Bank Loans and the Business Cycle: The Case of the Czech Republic
This article aims to evaluate the impact of loans provided within the Czech banking sector on the growth of the Czech economy. The article is based on research of current scientific findings in respect to bank loans and economic development. The paper is based on data taken from the Czech Statistical Office on the development of the gross domestic product and data from the Czech National Bank on the development of loans from the period 2004-2015. Links between selected variables are tested using Granger causality tests. The results calculated confirm the hypothesis of the impact of the loans on economic growth, with a six-month delay. The results thus correspond to the standard economic findings and results of most previous studies.
The Importance of Changing the Traditional Mode of Higher Education in Bangladesh: Creating Huge Job Opportunities for Home and Abroad
Bangladesh has set its goal to reach upper middle-income country status by 2024. To attain this status, the country must satisfy the World Bank requirement of achieving minimum Gross National Income (GNI). Number of youth job seekers in the country is increasing. University graduates are looking for decent jobs. So, the vital issue of this country is to understand how the GNI and jobs can be increased. The objective of this paper is to address these issues and find ways to create more job opportunities for youths at home and abroad which will increase the country’s GNI. The paper studies proportion of different goods Bangladesh exported, and also the percentage of employment in different sectors. The data used here for the purpose of analysis have been collected from the available literature. These data are then plotted and analyzed. Through these studies, it is concluded that growth in sectors like agricultural, ready-made garments (RMG), jute industries and fisheries are declining and the business community is not interested in setting up capital-intensive industries. Under this situation, the country needs to explore other business opportunities for a higher economic growth rate. Knowledge can substitute the physical resource. Since the country consists of the large youth population, higher education will play a key role in economic development. It now needs graduates with higher-order skills with innovative quality. Such dispositions demand changes in a university’s curriculum, teaching and assessment method which will function young generations as active learners and creators. By bringing these changes in higher education, a knowledge-based society can be created. The application of such knowledge and creativity will then become the commodity of Bangladesh which will help to reach its goal as an upper middle-income country.
Institutional Determinants of Economic Growth in Georgia and in Other Post-Communist Economies
The institutional development is one of the actual topics in economics science. New trends and directions of institutional development mostly depend on its structure and framework. Transformation of institutions is an important problem for every economy, especially for developing countries. The first research goal is to determine the importance and interactions between different institutions in Georgia. Using World Governance Indicators and Economic Freedom indexes it can be calculated the size for each institutional group. The second aim of this research is to evaluate Georgian institutional backwardness in comparison to other post-communist economies. We use statistical and econometric methods to evaluate the difference between the levels of institutional development in Georgia and in leading post-communist economies. Within the scope of this research, major findings are coefficients which are an assessment of their deviation (i.e. lag) of institutional indicators between Georgia and leading post-communist country which should be compared. The last part of the article includes analysis around the selected coefficients.
An Overview of Georgia’s Economic Growth Since 2012: Current Status, Challenges, and Opportunities for Future Development
After the Rose Revolution of 2003, Georgia has achieved an unparalleled socioeconomic success. However, economic growth since 2012 has been sluggish and certainly not enough to rapidly improve the county’s standard of living that still remains substantially low compared to that in developed nations. Recent poor economic performance has shown that some key challenges need to be addressed if Georgia is to achieve high future economic growth that will decrease the poverty rate and create a middle class in the country. This paper offers in detail analysis of the economic performance of Georgia since 2012 and identifies key challenges facing the country’s economy. The main challenge going forward will be transforming Georgia from a consumption-driven to a production-oriented economy. It is identified that mobilizing domestic investment through savings, attracting foreign investment in tradable sectors and expanding the country’s export base will be crucial in the facilitation of the above-mentioned structural transformation. As the outcome of the research, the paper suggests a strategy for accelerating Georgia’ future economic growth and offers recommendations based on the relevant conclusions.
Macro Corruption: A Conceptual Analysis of Its Dimensions and Forward and Backward Linkages
An attempt was made to fill the gap in the macro analysis of corruption by suggesting a conceptual framework that differentiates four types of macro corruption: state capture, political, bureaucratic and financial/corporate. The economic consequences or forward linkages (growth, inclusiveness and sustainability of development) and macro institutional determinants constituting the backward linkages of each type were delineated. The research implications of the macro perspective and proposed framework were discussed. Implications of the findings for theory, research and reform policies addressing macro corruption issues were discussed.
Economic Growth Relations to Domestic and International Air Passenger Transport in Brazil
This study examined cointegration and causal relationships between economic growth and regular domestic and international passenger air transport in Brazil. Total passengers embarked and disembarked were used as a proxy for air transport activity and gross domestic product (GDP) as a proxy for economic development. The test spanned the period from 2000 to 2015 for domestic passenger traffic and from 1995 to 2015 for international traffic. The results confirm the hypothesis that there is cointegration between passenger traffic series and economic development, showing a bi-directional Granger causal relationship between domestic traffic and economic development and unidirectional influence by economic growth on international passenger air transport demand. Variance decomposition of the series showed that domestic air transport was far more important than international transport to promoting economic development in Brazil.
Entrepreneurship Education as a 21st Century Strategy for Economic Growth and Sustainable Development
Within the last 30 years, entrepreneurship education (EE) has continued to gain massive interest both in the field of research and among policy makers. This surge in interest can be attributed to the perceived importance EE plays in the equipping of potential entrepreneurs and as a 21st century strategy to foster economic growth and development. This paper sets out to ascertain the correlation between EE and economic growth and development. A desk research approach was adopted where a multiplicity of literatures in the field were studied intensely. The findings reveal that indeed EE has a positive effect on entrepreneurship engagement thereby fostering economic growth and development. However, some research studies reported the contrary. That although EE may be able to equip potential entrepreneurs with requisite entrepreneurial skills and competencies, it will only be successful in producing entrepreneurs if they are internally driven to become entrepreneurs, because we cannot make people what they are not. The findings also reveal that countries that adopted EE early have more innovations inspired by entrepreneurs and are more developed than those that only recently adopted EE as a viable tool for entrepreneurship and economic development.
Understanding Innovation by Analyzing the Pillars of the Global Competitiveness Index
Global Competitiveness Index (GCI) prepared by World Economic Forum has become a benchmark in studying the competitiveness of countries and for understanding the factors that enable competitiveness. Innovation is a key pillar in competitiveness and has the unique property of enabling exponential economic growth. This paper attempts to analyze how the pillars comprising the Global Competitiveness Index affect innovation and whether GDP growth can directly affect innovation outcomes for a country. The key objective of the study is to identify areas on which governments of developing countries can focus policies and programs to improve their country’s innovativeness. We have compiled a panel data set for top innovating countries and large emerging economies called BRICS from 2007-08 to 2014-15 in order to find the significant factors that affect innovation. The results of the regression analysis suggest that government should make policies to improve labor market efficiency, establish sophisticated business networks, provide basic health and primary education to its people and strengthen the quality of higher education and training services in the economy. The achievements of smaller economies on innovation suggest that concerted efforts by governments can counter any size related disadvantage, and in fact can provide greater flexibility and speed in encouraging innovation.
Evaluating the Nexus between Energy Demand and Economic Growth Using the VECM Approach: Case Study of Nigeria, China, and the United States
The effectiveness of energy demand policy depends on identifying the key drivers of energy demand both in the short-run and the long-run. This paper examines the influence of regional differences on the link between energy demand and other explanatory variables for Nigeria, China and USA using the Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) approach. This study employed annual time series data on energy consumption (ED), real gross domestic product (GDP) per capita (RGDP), real energy prices (P) and urbanization (N) for a thirty-six-year sample period. The utilized time-series data are sourced from World Bank’s World Development Indicators (WDI, 2016) and US Energy Information Administration (EIA). Results from the study, shows that all the independent variables (income, urbanization, and price) substantially affect the long-run energy consumption in Nigeria, USA and China, whereas, income has no significant effect on short-run energy demand in USA and Nigeria. In addition, the long-run effect of urbanization is relatively stronger in China. Urbanization is a key factor in energy demand, it therefore recommended that more attention should be given to the development of rural communities to reduce the inflow of migrants into urban communities which causes the increase in energy demand and energy excesses should be penalized while energy management should be incentivized.
An Analysis of the Relationship between Manufacturing Growth and Economic Growth in South Africa: A Cointegration Approach
This paper examines the relationship between manufacturing growth and economic growth in South Africa using quarterly data ranging from 2001 to 2014. The paper employed the Johansen cointegration to test the Kaldor’s hypothesis. The Johansen cointegration results revealed that there is a long run relationship between GDP, manufacturing, service and employment. The Granger causality results revealed that there is a unidirectional causality running from manufacturing growth to GDP growth. The overall findings of the study confirm that Kaldor’s first law of growth is applicable in South African economy. Therefore, investment strategies and policies should be alignment towards promoting growth in the manufacturing sector in order to boost the economic growth of South Africa.
Economics of Oil and Its Stability in the Gulf Region
After the World War II, the world economy was disrupted and changed due to oil and its prices. The research in this paper presents the basic statistical features and economic characteristics of the Gulf economy. The main features of the Gulf economies and its heavy dependence on oil exports, its dualism between modern and traditional sectors and its rapidly increasing affluences are particularly emphasized. In this context, the research in this paper discussed the problems of growth versus development and has attempted to draw the implications for the future economic development of this area.
Analysis of Causality between Economic Growth and Carbon Emissions: The Case of Mexico 1971-2011
This paper analyzes the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis to test the causality relationship between economic activity, trade openness and carbon dioxide emissions in Mexico (1971-2011). The results achieved in this research show that there are three long-run relationships between production, trade openness, energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions. The EKC hypothesis was not verified in this research. Indeed, it was found evidence of a short-term unidirectional causality from GDP and GDP squared to carbon dioxide emissions, from GDP, GDP squared and TO to EC, and bidirectional causality between TO and GDP. Finally, it was found evidence of long-term unidirectional causality from all variables to carbon emissions. These results suggest that a reduction in energy consumption, economic activity, or an increase in trade openness would reduce pollution.
Role of ICT and Wage Inequality in Organization
This study deals with wage inequality in organization
and shows the relationship between ICT and wage in organization.
To do so, we incorporate ICT’s factors in organization into our
model. ICT’s factors are efficiencies of Enterprise Resource
Planning (ERP), Computer Assisted Design/Computer Assisted
Manufacturing (CAD/CAM), and NETWORK. The improvement of
ICT’s factors decrease the learning cost to solve problem pertaining
to the hierarchy in organization. The improvement of NETWORK
increases the wage inequality within workers and decreases within
managers and entrepreneurs. The improvements of CAD/CAM and
ERP increases the wage inequality within all agent, and partially
increase it between the agents in hierarchy.
The Fiscal-Monetary Policy and Economic Growth in Algeria: VECM Approach
The objective of this study is to examine the relative effectiveness of monetary and fiscal policy in Algeria using the econometric modelling techniques of cointegration and vector error correction modelling to analyse and draw policy inferences. The chosen variables of fiscal policy are government expenditure and net taxes on products, while the effect of monetary policy is presented by the inflation rate and the official exchange rate. From the results, we find that in the long-run, the impact of government expenditures is positive, while the effect of taxes is negative on growth. Additionally, we find that the inflation rate is found to have little effect on GDP per capita but the impact of the exchange rate is insignificant. We conclude that fiscal policy is more powerful then monetary policy in promoting economic growth in Algeria.
Trade Policy Incentives and Economic Growth in Nigeria
This paper analyzes, using descriptive statistics and econometrics data which span the period 1981 to 2014 to gauge the effects of trade policy incentives on economic growth in Nigeria. It argues that the provided incentives penalize economic growth during pre-trade liberalization eras, but stimulated a rapid increase in total factor productivity during the post-liberalization period of 2000 to 2014. The trend analysis shows that Nigeria maintained high tariff walls in economic regulation eras which became low in post liberalization era. The protections were in favor of infant industries, which were mainly appendages of multinationals but against imports of competing food and finished consumer products. The trade openness index confirms the undue exposure of Nigeria’s economy to the vagaries of international market shocks; while banking sector recapitalization and new listing of telecommunications companies deepened the financial markets in post-liberalization era. The structure of economic incentives was biased in favor of construction, trade and services, but against the real sector despite protectionist policies. Total Factor Productivity (TFP) estimates show that the Nigerian economy suffered stagnation in pre-liberalization eras, but experienced rapid growth rates in post-liberalization eras. The regression results relating trade policy incentives to TFP growth rate yielded a significant but negative intercept suggesting that a non-interventionist policy could be detrimental to economic progress, while protective tariff which limits imports of competing products could spur productivity gains in domestic import substitutes beyond factor growth with market liberalization. The main constraint to the effectiveness of trade policy incentives is the failure of benefiting industries to leverage on the domestic factor endowments of the nation. This paper concludes that there is the need to review the current economic transformation strategies urgently with a view to provide policymakers with a better understanding of the most viable options that could make for rapid success.
Energy Strategy and Economic Growth of Russia
This article considers the problems of economic growth
and Russian energy strategy. Also in this paper, the issues related to
the economic growth prospects of Russian were discussed. Russian
energy strategy without standing Russia`s stature in global energy
markets, at the current production and extraction rates, will not be able
to sustain its own production as well as fulfil its energy strategy.
Indeed, Russia’s energy sector suffers from a chronic lack of
investments which are necessary to modernize its energy supply
system. In recent years, especially since the international financial
crisis, Russia-EU energy cooperation has made substantive progress.
Recently the break-through progress has been made, resulting mainly
from long-term contributing factors between the countries and recent
international economic and political situation changes. Analytical
material presented in the article is intended for a more detailed or
substantive analysis related to foreign economic relations of the
countries and Russia as well.
Financial Deepening and Economic Growth Dynamics: Empirical Evidence from the West African Monetary Zone
This paper empirically examines the dynamic relationship between financial deepening and economic growth in a monetary union. We find positive but weak evidence of impacts of financial deepening on growth for Gambia, Gabon and Sierra Leone. There is no evidence of any positive significant impact for Ghana and Nigeria. We argue that, the weak evidence between financial deepening and economic growth can be a consequence of the inability of assessing credit (long-term loans), credit worthiness, lack of information and low level of bank deposits by the private sector despite the improvement in the financial sector.
Foreign Direct Investment on Economic Growth by Industries in Central and Eastern European Countries
Present empirical paper investigates the relationship
between FDI and economic growth by 10 selected industries in 10
Central and Eastern European countries from the period 1995 to
2012. Different estimation approaches were used to explore the
connection between FDI and economic growth, for example OLS,
RE, FE with and without time dummies. Obtained empirical results
leads to some main consequences: First, the Central and East
European countries (CEEC) attracted foreign direct investment,
which raised the productivity of industries they entered in. It should
be concluded that the linkage between FDI and output growth by
industries is positive and significant enough to suggest that foreign
firm’s participation enhanced the productivity of the industries they
occupied. There had been an endogeneity problem in the regression
and fixed effects estimation approach was used which partially
corrected the regression analysis in order to make the results less
biased. Second, it should be stressed that the results show that time
has an important role in making FDI operational for enhancing output
growth by industries via total factor productivity. Third, R&D
positively affected economic growth and at the same time, it should
take some time for research and development to influence economic
growth. Fourth, the general trends masked crucial differences at the
country level: over the last 20 years, the analysis of the tables and
figures at the country level show that the main recipients of FDI of
the 11 Central and Eastern European countries were Hungary, Poland
and the Czech Republic. The main reason was that these countries
had more open door policies for attracting the FDI. Fifth, according
to the graphical analysis, while Hungary had the highest FDI inflow
in this region, it was not reflected in the GDP growth as much as in
other Central and Eastern European countries.
The Relationship between Value-Added and Energy Consumption in Iran’s Industry Sector
This study aimed to explore the relationship between
energy consumption and value-added in Iran’s industry sector during
the time period 1973-2011. Annual data related to energy
consumption and value added in the industry sector were used. The
results of the study revealed a positive relationship between energy
consumption and value-added of the industry sector. Similarly, the
results showed that there is one-way causality between energy
consumption and value-added in the industry sector.
Trade Policy and Economic Growth of Turkey in Global Economy: New Empirical Evidences
This paper tries to answer to the questions whether or
not trade openness causes economic growth and trade policy changes
are good for Turkey as a developing country in global economy
before and after 1980. We employ Johansen co-integration and
Granger causality tests with error correction modeling based on
vector autoregressive. Using WDI data from the pre-1980 and the
post-1980, we find that trade openness and economic growth are cointegrated
in the second term only. Also the results suggest a lack of
long-run causality between our two variables. These findings may
imply that trade policy of Turkey should concentrate more on extra
complementary economic reforms.
Sectoral Energy Consumption in South Africa and Its Implication for Economic Growth
South Africa is in its post-industrial era moving from
the primary and secondary sector to the tertiary sector. The study
investigated the impact of the disaggregated energy consumption
(coal, oil, and electricity) on the primary, secondary and tertiary
sectors of the economy between 1980 and 2012 in South Africa.
Using vector error correction model, it was established that South
Africa is an energy dependent economy, and that energy (especially
electricity and oil) is a limiting factor of growth. This implies that
implementation of energy conservation policies may hamper
economic growth. Output growth is significantly outpacing energy
supply, which has necessitated load shedding. To meet up the excess
energy demand, there is a need to increase the generating capacity
which will necessitate increased investment in the electricity sector as
well as strategic steps to increase oil production. There is also need to
explore more renewable energy sources, in order to meet the growing
energy demand without compromising growth and environmental
sustainability. Policy makers should also pursue energy efficiency
policies especially at sectoral level of the economy.
Electricity Consumption and Economic Growth: The Case of Mexico
The causality between energy consumption and
economic growth has been an important issue in the economic
literature. This paper studies the causal relationship between
electricity consumption and economic growth in Mexico for the
period of 1971-2011. In so doing, unit root and causality tests are
applied. The results show that energy consumption and economic
growth series are stationary and there is also a causality relationship
running from economic growth to electricity consumption. Therefore,
any energy conservation policy would have little or no impact at all
on economic growth in México.
The External Debt in the Context of Economic Growth: The Sample of Turkey
In developing countries, one of the most important
restrictions about the economic growth is the lack of national savings
which are supposed to finance the investments. In order to overcome
this restriction and achieve the higher rate of economic growth by
increasing the level of output, countries choose the external
borrowing. However, there is a dispute in the literature over the
correlation between external debt and economic growth. The aim of
this study is to examine the effects of external debt on Turkish
economic growth by using VAR analysis with the quarterly data over
the period of 2002:01-2014:04. In this respect, Johansen
Cointegration Test, Impulse- Response Function and Variance
Decomposition Tests will be used for analyses. Empirical findings
show that there is no cointegration in the long run.
A Preliminary Analysis of Sustainable Development in the Belgrade Metropolitan Area
The paper provides a comprehensive analysis of the
sustainable development in the Belgrade Metropolitan Region - BMA
(level NUTS 2) preliminary evaluating the three chosen components:
1) economic growth and developmental changes; 2) competitiveness;
and 3) territorial concentration and industrial specialization. First, we
identified the main results of development changes and economic
growth by applying Shift-share analysis on the metropolitan level.
Second, the empirical evaluation of competitiveness in the BMA is
based on the analysis of absolute and relative values of eight
indicators by Spider method. Paper shows that the consideration of
the national share, industrial mix and metropolitan/regional share in
total Shift share of the BMA, as well as economic/functional
specialization of the BMA indicate very strong process of
deindustrialization. Allocative component of the BMA economic
growth has positive value, reflecting the above-average sector
productivity compared to the national average. Third, the important
positive role of metropolitan/regional component in decomposition of
the BMA economic growth is highlighted as one of the key results.
Finally, comparative analysis of the industrial territorial
concentration in the BMA in relation to Serbia is based on location
quotient (LQ) or Balassa index as a valid measure. The results
indicate absolute and relative differences in decrease of industry
territorial concentration as well as inefficiency of utilizing territorial
capital in the BMA. Results are important for the increase of regional
competitiveness and territorial distribution in this area as well as for
improvement of sustainable metropolitan and sector policies,
planning and governance on this level.
A Review on the Comparison of EU Countries Based on Research and Development Efficiencies
Nowadays, technological progress is one of the most
important components of economic growth and the efficiency of
R&D activities is particularly essential for countries. This study is an
attempt to analyze the R&D efficiencies of EU countries. The
indicators related to R&D efficiencies should be determined in
advance in order to use DEA. For this reason a list of input and
output indicators are derived from the literature review. Considering
the data availability, a final list is given for the numerical analysis for
Governance and Economic Growth: Evidence of Ten Asian Countries
This study utilizes a frequency domain approach over
the period of 1996 to 2013 to examine the causal relationship between
governance and economic growth in ten Asian countries, which have
different levels of democracy; classified as “Free”, “Partly Free”, and
“Not Free” countries. The empirical results show that there is no
Granger causality running from governance to economic growth in
“Not Free” countries and “Partly Free” countries with the exception of
Singapore. As for “Free” countries such as South Korea and Taiwan,
there is a one-way causality running from governance to economic
growth. The findings of this study indicate that policy makers in South
Korea, Taiwan, and Singapore could use governance index to improve
their predictions of the future economic growth.
Investigation of the Relationship between Government Expenditure and Country’s Economic Development in the Context of Sustainable Development
Arising problems of countries’ public finances, social
and demographic changes motivate scientific and policy debates on
public spending size, structure and efficiency in order to meet the
changing needs of society and business. The concept of sustainable
development poses new challenges for scientists and policy-makers
in the field of public finance. This paper focuses on the investigation
of the relationship between government expenditure and country’s
economic development in the context of sustainable development.
Empirical analysis focuses on the data of the European Union (except
Croatia and Luxemburg) countries. The study covers 2003 – 2012
years, using annual cross-sectional data. Summarizing the research
results, it can be stated that governments should pay more attention to
the needs that ensure sustainable development in the long-run when
formulating public expenditure policy, particularly in the field of
Economic Analysis of Endogenous Growth Model with ICT Capital
This paper clarifies the role of ICT capital in economic
growth. Albeit ICT remarkably contributes to economic growth, there
are few studies on ICT capital in ICT sector from theoretical point of
view. In this paper, production function of ICT which is used as input
of intermediate good in final good and ICT sectors is incorporated
into our model. In this setting, we analyze the role of ICT on balance
growth path and show the possibility of general equilibrium solutions
for this model. Through the simulation of the equilibrium solutions,
we find that when ICT impacts on economy and economic growth
increases, it is necessary that increases of efficiency at ICT sector and
of accumulation of non-ICT and ICT capitals occur simultaneously.
The Relationship of Private Savings and Economic Growth: Case of Croatia
The main objective of the research in this paper is to empirically assess the causal relationship of private savings and economic growth in the Republic of Croatia. Households’ savings are approximated by household deposits in banks, while domestic income is approximated by industrial production volume indices. Vector Autoregression model and Granger causality tests are used to in order to analyse the relationship among private savings and economic growth. Since ADF unit root tests have shown that both mentioned series are non stationary at levels, series are first differenced in order to become stationary. Therefore, VAR model is estimated with percentage change in private savings and percentage change in domestic income, which can be interpreted as economic growth in case of positive percentage change in domestic income. The Granger causality test has shown that there is no causal relationship among private savings and economic growth in Croatia. The impulse response functions have shown that the impact of shock in domestic income on private savings change is stronger than the impact of private saving on growth. Variance decompositions show that both economic growth and private saving change explain the largest part of its own forecast variance. The research has shown that the link between private savings economic and growth in Croatia is weak, what is in line with relevant empirical research in small open economies.
A Shift in the Structure of Economy and Synergy of University: Developing Potential through Research and Development Center of SMEs in Jember
Economic growth always correlate positively with the
magnitude of the unemployment rate. This is caused by labor which
one of important variable to keep growth in the real sector of the
region. Meanwhile, the economic structure in districts of Jember
showed an increase of economic activity began to shift towards the
industrial sector and some other economic sectors, so they have an
affects to considerations for policy makers to increase economic
growth in Jember as an autonomous region in East Java Province. At
the fact, SMEs is among the factors driving economic growth in the
region. This is shown by the high amount of SMEs. However,
employment in the sector grew slightly slowed. It is caused by a lack
of productivity in SMEs. Through the analysis of the transformation of
economic structure theory, and the theory of Triple Helix using
descriptive analytical method Location Quotient and Shift - Share,
found that the results of the economic structure in Jember slowly
shifting from the agricultural sector to the industrial sector, because it
is dominated by trade sector, hotel and restaurant sector. In addition,
SMEs is the potential sector of economic growth in Jember. While to
maximizing role and functions of the institution's Research and
Development Center of SMEs, there are three points to be known, that
are Business Landscape, Business Architecture and Value Added.