fault occurs in any feeder or transformer, man power is needed to identify the problem and it will take more time. In the existing system, directional overcurrent elements with load further secured by a load encroachment function can be used to provide necessary security and sensitivity for faults on remote points in a circuit. It is validated only in renewable plant collector circuit protection applications over a wide range of operating conditions. In this method, the directional overcurrent feeder protection is developed by using monitoring of feeder section through internet. In this web based monitoring, the fault and power theft are identified by using Toro dial sensor and its information is received by SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) and controlled by ARM microcontroller. This web based monitoring is also used to monitor the feeder management, directional current detection, demand side management, overload fault. This monitoring system is capable of monitoring the distribution feeder over a large area depending upon the cost. It is also used to reduce the power theft, time and man power. The simulation is done by MATLAB software.
Efficient Broadcasting in Wireless Sensor Networks
In this paper, we study the Minimum Latency Broadcast
Scheduling (MLBS) problem in wireless sensor networks (WSNs).
The main issue of the MLBS problem is to compute schedules
with the minimum number of timeslots such that a base station can
broadcast data to all other sensor nodes with no collisions. Unlike
existing works that utilize the traditional omni-directional WSNs,
we target the directional WSNs where nodes can collaboratively
determine and orientate their antenna directions. We first develop
a 7-approximation algorithm, adopting directional WSNs. Our ratio
is currently the best, to the best of our knowledge. We then validate
the performance of the proposed algorithm through simulation.
Evaluation Using a Bidirectional Microphone as a Pressure Pulse Wave Meter
This paper describes a novel sensor device, a pressure
pulse wave meter, which uses a bidirectional condenser microphone.
The microphone work as a microphone as well as a sensor with high
gain over a wide frequency range; they are also highly reliable and
economic. Currently aging is becoming a serious social issue in Japan causing
increased medical expenses in the country. Hence, it is important for
elderly citizens to check health condition at home, and to care the
health conditions through daily monitoring. Given this circumstances,
we developed a novel pressure pulse wave meter based on a
bidirectional condenser microphone: this device is used as a measuring
instrument of health conditions.
High Gain Circularly Polarized Wire Antenna for DSRC Applications
In this communication, a low-cost circularly
polarized wire antenna exhibiting improved gain performance for
Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC), vehicle-to-vehicle
(V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communications is
presented. The proposed antenna comprises a Y-shaped quarterwavelength
monopole antenna surrounded by two iterations of eight
conductive arched walls acting as parasitic elements to enhance the
overall antenna gain and to shape the radiation pattern in the H-plane.
A hemispherical radome shell is added to protect the antenna
structure and its effect on the antenna performance is discussed. The
designed antenna demonstrates antenna gain of 8.2 dB with
omnidirectional far-field radiation pattern in the H-plane. The gain of
the proposed antenna is also compared with the characteristic of the
stand-alone Y-shaped monopole to highlight the advantages of the
Prediction of Seismic Damage Using Scalar Intensity Measures Based On Integration of Spectral Values
A key issue in seismic risk analysis within the context
of Performance-Based Earthquake Engineering is the evaluation of
the expected seismic damage of structures under a specific
earthquake ground motion. The assessment of the seismic
performance strongly depends on the choice of the seismic Intensity
Measure (IM), which quantifies the characteristics of a ground
motion that are important to the nonlinear structural response. Several
conventional IMs of ground motion have been used to estimate their
damage potential to structures. Yet, none of them has been proved to
be able to predict adequately the seismic damage. Therefore,
alternative, scalar intensity measures, which take into account not
only ground motion characteristics but also structural information
have been proposed. Some of these IMs are based on integration of
spectral values over a range of periods, in an attempt to account for
the information that the shape of the acceleration, velocity or
displacement spectrum provides. The adequacy of a number of these
IMs in predicting the structural damage of 3D R/C buildings is
investigated in the present paper. The investigated IMs, some of
which are structure specific and some are non structure-specific, are
defined via integration of spectral values. To achieve this purpose
three symmetric in plan R/C buildings are studied. The buildings are
subjected to 59 bidirectional earthquake ground motions. The two
horizontal accelerograms of each ground motion are applied along
the structural axes. The response is determined by nonlinear time
history analysis. The structural damage is expressed in terms of the
maximum interstory drift as well as the overall structural damage
index. The values of the aforementioned seismic damage measures
are correlated with seven scalar ground motion IMs. The comparative
assessment of the results revealed that the structure-specific IMs
present higher correlation with the seismic damage of the three
buildings. However, the adequacy of the IMs for estimation of the
structural damage depends on the response parameter adopted.
Furthermore, it was confirmed that the widely used spectral
acceleration at the fundamental period of the structure is a good
indicator of the expected earthquake damage level.
Seismic Directionality Effects on In-Structure Response Spectra in Seismic Probabilistic Risk Assessment
Currently, seismic probabilistic risk assessments
(SPRA) for nuclear facilities use In-Structure Response Spectra
(ISRS) in the calculation of fragilities for systems and components.
ISRS are calculated via dynamic analyses of the host building
subjected to two orthogonal components of horizontal ground
motion. Each component is defined as the median motion in any
horizontal direction. Structural engineers applied the components
along selected X and Y Cartesian axes. The ISRS at different
locations in the building are also calculated in the X and Y directions.
The choice of the directions of X and Y are not specified by the
ground motion model with respect to geographic coordinates, and are
rather arbitrarily selected by the structural engineer. Normally, X and
Y coincide with the “principal” axes of the building, in the
understanding that this practice is generally conservative. For SPRA
purposes, however, it is desirable to remove any conservatism in the
estimates of median ISRS. This paper examines the effects of the
direction of horizontal seismic motion on the ISRS on typical nuclear
structure. We also evaluate the variability of ISRS calculated along
different horizontal directions. Our results indicate that some central
measures of the ISRS provide robust estimates that are practically
independent of the selection of the directions of the horizontal
A Novel Three Phase Hybrid Unidirectional Rectifier for High Power Factor Applications
This paper presents a hybrid three phase rectifier for
high power factor application. This rectifier is composed by zero
voltage transition (ZVT) and zero current transition (ZCT) boost
converter with three phase diode bridge rectifier, in parallel with a six
pulse three phase pulse width modulation (PWM) controlled rectifier.
The proposed topology is capable of high power factor with DC
output voltage regulation by providing sinusoidal input. Also, it
increases the overall efficiency of the new hybrid rectifier to 94.56%
and the total harmonic distortion of the hybrid structure varies from
0% to 16% at nominal output power. This topology was simulated in
MATLAB/SIMULINK environment and the output waveforms
presented with experimental result.
Conception of a Reliable, Low Cost and Autonomous Explorative Hovercraft
The paper presents actual benefits and drawbacks of a multidirectional autonomous hovercraft conceived with limited resources and designed for indoor exploration. Recent developments in the field have led to the apparition of very powerful automotive systems capable of very high calculation and exploration in complex unknown environments. They usually propose very complex algorithms, high precision/cost sensors and sometimes have heavy calculation consumption with complex data fusion. These systems are usually powerful but have a certain price, and the benefits may not be worth the cost, especially considering their hardware limitations and their power consumption. The present approach is to build a compromise between cost, power consumption and results preciseness.
Localization of Mobile Robots with Omnidirectional Cameras
Localization of mobile robots are important tasks for
developing autonomous mobile robots. This paper proposes a method
to estimate positions of a mobile robot using a omnidirectional
camera on the robot. Landmarks for points of references are set
up on a field where the robot works. The omnidirectional camera
which can obtain 360 [deg] around images takes photographs of
these landmarks. The positions of the robots are estimated from
directions of these landmarks that are extracted from the images
by image processing. This method can obtain the robot positions
without accumulative position errors. Accuracy of the estimated
robot positions by the proposed method are evaluated through some
experiments. The results show that it can obtain the positions with
small standard deviations. Therefore the method has possibilities of
more accurate localization by tuning of appropriate offset parameters.
Solving Directional Overcurrent Relay Coordination Problem Using Artificial Bees Colony
This paper presents the implementation of Artificial Bees Colony (ABC) algorithm in solving Directional OverCurrent Relays (DOCRs) coordination problem for near-end faults occurring in fixed network topology. The coordination optimization of DOCRs is formulated as linear programming (LP) problem. The objective function is introduced to minimize the operating time of the associated relay which depends on the time multiplier setting. The proposed technique is to taken as a technique for comparison purpose in order to highlight its superiority. The proposed algorithms have been tested successfully on 8 bus test system. The simulation results demonstrated that the ABC algorithm which has been proved to have good search ability is capable in dealing with constraint optimization problems.
Behavioral Studies on Multi-Directionally Reinforced 4-D Orthogonal Composites on Various Preform Configurations
The main advantage of multidirectionally reinforced composites is the freedom to orient selected fiber types and hence derives the benefits of varying fibre volume fractions and there by accommodate the design loads of the final structure of composites. This technology provides the means to produce tailored composites with desired properties. Due to the high level of fibre integrity with through thickness reinforcement those composites are expected to exhibit superior load bearing characteristics with capability to carry load even after noticeable and apparent fracture. However, a survey of published literature indicates inadequacy in the design and test data base for the complete characterization of the multidirectional composites. In this paper the research objective is focused on the development and testing of 4-D orthogonal composites with different preform configurations and resin systems. A preform is the skeleton 4D reinforced composite other than the matrix. In 4-D performs fibre bundles are oriented in three directions at 1200 with respect to each other and they are on orthogonal plane with the fibre in 4th direction. This paper addresses the various types of 4-D composite manufacturing processes and the mechanical test methods followed for the material characterization. A composite analysis is also made, experiments on course and fine woven preforms are conducted and the findings of test results are discussed in this paper. The interpretations of the test results reveal several useful and interesting features. This should pave the way for more widespread use of the perform configurations for allied applications.
Design and Simulation Interface Circuit for Piezoresistive Accelerometers with Offset Cancellation Ability
This paper presents a new method for read out of the piezoresistive accelerometer sensors. The circuit works based on Instrumentation amplifier and it is useful for reducing offset In Wheatstone Bridge. The obtained gain is 645 with 1μv/°c Equivalent drift and 1.58mw power consumption. A Schmitt trigger and multiplexer circuit control output node. a high speed counter is designed in this work .the proposed circuit is designed and simulated In 0.18μm CMOS technology with 1.8v power supply.
Reductive Control in the Management of Redundant Actuation
We present in this work the performances of a mobile omnidirectional robot through evaluating its management of the redundancy of actuation. Thus we come to the predictive control implemented.
The distribution of the wringer on the robot actions, through the inverse pseudo of Moore-Penrose, corresponds to a « geometric ›› distribution of efforts. We will show that the load on vehicle wheels would not be equi-distributed in terms of wheels configuration and of robot movement.
Thus, the threshold of sliding is not the same for the three wheels of the vehicle. We suggest exploiting the redundancy of actuation to reduce the risk of wheels sliding and to ameliorate, thereby, its accuracy of displacement. This kind of approach was the subject of study for the legged robots.
Control Chart Pattern Recognition Using Wavelet Based Neural Networks
Control chart pattern recognition is one of the most important tools to identify the process state in statistical process control. The abnormal process state could be classified by the recognition of unnatural patterns that arise from assignable causes. In this study, a wavelet based neural network approach is proposed for the recognition of control chart patterns that have various characteristics. The procedure of proposed control chart pattern recognizer comprises three stages. First, multi-resolution wavelet analysis is used to generate time-shape and time-frequency coefficients that have detail information about the patterns. Second, distance based features are extracted by a bi-directional Kohonen network to make reduced and robust information. Third, a back-propagation network classifier is trained by these features. The accuracy of the proposed method is shown by the performance evaluation with numerical results.
A Power-Controlled Scheduling Scheme Using a Directional Antenna in Smart Home
This paper proposes a power-controlled scheduling scheme for devices using a directional antenna in smart home. In the case of the home network using directional antenna, devices can concurrently transmit data in the same frequency band. Accordingly, the throughput increases compared to that of devices using omni-directional antenna in proportional to the number of concurrent transmissions. Also, the number of concurrent transmissions depends on the beamwidth of antenna, the number of devices operating in the network , transmission power, interference and so on. In particular, the less transmission power is used, the more concurrent transmissions occur due to small transmission range. In this paper, we considered sub-optimal scheduling scheme for throughput maximization and power consumption minimization. In the scheme, each device is equipped with a directional antenna. Various beamwidths, path loss components, and antenna radiation efficiencies are considered. Numerical results show that the proposed schemes outperform the scheduling scheme using directional antennas without power control.
Shape Optimization of Impeller Blades for a Bidirectional Axial Flow Pump using Polynomial Surrogate Model
This paper describes the shape optimization of impeller
blades for a anti-heeling bidirectional axial flow pump used in ships.
In general, a bidirectional axial pump has an efficiency much lower
than the classical unidirectional pump because of the symmetry of the
blade type. In this paper, by focusing on a pump impeller, the shape of
blades is redesigned to reach a higher efficiency in a bidirectional axial
pump. The commercial code employed in this simulation is CFX v.13.
CFD result of pump torque, head, and hydraulic efficiency was
compared. The orthogonal array (OA) and analysis of variance
(ANOVA) techniques and surrogate model based optimization using
orthogonal polynomial, are employed to determine the main effects
and their optimal design variables. According to the optimal design,
we confirm an effective design variable in impeller blades and explain
the optimal solution, the usefulness for satisfying the constraints of
pump torque and head.
Modeling Directional Thermal Radiance Anisotropy for Urban Canopy
one of the significant factors for improving the
accuracy of Land Surface Temperature (LST) retrieval is the correct
understanding of the directional anisotropy for thermal radiance. In
this paper, the multiple scattering effect between heterogeneous
non-isothermal surfaces is described rigorously according to the
concept of configuration factor, based on which a directional thermal
radiance model is built, and the directional radiant character for urban
canopy is analyzed. The model is applied to a simple urban canopy
with row structure to simulate the change of Directional Brightness
Temperature (DBT). The results show that the DBT is aggrandized
because of the multiple scattering effects, whereas the change range of
DBT is smoothed. The temperature difference, spatial distribution,
emissivity of the components can all lead to the change of DBT. The
“hot spot" phenomenon occurs when the proportion of high
temperature component in the vision field came to a head. On the other
hand, the “cool spot" phenomena occur when low temperature
proportion came to the head. The “spot" effect disappears only when
the proportion of every component keeps invariability. The model
built in this paper can be used for the study of directional effect on
emissivity, the LST retrieval over urban areas and the adjacency effect
of thermal remote sensing pixels.
A Finite Point Method Based on Directional Derivatives for Diffusion Equation
This paper presents a finite point method based on
directional derivatives for diffusion equation on 2D scattered points.
To discretize the diffusion operator at a given point, a six-point stencil
is derived by employing explicit numerical formulae of directional
derivatives, namely, for the point under consideration, only five
neighbor points are involved, the number of which is the smallest for
discretizing diffusion operator with first-order accuracy. A method for
selecting neighbor point set is proposed, which satisfies the solvability
condition of numerical derivatives. Some numerical examples are
performed to show the good performance of the proposed method.
Low Latency Routing Algorithm for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Ad-Hoc Networks
In this paper, we proposed a new routing protocol for
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) that equipped with directional
antenna. We named this protocol Directional Optimized Link State
Routing Protocol (DOLSR). This protocol is based on the well
known protocol that is called Optimized Link State Routing Protocol
(OLSR). We focused in our protocol on the multipoint relay (MPR)
concept which is the most important feature of this protocol. We
developed a heuristic that allows DOLSR protocol to minimize
the number of the multipoint relays. With this new protocol the
number of overhead packets will be reduced and the End-to-End
delay of the network will also be minimized. We showed through
simulation that our protocol outperformed Optimized Link State
Routing Protocol, Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) protocol and Ad-
Hoc On demand Distance Vector (AODV) routing protocol in
reducing the End-to-End delay and enhancing the overall
throughput. Our evaluation of the previous protocols was based
on the OPNET network simulation tool.
Bidirectional Chaotic Synchronization of Non-Autonomous Circuit and its Application for Secure Communication
The nonlinear chaotic non-autonomous fourth order
system is algebraically simple but can generate complex chaotic
attractors. In this paper, non-autonomous fourth order chaotic
oscillator circuits were designed and simulated. Also chaotic nonautonomous
Attractor is addressed suitable for chaotic masking
communication circuits using Matlab® and MultiSIM® programs.
We have demonstrated in simulations that chaos can be synchronized
and applied to signal masking communications. We suggest that this
phenomenon of chaos synchronism may serve as the basis for little
known chaotic non-autonomous Attractor to achieve signal masking
communication applications. Simulation results are used to visualize
and illustrate the effectiveness of non-autonomous chaotic system in
signal masking. All simulations results performed on nonautonomous
chaotic system are verify the applicable of secure
Speckle Reducing Contourlet Transform for Medical Ultrasound Images
Speckle noise affects all coherent imaging systems
including medical ultrasound. In medical images, noise suppression
is a particularly delicate and difficult task. A tradeoff between noise
reduction and the preservation of actual image features has to be made
in a way that enhances the diagnostically relevant image content.
Even though wavelets have been extensively used for denoising
speckle images, we have found that denoising using contourlets gives
much better performance in terms of SNR, PSNR, MSE, variance and
correlation coefficient. The objective of the paper is to determine the
number of levels of Laplacian pyramidal decomposition, the number
of directional decompositions to perform on each pyramidal level and
thresholding schemes which yields optimal despeckling of medical
ultrasound images, in particular. The proposed method consists of the
log transformed original ultrasound image being subjected to contourlet
transform, to obtain contourlet coefficients. The transformed
image is denoised by applying thresholding techniques on individual
band pass sub bands using a Bayes shrinkage rule. We quantify the
achieved performance improvement.
Revealing Nonlinear Couplings between Oscillators from Time Series
Quantitative characterization of nonlinear directional
couplings between stochastic oscillators from data is considered. We
suggest coupling characteristics readily interpreted from a physical
viewpoint and their estimators. An expression for a statistical
significance level is derived analytically that allows reliable coupling
detection from a relatively short time series. Performance of the
technique is demonstrated in numerical experiments.