Methane Production from Biomedical Waste (Blood)
This study investigates the production of renewable energy (biogas) from biomedical hazard waste (blood) and eco-friendly disposal. Biogas is produced by the bacterial anaerobic digestion of biomaterial (blood). During digestion process bacterial feeding result in breaking down chemical bonds of the biomaterial and changing its features, by the end of the digestion (biogas production) the remains become manure as known. That has led to the economic and eco-friendly disposal of hazard biomedical waste (blood). The samples (Whole blood, Red blood cells 'RBCs', Blood platelet and Fresh Frozen Plasma ‘FFP’) are collected and measured in terms of carbon to nitrogen C/N ratio and total solid, then filled in connected flasks (three flasks) using water displacement method. The results of trails showed that the platelet and FFP failed to produce flammable gas, but via a gas analyzer, it showed the presence of the following gases: CO, HC, CO₂, and NOX. Otherwise, the blood and RBCs produced flammable gases: Methane-nitrous CH₃NO (99.45%), which has a blue color flame and carbon dioxide CO₂ (0.55%), which has red/yellow color flame. Methane-nitrous is sometimes used as fuel for rockets, some aircraft and racing cars.
An Overview of Electronic Waste as Aggregate in Concrete
Rapid growth of world population and widespread urbanization has remarkably increased the development of the construction industry which caused a huge demand for sand and gravels. Environmental problems occur when the rate of extraction of sand, gravels, and other materials exceeds the rate of generation of natural resources; therefore, an alternative source is essential to replace the materials used in concrete. Now-a-days, electronic products have become an integral part of daily life which provides more comfort, security, and ease of exchange of information. These electronic waste (E-Waste) materials have serious human health concerns and require extreme care in its disposal to avoid any adverse impacts. Disposal or dumping of these E-Wastes also causes major issues because it is highly complex to handle and often contains highly toxic chemicals such as lead, cadmium, mercury, beryllium, brominates flame retardants (BFRs), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and phosphorus compounds. Hence, E-Waste can be incorporated in concrete to make a sustainable environment. This paper deals with the composition, preparation, properties, classification of E-Waste. All these processes avoid dumping to landfills whilst conserving natural aggregate resources, and providing a better environmental option. This paper also provides a detailed literature review on the behaviour of concrete with incorporation of E-Wastes. Many research shows the strong possibility of using E-Waste as a substitute of aggregates eventually it reduces the use of natural aggregates in concrete.
Non-Burn Treatment of Health Care Risk Waste
This research discusses a South African case study for the potential of utilizing refuse-derived fuel (RDF) obtained from non-burn treatment of health care risk waste (HCRW) as potential feedstock for green energy production. This specific waste stream can be destroyed via non-burn treatment technology involving high-speed mechanical shredding followed by steam or chemical injection to disinfect the final product. The RDF obtained from this process is characterised by a low moisture, low ash, and high calorific value which means it can be potentially used as high-value solid fuel. Due to the raw feed of this RDF being classified as hazardous, the final RDF has been reported to be non-infectious and can blend with other combustible wastes such as rubber and plastic for waste to energy applications. This study evaluated non-burn treatment technology as a possible solution for on-site destruction of HCRW in South African private and public health care centres. Waste generation quantities were estimated based on the number of registered patient beds, theoretical bed occupancy. Time and motion study was conducted to evaluate the logistics viability of on-site treatment. Non-burn treatment technology for HCRW is a promising option for South Africa, and successful implementation of this method depends upon the initial capital investment, operational cost and environmental permitting of such technology; there are other influencing factors such as the size of the waste stream, product off-take price as well as product demand.
Performance Assessment of the Gold Coast Desalination Plant Offshore Multiport Brine Diffuser during ‘Hot Standby’ Operation
Alongside the rapid expansion of Seawater Reverse Osmosis technologies there is a concurrent increase in the production of hypersaline brine by-products. To minimize environmental impact, these by-products are commonly disposed into open-coastal environments via submerged diffuser systems as inclined dense jet outfalls. Despite the widespread implementation of this process, diffuser designs are typically based on small-scale laboratory experiments under idealistic quiescent conditions. Studies concerning diffuser performance in the field are limited. A set of experiments were conducted to assess the near field characteristics of brine disposal at the Gold Coast Desalination Plant offshore multiport diffuser. The aim of the field experiments was to determine the trajectory and dilution characteristics of the plume under various discharge configurations with production ranging 66 – 100% of plant operative capacity. The field monitoring system employed an unprecedented static array of temperature and electrical conductivity sensors in a three-dimensional grid surrounding a single diffuser port. Complimenting these measurements, Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers were also deployed to record current variability over the depth of the water column and wave characteristics. Recorded data suggested the open-coastal environment was highly active over the experimental duration with ambient velocities ranging 0.0 – 0.5 m∙s-1, with considerable variability over the depth of the water column observed. Variations in background electrical conductivity corresponding to salinity fluctuations of ± 1.7 g∙kg-1 were also observed. Increases in salinity were detected during plant operation and appeared to be most pronounced 10 – 30 m from the diffuser, consistent with trajectory predictions described by existing literature. Plume trajectories and respective dilutions extrapolated from salinity data are compared with empirical scaling arguments. Discharge properties were found to adequately correlate with modelling projections. Temporal and spatial variation of background processes and their subsequent influence upon discharge outcomes are discussed with a view to incorporating the influence of waves and ambient currents in the design of brine outfalls into the future.
Healthcare Waste Management Practices in Bangladesh: A Case Study in Dhaka City, Bangladesh
Healthcare waste (HCW) is one of the major concerns in environmental issues due to its infectious and hazardous nature that is requires specific treatment and systematic management prior to final disposal. This study aimed to assess HCW management system in Dhaka City (DC), Bangladesh, by investigating the present practices implemented by the city. In this study, five different healthcare establishments were selected in DC. Field visits and interviews with health personnel and staff who are concerned with the waste management were conducted. The information was gathered through questionnaire focus on the different aspect of HCW management like, waste segregation and collection, storage and transport, awareness as well. The results showed that a total of 7,215 kg/day (7.2 ton/day) of waste were generated, of which 79.36% (5.6 ton/day) was non-hazardous waste and 20.6% (1.5 ton/day) was hazardous waste. The rate of waste generation in these healthcare establishments (HCEs) was 2.6 kg/bed/day. There was no appropriate and systematic management of HCWs except at few private HCEs that segregate their hazardous waste. All the surveyed HCEs dumped their HCW together with the municipal waste, and some staff members were also found to be engaged in improper handling of the generated waste. Furthermore, the used sharp instruments, saline bags, blood bags and test tubes were collected for resale or reuse. Nevertheless, the lack of awareness, appropriate policy, regulation and willingness to act, were responsible for the improper management of HCW in DC. There was lack of practical training of concerned healthcare to handle the waste properly, while the nurses and staff were found to be aware of the health impacts of HCW.
Experimental Investigation on Freeze-Concentration Process Desalting for Highly Saline Brines
Using the freeze-melting process for the disposing of high saline brines was the aim of the paper by confirming the performance estimation of the treatment system. A laboratory bench scale freezing technique test unit was designed, constructed, and tested at Doha Research Plant (DRP) in Kuwait. The principal unit operations that have been considered for the laboratory study are: ice crystallization, separation, washing, and melting. The applied process is characterized as “the secondary-refrigerant indirect freezing”, which is utilizing normal freezing concept. The high saline brine was used as definite feed water, i.e. average TDS of 250,000 ppm. Kuwait desalination plants were carried out in the experimental study to measure the performance of the proposed treatment system. Experimental analysis shows that the freeze-melting process is capable of dropping the TDS of the feed water from 249,482 ppm to 56,880 ppm of the freeze-melting process in the two-phase’s course, whereas overall recovery results of the salt passage and salt rejection are 31.11%, 19.05%, and 80.95%, correspondingly. Therefore, the freeze-melting process is encouraging for the proposed application, as it shows on the results, which approves the process capability of reducing a major amount of the dissolved salts of the high saline brine with reasonable sensible recovery. This process might be reasonable with other brine disposal processes.
Co-Disposal of Coal Ash with Mine Tailings in Surface Paste Disposal Practices: A Gold Mining Case Study
The present paper describes the study of paste tailings prepared in laboratory using gold tailings, produced in a Finnish gold mine with the incorporation of coal ash. Natural leaching tests were conducted with the original materials (tailings, fly and bottom ashes) and also with paste mixtures that were prepared with different percentages of tailings and ashes. After leaching, the solid wastes were physically and chemically characterized and the results were compared to those selected as blank – the unleached samples. The tailings and the coal ash, as well as the prepared mixtures, were characterized, in addition to the textural parameters, by the following measurements: grain size distribution, chemical composition and pH. Mixtures were also tested in order to characterize their mechanical behavior by measuring the flexural strength, the compressive strength and the consistency. The original tailing samples presented an alkaline pH because during their processing they were previously submitted to pressure oxidation with destruction of the sulfides. Therefore, it was not possible to ascertain the effect of the coal ashes in the acid mine drainage. However, it was possible to verify that the paste reactivity was affected mostly by the bottom ash and that the tailings blended with bottom ash present lower mechanical strength than when blended with a combination of fly and bottom ash. Surface paste disposal offer an attractive alternative to traditional methods in addition to the environmental benefits of incorporating large-volume wastes (e.g. bottom ash). However, a comprehensive characterization of the paste mixtures is crucial to optimize paste design in order to enhance engineer and environmental properties.
Evaluation on Mechanical Stabilities of Clay-Sand Mixtures Used as Engineered Barrier for Radioactive Waste Disposal
In this study, natural bentonite was used as natural
clay material and samples were taken from the Kalecik district in
Ankara. In this research, bentonite is the subject of an analysis from
standpoint of assessing the basic properties of engineered barriers
with respect to the buffer material. Bentonite and sand mixtures were
prepared for tests. Some of clay minerals give relatively higher
hydraulic conductivity and lower swelling pressure. Generally,
hydraulic conductivity of these type clays is lower than <10-12 m/s.
The hydraulic properties of clay-sand mixtures are evaluated to
design engineered barrier specifications. Hydraulic conductivities of
bentonite-sand mixture were found in the range of 1.2x10-10 to
9.3x10-10 m/s. Optimum B/S mixture ratio was determined as 35% in
terms of hydraulic conductivity and mechanical stability. At the
second stage of this study, all samples were compacted into
cylindrical shape molds (diameter: 50 mm and length: 120 mm). The
strength properties of compacted mixtures were better than the
compacted bentonite. In addition, the larger content of the quartz
sand in the mixture has the greater thermal conductivity.
Industrial Wastewater Sludge Treatment in Chongqing, China
Sludge originates from the process of treatment of wastewater. It is the byproduct of wastewater treatment containing concentrated heavy metals and poorly biodegradable trace organic compounds, as well as potentially pathogenic organisms (viruses, bacteria, etc.) which are usually difficult to treat or dispose of. China, like other countries, is no stranger to the challenges posed by increase of wastewater. Treatment and disposal of sludge has been a problem for most cities in China. However, this problem has been exacerbated by other issues such as lack of technology, funding, and other factors. Suitable methods for such climatic conditions are still unavailable for modern cities in China. Against this background, this paper seeks to describe the methods used for treatment and disposal of sludge from industries and suggest a suitable method for treatment and disposal in Chongqing/China. From the research conducted, it was discovered that the highest treatment rate of sludge in Chongqing was 10.08%. The industrial waste piping system is not separated from the domestic system. Considering the proliferation of industry and urbanization, there is a likelihood that the production of sludge in Chongqing will increase. If the sludge produced is not properly managed, this may lead to adverse health and environmental effects. Disposal costs and methods for Chongqing were also included in this paper’s analysis. Research showed that incineration is the most expensive method of sludge disposal in China/Chongqing. Subsequent research therefore considered optional alternatives such as composting. Composting represents a relatively cheap waste disposal method considering the vast population, current technology and economic conditions of Chongqing, as well as China at large.
Health Care Waste Management Practices in Liberia: An Investigative Case Study
Healthcare waste management continues to present an
array of challenges for developing countries, and Liberia is of no
exception. There is insufficient information available regarding the
generation, handling, and disposal of health care waste. This face
serves as an impediment to healthcare management schemes. The
specific objective of this study is to present an evaluation of the
current health care management practices in Liberia. It also presented
procedures, techniques used, methods of handling, transportation, and
disposal methods of wastes as well as the quantity and composition
of health care waste. This study was conducted as an investigative
case study, covering three different health care facilities; a hospital, a
health center, and a clinic in Monrovia, Montserrado County. The
average waste generation was found to be 0-7kg per day at the clinic
and health center and 8-15kg per/day at the hospital. The composition
of the waste includes hazardous and non-hazardous waste i.e. plastic,
papers, sharps, and pathological elements etc. Nevertheless, the
investigation showed that the healthcare waste generated by the
surveyed healthcare facilities were not properly handled because of
insufficient guidelines for separate collection, and classification, and
adequate methods for storage and proper disposal of generated
wastes. This therefore indicates that there is a need for improvement
within the healthcare waste management system to improve the
Impact of Disposed Drinking Water Sachets in Damaturu, Yobe State, Nigeria
Damaturu is the capital of Yobe State in northeastern
Nigeria where civic amenities and facilities are not adequate even
after 24 years of its existence. The volatile security and political
situations are most significant causes for the same. The basic facility
for the citizens in terms of drinking water and electricity are not
available. For the drinking water, they have to rely on personal
boreholes or the filtered borehole waters available in packaged
sachets in market. The present study is concerned with environmental
impact of indiscriminate disposal of drinking synthetic polythene
water sachets in Damaturu. The sachet water is popularly called as
“pure water”, but its purity is questionable. Increased production and
consumption of sachet water has led to indiscriminate dumping and
disposal of empty sachets leading to serious environmental threat.
The evidence of this is seen for sachets littering the streets and the
drainages blocked by ‘blocks’ of water sachet waste. Sachet water
gained much popularity in Nigeria because the product is convenient
for use, affordable and economically viable. The present study aims
to find out the solution to this environmental problem. The fieldbased
study has found some significant factors that cause
environmental and socio economic effect due to this. Some
recommendations have been made based on research findings
regarding sustainable waste management, recycling and re-use of the
non-biodegradable products in society.
Legal Regulation and Critical Analysis for an Effectively Treatment of Pharmaceutical Waste
The extermination and proper disposal of
pharmaceutical wastes from expired and unused medications remains
a disputable issue due to their specific nature and characteristics.
Even though the hazards from these wastes are already well known in
terms of environment and human health, people still treat them as
usual wastes. At a national level, in many countries the management
of pharmaceutical and medical wastes has been one of the main
objectives in order to protect people’s health and the environment.
Even though many legal regulations exist in this respect, there has not
been a single law that would clearly explain the procedures of
returning medicines, ways of selection, treatment and extermination
of pharmaceutical wastes. This paper aims at analyzing the practices
of pharmaceutical waste management and treatment in some
European countries as well as a review of the legislation and official
guidelines in managing these kinds of wastes and protecting the
environment and human health. A suitable treatment and
management of expired medications and other similar wastes would
be in the interest of public health in the first place, as well as in the
interest of healthcare institutions and other bodies engaged in
Environmental and Technical Modeling of Industrial Solid Waste Management Using Analytical Network Process; A Case Study: Gilan-IRAN
Proper management of residues originated from
industrial activities is considered as one of the serious challenges
faced by industrial societies due to their potential hazards to the
environment. Common disposal methods for industrial solid wastes
(ISWs) encompass various combinations of solely management
options, i.e. recycling, incineration, composting, and sanitary
landfilling. Indeed, the procedure used to evaluate and nominate the
best practical methods should be based on environmental, technical,
economical, and social assessments. In this paper an environmentaltechnical
assessment model is developed using analytical network
process (ANP) to facilitate the decision making practice for ISWs
generated at Gilan province, Iran. Using the results of performed
surveys on industrial units located at Gilan, the various groups of
solid wastes in the research area were characterized, and four
different ISW management scenarios were studied. The evaluation
process was conducted using the above-mentioned model in the
Super Decisions software (version 2.0.8) environment. The results
indicates that the best ISW management scenario for Gilan province
is consist of recycling the metal industries residues, composting the
putrescible portion of ISWs, combustion of paper, wood, fabric and
polymeric wastes as well as energy extraction in the incineration
plant, and finally landfilling the rest of the waste stream in addition
with rejected materials from recycling and compost production plants
and ashes from the incineration unit.
Mathematical Modelling of Transport Phenomena in Radioactive Waste-Cement-Bentonite Matrix
The leaching rate of 137Cs from spent mix bead (anion and cation) exchange resins in a cement-bentonite matrix has been studied. Transport phenomena involved in the leaching of a radioactive material from a cement-bentonite matrix are investigated using three methods based on theoretical equations. These are: the diffusion equation for a plane source an equation for diffusion coupled to a firstorder equation and an empirical method employing a polynomial equation. The results presented in this paper are from a 25-year mortar and concrete testing project that will influence the design choices for radioactive waste packaging for a future Serbian radioactive waste disposal center.
Hazardous Waste Management of Transmission Line Tower Manufacturing
The manufacturing transmission line tower parts has
being generated hazardous waste which is required proper disposal
of waste for protection of land pollution. Manufacturing Process in
the manufacturing of steel angle, plates, pipes, channels are passes
through conventional, semi automatic and CNC machines for
cutting, marking, punching, drilling, notching, bending operations.
All fabricated material Coated with thin layer of Zinc in Galvanizing
plant where molten zinc is used for coating. Prior to Galvanizing,
chemical like 33% concentrated HCl Acid, ammonium chloride and
d-oil being used for pretreatment of iron. The bath of water with
sodium dichromate is used for cooling and protection of the
galvanized steel. For the heating purpose the furnace oil burners are
used. These above process the Zinc dross, Zinc ash, ETP sludge and
waste pickled acid generated as hazardous waste. The RPG has
made captive secured land fill site, since 1997 since then it was
using for disposal of hazardous waste after completion of SLF
(Secured land fill) site. The RPG has raised height from ground
level then now it is being used for disposal of waste as he designed
the SLF after in creasing height of from GL it is functional without
leach ate or adverse impacts in the environment.
Household Demand for Solid Waste Disposal Options in Malaysia
This paper estimates the economic values of
household preference for enhanced solid waste disposal services in
Malaysia. The contingent valuation (CV) method estimates an
average additional monthly willingness-to-pay (WTP) in solid waste
management charges of Ôé¼0.77 to 0.80 for improved waste disposal
services quality. The finding of a slightly higher WTP from the
generic CV question than that of label-specific, further reveals a
higher WTP for sanitary landfill, at Ôé¼0.90, than incineration, at Ôé¼0.63.
This suggests that sanitary landfill is a more preferred alternative.
The logistic regression estimation procedure reveals that household-s
concern of where their rubbish is disposed, age, ownership of house,
household income and format of CV question are significant factors
in influencing WTP.
Fundamental Equation of Complete Factor Synergetics of Complex Systems with Normalization of Dimension
It is by reason of the unified measure of varieties of resources and the unified processing of the disposal of varieties of resources, that these closely related three of new basic models called the resources assembled node and the disposition integrated node as well as the intelligent organizing node are put forth in this paper; the three closely related quantities of integrative analytical mechanics including the disposal intensity and disposal- weighted intensity as well as the charge of resource charge are set; and then the resources assembled space and the disposition integrated space as well as the intelligent organizing space are put forth. The system of fundamental equations and model of complete factor synergetics is preliminarily approached for the general situation in this paper, to form the analytical base of complete factor synergetics. By the essential variables constituting this system of equations we should set twenty variables respectively with relation to the essential dynamical effect, external synergetic action and internal synergetic action of the system.
Municipal Solid Waste Management in KhoramAbad City and Experiences
This paper presents an overview of current municipal
solid waste management in Khoram Abad city.
According to data collected by the local authorities, the waste
generation rate is estimated to be 800 g/cap.d with density of 243
kg/m3. Solid waste is stored in different types of containers at the
source of generation in different areas of the city.
Local Authority is responsible for waste collection, transportation.
Municipality is responsible for waste collection, using private sector
At present, both mechanical and manual methods are used to
collect residential waste. Manual methods of collection are the most
commonly used for waste collection in most parts of the city.
Land filling is the main disposal method in this city. But it has
some obvious problem and deficiencies
The current state of solid waste management has been improved
slightly in the last decade. By more actions can reduce the human and