Energy Benefits of Urban Platooning with Self-Driving Vehicles
The primary focus of this paper is the generation of
energy-optimal speed trajectories for heterogeneous electric vehicle
platoons in urban driving conditions. Optimal speed trajectories are
generated for individual vehicles and for an entire platoon under
the assumption that they can be executed without errors, as would
be the case for self-driving vehicles. It is then shown that the
optimization for the “average vehicle in the platoon” generates similar
transportation energy savings to optimizing speed trajectories for
each vehicle individually. The introduced approach only requires the
lead vehicle to run the optimization software while the remaining
vehicles are only required to have adaptive cruise control capability.
The achieved energy savings are typically between 30% and 50%
for stop-to-stop segments in cities. The prime motivation of urban
platooning comes from the fact that urban platoons efficiently utilize
the available space and the minimization of transportation energy in
cities is important for many reasons, i.e., for environmental, power,
and range considerations.
Comparison of the Thermal Characteristics of Induction Motor, Switched Reluctance Motor and Inset Permanent Magnet Motor for Electric Vehicle Application
Modern day electric vehicles require compact high torque/power density motors for electric propulsion. This necessitates proper thermal management of the electric motors. The main focus of this paper is to compare the steady state thermal analysis of a conventional 20 kW 8/6 Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM) with that of an Induction Motor and Inset Permanent Magnet (IPM) motor of the same rating. The goal is to develop a proper thermal model of the three types of models for Finite Element Thermal Analysis. JMAG software is used for the development and simulation of the thermal models. The results show that the induction motor is subjected to more heating when used for electric vehicle application constantly, compared to the SRM and IPM.
Improvement of Ride Comfort of Turning Electric Vehicle Using Optimal Speed Control
With the spread of EVs (electric Vehicles), the ride
comfort has been gaining a lot of attention. The influence of the lateral
acceleration is important for the improvement of ride comfort of EVs
as well as the longitudinal acceleration, especially upon turning of
the vehicle. Therefore, this paper proposes a practical optimal speed
control method to greatly improve the ride comfort in the vehicle
turning situation. For consturcting this method, effective criteria that
can appropriately evaluate deterioration of ride comfort is derived.
The method can reduce the influence of both the longitudinal and
the lateral speed changes for providing a confortable ride. From
several simulation results, we can see the fact that the method can
prevent aggravation of the ride comfort by suppressing the influence
of longitudinal speed change in the turning situation. Hence, the
effectiveness of the method is recognized.
A Model Predictive Control Based Virtual Active Power Filter Using V2G Technology
This paper presents a virtual active power filter (VAPF) using vehicle to grid (V2G) technology to maintain power quality requirements. The optimal discrete operation of the power converter of electric vehicle (EV) is based on recognizing desired switching states using the model predictive control (MPC) algorithm. A fast dynamic response, lower total harmonic distortion (THD) and good reference tracking performance are realized through the presented control strategy. The simulation results using MATLAB/Simulink validate the effectiveness of the scheme in improving power quality as well as good dynamic response in power transferring capability.
Electric Vehicle Market Penetration Impact on Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Policy-Making: A Case Study of United Arab Emirates
The United Arab Emirates is clearly facing a multitude of challenges in curbing its greenhouse gas emissions to meet its pre-allotted framework of Kyoto protocol and COP21 targets due to its hunger for modernization, industrialization, infrastructure growth, soaring population and oil and gas activity. In this work, we focus on the bonafide zero emission electric vehicles market penetration in the country’s transport industry for emission reduction. We study the global electric vehicle market trends, the complementary battery technologies and the trends by manufacturers, emission standards across borders and prioritized advancements which will ultimately dictate the terms of future conditions for the United Arab Emirate transport industry. Based on our findings and analysis at every stage of current viability and state-of-transport-affairs, we postulate policy recommendations to local governmental entities from a supply and demand perspective covering aspects of technology, infrastructure requirements, change in power dynamics, end user incentives program, market regulators behavior and communications amongst key stakeholders.
Development and Validation of Cylindrical Linear Oscillating Generator
This paper presents a linear oscillating generator of cylindrical type for hybrid electric vehicle application. The focus of the study is the suggestion of the optimal model and the design rule of the cylindrical linear oscillating generator with permanent magnet in the back-iron translator. The cylindrical topology is achieved using equivalent magnetic circuit considering leakage elements as initial modeling. This topology with permanent magnet in the back-iron translator is described by number of phases and displacement of stroke. For more accurate analysis of an oscillating machine, it will be compared by moving just one-pole pitch forward and backward the thrust of single-phase system and three-phase system. Through the analysis and comparison, a single-phase system of cylindrical topology as the optimal topology is selected. Finally, the detailed design of the optimal topology takes the magnetic saturation effects into account by finite element analysis. Besides, the losses are examined to obtain more accurate results; copper loss in the conductors of machine windings, eddy-current loss of permanent magnet, and iron-loss of specific material of electrical steel. The considerations of thermal performances and mechanical robustness are essential, because they have an effect on the entire efficiency and the insulations of the machine due to the losses of the high temperature generated in each region of the generator. Besides electric machine with linear oscillating movement requires a support system that can resist dynamic forces and mechanical masses. As a result, the fatigue analysis of shaft is achieved by the kinetic equations. Also, the thermal characteristics are analyzed by the operating frequency in each region. The results of this study will give a very important design rule in the design of linear oscillating machines. It enables us to more accurate machine design and more accurate prediction of machine performances.
Design and Development of Real-Time Optimal Energy Management System for Hybrid Electric Vehicles
This paper describes a strategy to develop an energy
management system (EMS) for a charge-sustaining power-split hybrid
electric vehicle. This kind of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) benefit
from the advantages of both parallel and series architecture. However,
it gets relatively more complicated to manage power flow between the
battery and the engine optimally. The applied strategy in this paper is
based on nonlinear model predictive control approach. First of all, an
appropriate control-oriented model which was accurate enough and
simple was derived. Towards utilization of this controller in real-time,
the problem was solved off-line for a vast area of reference signals
and initial conditions and stored the computed manipulated variables
inside look-up tables. Look-up tables take a little amount of memory.
Also, the computational load dramatically decreased, because to find
required manipulated variables the controller just needed a simple
interpolation between tables.
Optimal Energy Management System for Electrical Vehicles to Further Extend the Range
This research targets at alleviating the problem of range anxiety associated with the battery electric vehicles (BEVs) by considering mechanical and control aspects of the powertrain. In this way, all the energy consuming components and their effect on reducing the range of the BEV and battery life index are identified. On the other hand, an appropriate control strategy is designed to guarantee the performance of the BEV and the extended electric range which is evaluated by an extensive simulation procedure and a real-world driving schedule.
Zero Voltage Switched Full Bridge Converters for the Battery Charger of Electric Vehicle
This paper illustrates the study of three isolated zero
voltage switched (ZVS) PWM full bridge (FB) converters to charge
the high voltage battery in the charger of electric vehicle (EV).
EV battery chargers have several challenges such as high efficiency,
high reliability, low cost, isolation, and high power density. The
cost of magnetic and filter components in the battery charger is
reduced when switching frequency is increased. The increase in the
switching frequency increases switching losses. ZVS is used to reduce
switching losses and to operate the converter in the battery charger
at high frequency. The performance of each of the three converters
is evaluated on the basis of ZVS range, dead times of the switches,
conduction losses of switches, circulating current stress, circulating
energy, duty cycle loss, and efficiency. The limitations and merits of
each PWM FB converter are reviewed. The converter with broader
ZVS range, high efficiency and low switch stresses is selected for
battery charger applications in EV.
3A Distributed Method Algorithm for Exact Side Load Managing Smart Grid Using LABVIEW
The advancement of hybrid energy resources such as solar and wind power leading to the emergence of customer owned grid. It provides an opportunity to regulars to obtain low energy costs as well as enabling the power supplier to regulate the utility grid. There is a need to develop smart systems that will automatically submit energy demand schedule and monitors energy price signals in real-time without the prompt of customers. In this paper, a demand side energy management for a grid connected household and also smart preparation of electrical appliance have been presented. It also reduces electricity bill for the consumers in the grid. In addition to this, when production is high, the surplus energy fashioned in the customer owned grid is given to main grid or neighboring micro grids. The simulation of the entire system is presented using LabVIEW software.
A Strategic Sustainability Analysis of Electric Vehicles in EU Today and Towards 2050
Ambitions within the EU for moving towards sustainable transport include major emission reductions for fossil fuel road vehicles, especially for buses, trucks, and cars. The electric driveline seems to be an attractive solution for such development. This study first applied the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development to compare sustainability effects of today’s fossil fuel vehicles with electric vehicles that have batteries or hydrogen fuel cells. The study then addressed a scenario were electric vehicles might be in majority in Europe by 2050. The methodology called Strategic Lifecycle Assessment was first used, were each life cycle phase was assessed for violations against sustainability principles. This indicates where further analysis could be done in order to quantify the magnitude of each violation, and later to create alternative strategies and actions that lead towards sustainability. A Life Cycle Assessment of combustion engine cars, plug-in hybrid cars, battery electric cars and hydrogen fuel cell cars was then conducted to compare and quantify environmental impacts. The authors found major violations of sustainability principles like use of fossil fuels, which contribute to the increase of emission related impacts such as climate change, acidification, eutrophication, ozone depletion, and particulate matters. Other violations were found, such as use of scarce materials for batteries and fuel cells, and also for most life cycle phases for all vehicles when using fossil fuel vehicles for mining, production and transport. Still, the studied current battery and hydrogen fuel cell cars have less severe violations than fossil fuel cars. The life cycle assessment revealed that fossil fuel cars have overall considerably higher environmental impacts compared to electric cars as long as the latter are powered by renewable electricity. By 2050, there will likely be even more sustainable alternatives than the studied electric vehicles when the EU electricity mix mainly should stem from renewable sources, batteries should be recycled, fuel cells should be a mature technology for use in vehicles (containing no scarce materials), and electric drivelines should have replaced combustion engines in other sectors. An uncertainty for fuel cells in 2050 is whether the production of hydrogen will have had time to switch to renewable resources. If so, that would contribute even more to a sustainable development. Except for being adopted in the GreenCharge roadmap, the authors suggest that the results can contribute to planning in the upcoming decades for a sustainable increase of EVs in Europe, and potentially serve as an inspiration for other smaller or larger regions. Further studies could map the environmental effects in LCA further, and include other road vehicles to get a more precise perception of how much they could affect sustainable development.
Influence of Driving Strategy on Power and Fuel Consumption of Lightweight PEM Fuel Cell Vehicle Powertrain
In this paper, a prototype PEM fuel cell vehicle
integrated with a 1 kW air-blowing proton exchange membrane fuel
cell (PEMFC) stack as a main power sources has been developed for
a lightweight cruising vehicle. The test vehicle is equipped with a
PEM fuel cell system that provides electric power to a brushed DC
motor. This vehicle was designed to compete with industrial
lightweight vehicle with the target of consuming least amount of
energy and high performance. Individual variations in driving style
have a significant impact on vehicle energy efficiency and it is well
established from the literature. The primary aim of this study was to
assesses the power and fuel consumption of a hydrogen fuel cell
vehicle operating at three difference driving technique (i.e. 25 km/h
constant speed, 22-28 km/h speed range, 20-30 km/h speed range).
The goal is to develop the best driving strategy to maximize
performance and minimize fuel consumption for the vehicle system.
The relationship between power demand and hydrogen consumption
has also been discussed. All the techniques can be evaluated and
compared on broadly similar terms. Automatic intelligent controller
for driving prototype fuel cell vehicle on different obstacle while
maintaining all systems at maximum efficiency was used. The result
showed that 25 km/h constant speed was identified for optimal
driving with less fuel consumption.
Design and Control Algorithms for Power Electronic Converters for EV Applications
The power electronic components within Electric Vehicles (EV) need to operate in several important modes. Some modes directly influence safety, while others influence vehicle performance. Given the variety of functions and operational modes required of the power electronics, it needs to meet efficiency requirements to minimize power losses. Another challenge in the control and construction of such systems is the ability to support bidirectional power flow. This paper considers the construction, operation, and feasibility of available converters for electric vehicles with feasible configurations of electrical buses and loads. This paper describes logic and control signals for the converters for different operations conditions based on the efficiency and energy usage bases.
Performance of Flat Plate Loop Heat Pipe for Thermal Management of Lithium-Ion Battery in Electric Vehicle Application
The development of electric vehicle batteries have
resulted in very high energy density lithium-ion batteries. However,
this progress is accompanied by the risk of thermal runaway, which
can result in serious accidents. Heat pipes are heat exchangers that
are suitable to be applied in electric vehicle battery thermal
management for their lightweight, compact size and do not require
external power supply. This paper aims to examine experimentally a
Flat Plate Loop Heat Pipe (FPLHP) performance as a heat exchanger
in thermal management system of lithium-ion battery for electric
vehicle application. The heat generation of the battery was simulated
using a cartridge heater. Stainless steel screen mesh was used as the
capillary wick. Distilled water, alcohol and acetone were used as
working fluids with a filling ratio of 60%. It was found that acetone
gives the best performance that produces thermal resistance of 0.22
W/°C with 50°C evaporator temperature at heat flux load of 1.61
MP-SMC-I Method for Slip Suppression of Electric Vehicles under Braking
In this paper, a new SMC (Sliding Mode Control)
method with MP (Model Predictive Control) integral action for the
slip suppression of EV (Electric Vehicle) under braking is proposed.
The proposed method introduce the integral term with standard SMC
gain , where the integral gain is optimized for each control period by
the MPC algorithms. The aim of this method is to improve the safety
and the stability of EVs under braking by controlling the wheel slip
ratio. There also include numerical simulation results to demonstrate
the effectiveness of the method.
Optimal Allocation of PHEV Parking Lots to Minimize Distribution System Losses
To tackle the air pollution issues, Plug-in Hybrid
Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) are proposed as an appropriate solution.
Charging a large amount of PHEV batteries, if not controlled, would
have negative impacts on the distribution system. The control process
of charging of these vehicles can be centralized in parking lots that
may provide a chance for better coordination than the individual
charging in houses. In this paper, an optimization-based approach is
proposed to determine the optimum PHEV parking capacities in
candidate nodes of the distribution system. In so doing, a profile for
charging and discharging of PHEVs is developed in order to flatten
the network load profile. Then, this profile is used in solving an
optimization problem to minimize the distribution system losses. The
outputs of the proposed method are the proper place for PHEV
parking lots and optimum capacity for each parking. The application
of the proposed method on the IEEE-34 node test feeder verifies the
effectiveness of the method.
Providing Energy Management of a Fuel Cell-Battery Hybrid Electric Vehicle
On account of the concern of the fossil fuel is
depleting and its negative effects on the environment, interest in
alternative energy sources is increasing day by day. However,
considering the importance of transportation in human life, instead of
oil and its derivatives fueled vehicles with internal combustion
engines, electric vehicles which are sensitive to the environment and
working with electrical energy has begun to develop. In this study,
simulation was carried out for providing energy management and
recovering regenerative braking in fuel cell-battery hybrid electric
vehicle. The main power supply of the vehicle is fuel cell on the other
hand not only instantaneous power is supplied by the battery but also
the energy generated due to regenerative breaking is stored in the
battery. Obtained results of the simulation is analyzed and discussed.
Control Strategy for Two-Mode Hybrid Electric Vehicle by Using Fuzzy Controller
Hybrid electric vehicles can reduce pollution and
improve fuel economy. Power-split hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs)
provide two power paths between the internal combustion engine
(ICE) and energy storage system (ESS) through the gears of an
electrically variable transmission (EVT). EVT allows ICE to operate
independently from vehicle speed all the time. Therefore, the ICE can
operate in the efficient region of its characteristic brake specific fuel
consumption (BSFC) map. The two-mode powertrain can operate in
input-split or compound-split EVT modes and in four different fixed
gear configurations. Power-split architecture is advantageous because
it combines conventional series and parallel power paths. This
research focuses on input-split and compound-split modes in the
two-mode power-split powertrain. Fuzzy Logic Control (FLC) for an
internal combustion engine (ICE) and PI control for electric machines
(EMs) are derived for the urban driving cycle simulation. These
control algorithms reduce vehicle fuel consumption and improve ICE
efficiency while maintaining the state of charge (SOC) of the energy
storage system in an efficient range.
Vehicle Routing Problem with Mixed Fleet of Conventional and Heterogenous Electric Vehicles and Time Dependent Charging Costs
In this paper, we consider the vehicle routing problem
with mixed fleet of conventional and heterogenous electric vehicles
and time dependent charging costs, denoted VRP-HFCC, in which
a set of geographically scattered customers have to be served by a
mixed fleet of vehicles composed of a heterogenous fleet of Electric
Vehicles (EVs), having different battery capacities and operating
costs, and Conventional Vehicles (CVs). We include the possibility
of charging EVs in the available charging stations during the routes
in order to serve all customers. Each charging station offers charging
service with a known technology of chargers and time dependent
charging costs. Charging stations are also subject to operating time
windows constraints. EVs are not necessarily compatible with all
available charging technologies and a partial charging is allowed.
Intermittent charging at the depot is also allowed provided that
constraints related to the electricity grid are satisfied.
The objective is to minimize the number of employed vehicles and
then minimize the total travel and charging costs.
In this study, we present a Mixed Integer Programming Model and
develop a Charging Routing Heuristic and a Local Search Heuristic
based on the Inject-Eject routine with different insertion methods. All
heuristics are tested on real data instances.
Advanced Simulation of Power Consumption of Electric Vehicles
Electric vehicles are one of the most complicated
electric devices to simulate due to the significant number of different
processes involved in electrical structure of it. There are concurrent
processes of energy consumption and generation with different
onboard systems, which make simulation tasks more complicated to
perform. More accurate simulation on energy consumption can
provide a better understanding of all energy management for electric
transport. As a result of all those processes, electric transport can
allow for a more sustainable future and become more convenient in
relation to the distance range and recharging time. This paper
discusses the problems of energy consumption simulations for
electric vehicles using different software packages to provide ideas
on how to make this process more precise, which can help engineers
create better energy management strategies for electric vehicles.
Modeling and Simulation of Standalone Photovoltaic Charging Stations for Electric Vehicles
Batteries of electric vehicles (BEV) are becoming
more attractive with the advancement of new battery technologies
and promotion of electric vehicles. BEV batteries are recharged on
board vehicles using either the grid (G2V for Grid to Vehicle) or
renewable energies in a stand-alone application (H2V for Home to
Vehicle). This paper deals with the modeling, sizing and control of a
photovoltaic stand-alone application that can charge the BEV at
home. The modeling approach and developed mathematical models
describing the system components are detailed. Simulation and
experimental results are presented and commented.
A Novel Design Methodology for a 1.5 KW DC/DC Converter in EV and Hybrid EV Applications
This paper presents a method for the efficient
implementation of a unidirectional or bidirectional DC/DC converter.
The DC/DC converter is used essentially for energy exchange
between the low voltage service battery and a high voltage battery
commonly found in Electric Vehicle applications. In these
applications, apart from cost, efficiency of design is an important
characteristic. A useful way to reduce the size of electronic
equipment in the electric vehicles is proposed in this paper. The
technique simplifies the mechanical complexity and maximizes the
energy usage using the latest converter control techniques. Moreover
a bidirectional battery charger for hybrid electric vehicles is also
implemented in this paper. Several simulations on the test system
have been carried out in Matlab/Simulink environment. The results
exemplify the robustness of the proposed design methodology in case
of a 1.5 KW DC-DC converter.
Research on Control Strategy of Differential Drive Assisted Steering of Distributed Drive Electric Vehicle
According to the independence, accuracy and controllability of the driving/braking torque of the distributed drive electric vehicle, a control strategy of differential drive assisted steering was designed. Firstly, the assisted curve under different speed and steering wheel torque was developed and the differential torques were distributed to the right and left front wheels. Then the steering return ability assisted control algorithm was designed. At last, the joint simulation was conducted by CarSim/Simulink. The result indicated: the differential drive assisted steering algorithm could provide enough steering drive-assisted under low speed and improve the steering portability. Along with the increase of the speed, the provided steering drive-assisted decreased. With the control algorithm, the steering stiffness of the steering system increased along with the increase of the speed, which ensures the driver’s road feeling. The control algorithm of differential drive assisted steering could avoid the understeer under low speed effectively.
Model Predictive 2DOF PID Slip Suppression Control of Electric Vehicle under Braking
In this paper, a 2DOF (two degrees of freedom) PID (Proportional-Integral-Derivative) controller based on MPC (Model predictive control) algorithm fo slip suppression of EV (Electric Vehicle) under braking is proposed. The proposed method aims to improve the safety and the stability of EVs under braking by controlling the wheel slip ration. There also include numerical simulation results to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method.
Packaging Improvement for Unit Cell Vanadium Redox Flow Battery (V-RFB)
Packaging for vanadium redox flow battery is one of the key elements for successful implementation of flow battery in the electrical energy storage system. Usually the bulky battery size and low energy densities make this technology not available for mobility application. ThereforeRFB with improved packaging size and energy capacity are highly desirable. This paper focuses on the study of packaging improvement for unit cell V-RFB to the application on Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle. Two different designs of 25cm2 and 100cm2 unit cell V-RFB at same current density are used for the sample in this investigation. Further suggestions on packaging improvement are highlighted.
Energy Management System in HEV Using PI Controller
Nowadays the use of Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) is increasing dramatically. The HEV is mainly dependent on electricity and there is always a need for storage of charge. Fuel Cell (FC), Batteries and Ultra Capacitor are being used for the proposed HEV as an electric power source or as an energy storage unit. The aim of developing an energy management technique is to utilize the sources according to the requirement of the vehicle with help of controller. This increases the efficiency of hybrid electric vehicle to reduce the fuel consumption and unwanted emission. The Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) in FC is done using (Perturb & Observe) algorithm. In this paper, the control of automobiles at variable speed is achieved effectively.
Towards Sustainable Urban Transportation Case Studies
Climate change is one of the greatest environmental,
economic, and social challenges of our time. Urban transportation has
had a major negative impact on our environment—most of our air
pollution comes from transport.
This paper explores ways to move toward a more sustainable
transport system by focusing on creating a more efficient and livable
city and improving the environmental efficiency of transport activity.
The analytical study covers some international examples of applying
sustainable transportation and uses them to suggest a frame work to
develop the transportation system in Egypt to be sustainable and more
FEA-Based Calculation of Performances of IPM Machines with Five Topologies for Hybrid- Electric Vehicle Traction
The paper presents a detailed calculation of characteristic of five different topology permanent magnet machines for high performance traction including hybrid -electric vehicles using finite element analysis (FEA) method. These machines include V-shape single layer interior PM, W-shape single-layer interior PM, Segment interior PM and surface PM on the rotor and with distributed winding on the stator. The performance characteristics which include the back-emf voltage and its harmonic, magnet mass, iron loss and ripple torque are compared and analyzed. One of a 7.5kW IPM prototype was tested and verified finite-element analysis results. The aim of the paper is given some guidance and reference for machine designer which are interested in IPM machine selection for high performance traction application.
Design of an Experimental Setup to Study the Drives of Battery Electric Vehicles
This paper describes the design considerations of an
experimental setup for research and exploring the drives of batteryfed
electric vehicles. Effective setup composition and its components
are discussed. With experimental setup described in this paper,
durability and functional tests can be procured to the customers.
Multiple experiments are performed in the form of steady-state
system exploring, acceleration programs, multi-step tests (speed
control, torque control), load collectives or close-to-reality driving
tests (driving simulation). Main focus of the functional testing is on
the measurements of power and energy efficiency and investigations
in driving simulation mode, which are used for application purposes.
In order to enable the examination of the drive trains beyond
standard modes of operation, different other parameters can be
Recent Developments in Electric Vehicles for Passenger Car Transport
Electric vehicles are considered as technology which
can significantly reduce the problems related to road transport such
as increasing GHG emissions, air pollutions and energy import
The core objective of this paper is to analyze the current energetic,
ecological and economic characteristics of different types of electric
The major conclusions of this analysis are: The high investments
cost are the major barrier for broad market breakthrough of battery
electric vehicles and fuel cell vehicles. For battery electric vehicles
also the limited driving range states a key obstacle. The analyzed
hybrids could in principle serve as a bridging technology. However,
due to their tank-to-wheel emissions they cannot state a proper
solution for urban areas.
Finally, the most important perception is that also battery electric
vehicles and fuel cell vehicles are environmentally benign solution if
the primary fuel source is renewable.