A Wireless Feedback Control System as a Base of Bio-Inspired Structure System to Mitigate Vibration in Structures
This paper attempts to develop a wireless feedback control system as a primary step eventually toward a bio-inspired structure system where inanimate structure behaves like a life form autonomously. It is a standalone wireless control system which is supposed to measure externally caused structural responses, analyze structural state from acquired data, and take its own action on the basis of the analysis with an embedded logic. For an experimental examination of its effectiveness, we applied it on a model of two-span bridge and performed a wireless control test. Experimental tests have been conducted for comparison on both the wireless and the wired system under the conditions of Un-control, Passive-off, Passive-on, and Lyapunov control algorithm. By proving the congruence of the test result of the wireless feedback control system with the wired control system, its control performance was proven to be effective. Besides, it was found to be economical in energy consumption and also autonomous by means of a command algorithm embedded into it, which proves its basic capacity as a bio-inspired system.
An Implementation of a Configurable UART-to-Ethernet Converter
This paper presents an implementation of a configurable UART-to-Ethernet converter using an ARM-based 32-bit microcontroller as well as a dedicated configuration program running on a PC for configuring the operating parameters of the converter. The program was written in Python. Various parameters pertaining to the operation of the converter can be modified by the configuration program through the Ethernet interface of the converter. The converter supports 3 representative asynchronous serial communication protocols, RS-232, RS-422, and RS-485 and supports 3 network modes, TCP/IP server, TCP/IP client, and UDP client. The TCP/IP and UDP protocols were implemented on the microcontroller using an open source TCP/IP protocol stack called lwIP (A lightweight TCP/IP) and FreeRTOS, a free real-time operating system for embedded systems. Due to the use of a real-time operating system, the firmware of the converter was implemented as a multi-thread application and as a result becomes more modular and easier to develop. The converter can provide a seamless bridge between a serial port and an Ethernet port, thereby allowing existing legacy apparatuses with no Ethernet connectivity to communicate using the Ethernet protocol.
A Study of Recent Contribution on Simulation Tools for Network-on-Chip
The growth in the number of Intellectual Properties (IPs) or the number of cores on the same chip becomes a critical issue in System-on-Chip (SoC) due to the intra-communication problem between the chip elements. As a result, Network-on-Chip (NoC) has emerged as a system architecture to overcome intra-communication issues. This paper presents a study of recent contributions on simulation tools for NoC. Furthermore, an overview of NoC is covered as well as a comparison between some NoC simulators to help facilitate research in on-chip communication.
Towards a Framework for Embedded Weight Comparison Algorithm with Business Intelligence in the Plantation Domain
Embedded systems have emerged as important elements in various domains with extensive applications in automotive, commercial, consumer, healthcare and transportation markets, as there is emphasis on intelligent devices. On the other hand, Business Intelligence (BI) has also been extensively used in a range of applications, especially in the agriculture domain which is the area of this research. The aim of this research is to create a framework for Embedded Weight Comparison Algorithm with Business Intelligence (EWCA-BI). The weight comparison algorithm will be embedded within the plantation management system and the weighbridge system. This algorithm will be used to estimate the weight at the site and will be compared with the actual weight at the plantation. The algorithm will be used to build the necessary alerts when there is a discrepancy in the weight, thus enabling better decision making. In the current practice, data are collected from various locations in various forms. It is a challenge to consolidate data to obtain timely and accurate information for effective decision making. Adding to this, the unstable network connection leads to difficulty in getting timely accurate information. To overcome the challenges embedding is done on a portable device that will have the embedded weight comparison algorithm to also assist in data capture and synchronize data at various locations overcoming the network short comings at collection points. The EWCA-BI will provide real-time information at any given point of time, thus enabling non-latent BI reports that will provide crucial information to enable efficient operational decision making. This research has a high potential in bringing embedded system into the agriculture industry. EWCA-BI will provide BI reports with accurate information with uncompromised data using an embedded system and provide alerts, therefore, enabling effective operation management decision-making at the site.
Parametrization of Piezoelectric Vibration Energy Harvesters for Low Power Embedded Systems
Matching an embedded electronic application with a
cantilever vibration energy harvester remains a difficult endeavour
due to the large number of factors influencing the output power.
In the presented work, complementary balanced energy harvester
parametrization is used as a methodology for simplification of
harvester integration in electronic applications. This is achieved
by a dual approach consisting of an adaptation of the general
parametrization methodology in conjunction with a straight forward
harvester benchmarking strategy. For this purpose, the design and
implementation of a suitable user friendly cantilever energy harvester
benchmarking platform is discussed. Its effectiveness is demonstrated
by applying the methodology to a commercially available Mide
V21BL vibration energy harvester, with excitation amplitude and
frequency as variables.
An Optimal Steganalysis Based Approach for Embedding Information in Image Cover Media with Security
This paper deals with the study of interest in the fields
of Steganography and Steganalysis. Steganography involves hiding
information in a cover media to obtain the stego media in such a
way that the cover media is perceived not to have any embedded
message for its unintended recipients. Steganalysis is the mechanism
of detecting the presence of hidden information in the stego media
and it can lead to the prevention of disastrous security incidents. In
this paper, we provide a critical review of the steganalysis algorithms
available to analyze the characteristics of an image stego media
against the corresponding cover media and understand the process
of embedding the information and its detection. We anticipate that
this paper can also give a clear picture of the current trends in
steganography so that we can develop and improvise appropriate
Robotics and Embedded Systems Applied to the Buried Pipeline Inspection
The work aims to develop a robot in the form of
autonomous vehicle to detect, inspection and mapping of
underground pipelines through the ATmega328 Arduino platform.
Hardware prototyping is very similar to C / C ++ language that
facilitates its use in robotics open source, resembles PLC used in
large industrial processes. The robot will traverse the surface
independently of direct human action, in order to automate the
process of detecting buried pipes, guided by electromagnetic
induction. The induction comes from coils that send the signal to the
Arduino microcontroller contained in that will make the difference in
intensity and the treatment of the information, and then this
determines actions to electrical components such as relays and
motors, allowing the prototype to move on the surface and getting the
necessary information. This change of direction is performed by a
stepper motor with a servo motor. The robot was developed by
electrical and electronic assemblies that allowed test your application.
The assembly is made up of metal detector coils, circuit boards and
microprocessor, which interconnected circuits previously developed
can determine, process control and mechanical actions for a robot
(autonomous car) that will make the detection and mapping of buried
pipelines plates. This type of prototype can prevent and identifies
possible landslides and they can prevent the buried pipelines suffer an
external pressure on the walls with the possibility of oil leakage and
thus pollute the environment.
Simulator Dynamic Positioning System with Azimuthal Thruster
This paper aims to project the construction of a
prototype azimuthal thruster, mounted with materials of low cost and
easy access, testing in a controlled environment to measure their
performance, characteristics and feasibility of future projects. The
construction of the simulation of dynamic positioning software,
responsible for simulating a vessel and reposition it when necessary.
Validation tests were performed in the form of partial or complete
system. These tests validate the system manually or automatically.
The system provides an interface to the user and simulates the
conditions unfavorable positioning of a vessel, accurately calculates
the azimuth angle, the direction of rotation of the helix and the time
that this should be turned on so that the vessel back to position
original. A serial communication connects the Simulation Dynamic
Positioning System with Embedded System causing the usergenerated
data to simulate the DP system arrives in the form of
control signals to the motors of the propellant. This article addresses
issues in the marine industry employees.
Implementation of Conceptual Real-Time Embedded Functional Design via Drive-by-Wire ECU Development
Design concepts of real-time embedded system can be
realized initially by introducing novel design approaches. In this
literature, model based design approach and in-the-loop testing were
employed early in the conceptual and preliminary phase to formulate
design requirements and perform quick real-time verification. The
design and analysis methodology includes simulation analysis, model
based testing, and in-the-loop testing. The design of conceptual driveby-
wire, or DBW, algorithm for electronic control unit, or ECU, was
presented to demonstrate the conceptual design process, analysis, and
functionality evaluation. The concepts of DBW ECU function can be
implemented in the vehicle system to improve electric vehicle, or EV,
conversion drivability. However, within a new development process,
conceptual ECU functions and parameters are needed to be evaluated.
As a result, the testing system was employed to support conceptual
DBW ECU functions evaluation. For the current setup, the system
components were consisted of actual DBW ECU hardware, electric
vehicle models, and control area network or CAN protocol. The
vehicle models and CAN bus interface were both implemented as
real-time applications where ECU and CAN protocol functionality
were verified according to the design requirements. The proposed
system could potentially benefit in performing rapid real-time
analysis of design parameters for conceptual system or software
Real Time Remote Monitoring and Fault Detection in Wind Turbine
In new energy development, wind power has boomed.
It is due to the proliferation of wind parks and their operation in
supplying the national electric grid with low cost and clean resources.
Hence, there is an increased need to establish a proactive
maintenance for wind turbine machines based on remote control and
monitoring. That is necessary with a real-time wireless connection in
offshore or inaccessible locations while the wired method has many
flaws. The objective of this strategy is to prolong wind turbine
lifetime and to increase productivity. The hardware of a remote
control and monitoring system for wind turbine parks is designed. It
takes advantage of GPRS or Wi-Max wireless module to collect data
measurements from different wind machine sensors through IP based
multi-hop communication. Computer simulations with Proteus ISIS
and OPNET software tools have been conducted to evaluate the
performance of the studied system. Study findings show that the
designed device is suitable for application in a wind park.
Development of 3D Laser Scanner for Robot Navigation
Autonomous robotic systems need an equipment like a human eye for their movement. In this study a 3D laser scanner has been designed and implemented for those autonomous robotic systems. In general 3D laser scanners are using 2 dimension laser range finders that are moving on one-axis (1D) to generate the model. In this study, the model has been obtained by a one-dimensional laser range finder that is moving in two –axis (2D) and because of this the laser scanner has been produced cheaper.
Development of a Computer Vision System for the Blind and Visually Impaired Person
Eyes are an essential and conspicuous organ of the human body. Human eyes are outward and inward portals of the body that allows to see the outside world and provides glimpses into ones inner thoughts and feelings. Inevitable blindness and visual impairments may results from eye-related disease, trauma, or congenital or degenerative conditions that cannot be corrected by conventional means. The study emphasizes innovative tools that will serve as an aid to the blind and visually impaired (VI) individuals. The researchers fabricated a prototype that utilizes the Microsoft Kinect for Windows and Arduino microcontroller board. The prototype facilitates advanced gesture recognition, voice recognition, obstacle detection and indoor environment navigation. Open Computer Vision (OpenCV) performs image analysis, and gesture tracking to transform Kinect data to the desired output. A computer vision technology device provides greater accessibility for those with vision impairments.
Embedded Systems Energy Consumption Analysis Through Co-modelling and Simulation
This paper presents a new methodology to study power and energy consumption in mechatronic systems early in the development process. This new approach makes use of two modeling languages to represent and simulate embedded control software and electromechanical subsystems in the discrete event and continuous time domain respectively within a single co-model. This co-model enables an accurate representation of power and energy consumption and facilitates the analysis and development of both software and electro-mechanical subsystems in parallel. This makes the engineers aware of energy-wise implications of different design alternatives and enables early trade-off analysis from the beginning of the analysis and design activities.
Customization of a Real-Time Operating System Scheduler with Aspect-Oriented Programming
Tasks of an application program of an embedded system are managed by the scheduler of a real-time operating system
(RTOS). Most RTOSs adopt just fixed priority scheduling, which is not optimal in all cases. Some applications require earliest deadline
first (EDF) scheduling, which is an optimal scheduling algorithm.
In order to develop an efficient real-time embedded system, the
scheduling algorithm of the RTOS should be selectable. The paper presents a method to customize the scheduler using aspectoriented
programming. We define aspects to replace the fixed priority scheduling mechanism of an OSEK OS with an EDF scheduling
mechanism. By using the aspects, we can customize the scheduler
without modifying the original source code. We have applied the
aspects to an OSEK OS and get a customized operating system with
EDF scheduling. The evaluation results show that the overhead of
aspect-oriented programming is small enough.
Web Driving Performance Monitoring System
Safer driver behavior promoting is the main goal of this paper. It is a fact that drivers behavior is relatively safer when being monitored. Thus, in this paper, we propose a monitoring system to report specific driving event as well as the potentially aggressive events for estimation of the driving performance. Our driving monitoring system is composed of two parts. The first part is the in-vehicle embedded system which is composed of a GPS receiver, a two-axis accelerometer, radar sensor, OBD interface, and GPRS modem. The design considerations that led to this architecture is described in this paper. The second part is a web server where an adaptive hierarchical fuzzy system is proposed to classify the driving performance based on the data that is sent by the in-vehicle embedded system and the data that is provided by the geographical information system (GIS). Our system is robust, inexpensive and small enough to fit inside a vehicle without distracting the driver.
An Embedded System Design for SRAM SEU Test
An embedded system for SEU(single event upset) test
needs to be designed to prevent system failure by high-energy particles
during measuring SEU. SEU is a phenomenon in which the data is changed temporary in semiconductor device caused by high-energy particles. In this paper, we present an embedded system for
SRAM(static random access memory) SEU test. SRAMs are on the DUT(device under test) and it is separated from control board which
manages the DUT and measures the occurrence of SEU. It needs to
have considerations for preventing system failure while managing the
DUT and making an accurate measurement of SEUs. We measure the occurrence of SEUs from five different SRAMs at three different
cyclotron beam energies 30, 35, and 40MeV. The number of SEUs of SRAMs ranges from 3.75 to 261.00 in average.
Concurrent Testing of ADC for Embedded System
Compaction testing methods allow at-speed detecting
of errors while possessing low cost of implementation. Owing to this
distinctive feature, compaction methods have been widely used for
built-in testing, as well as external testing. In the latter case, the
bandwidth requirements to the automated test equipment employed
are relaxed which reduces the overall cost of testing. Concurrent
compaction testing methods use operational signals to detect
misbehavior of the device under test and do not require input test
stimuli. These methods have been employed for digital systems only.
In the present work, we extend the use of compaction methods for
concurrent testing of analog-to-digital converters. We estimate
tolerance bounds for the result of compaction and evaluate the
A Microcontroller Implementation of Model Predictive Control
Model Predictive Control (MPC) is increasingly being
proposed for real time applications and embedded systems. However
comparing to PID controller, the implementation of the MPC in
miniaturized devices like Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA)
and microcontrollers has historically been very small scale due to its
complexity in implementation and its computation time requirement.
At the same time, such embedded technologies have become an
enabler for future manufacturing enterprises as well as a transformer
of organizations and markets. Recently, advances in microelectronics
and software allow such technique to be implemented in embedded
systems. In this work, we take advantage of these recent advances
in this area in the deployment of one of the most studied and
applied control technique in the industrial engineering. In fact in
this paper, we propose an efficient framework for implementation
of Generalized Predictive Control (GPC) in the performed STM32
microcontroller. The STM32 keil starter kit based on a JTAG interface
and the STM32 board was used to implement the proposed GPC
firmware. Besides the GPC, the PID anti windup algorithm was
also implemented using Keil development tools designed for ARM
processor-based microcontroller devices and working with C/Cµ
langage. A performances comparison study was done between both
firmwares. This performances study show good execution speed and
low computational burden. These results encourage to develop simple
predictive algorithms to be programmed in industrial standard hardware.
The main features of the proposed framework are illustrated
through two examples and compared with the anti windup PID
An Innovative Wireless Sensor Network Protocol Implementation using a Hybrid FPGA Technology
Traditional development of wireless sensor network
mote is generally based on SoC1 platform. Such method of
development faces three main drawbacks: lack of flexibility in terms
of development due to low resource and rigid architecture of SoC;
low capability of evolution and portability versus performance if
specific micro-controller architecture features are used; and the rapid
obsolescence of micro-controller comparing to the long lifetime of
power plants or any industrial installations. To overcome these
drawbacks, we have explored a new approach of development of
wireless sensor network mote using a hybrid FPGA technology. The
application of such approach is illustrated through the
implementation of an innovative wireless sensor network protocol
Application of Formal Methods for Designing a Separation Kernel for Embedded Systems
A separation-kernel-based operating system (OS) has been designed for use in secure embedded systems by applying formal methods to the design of the separation-kernel part. The separation kernel is a small OS kernel that provides an abstract distributed environment on a single CPU. The design of the separation kernel was verified using two formal methods, the B method and the Spin model checker. A newly designed semi-formal method, the extended state transition method, was also applied. An OS comprising the separation-kernel part and additional OS services on top of the separation kernel was prototyped on the Intel IA-32 architecture. Developing and testing of a prototype embedded application, a point-of-sale application, on the prototype OS demonstrated that the proposed architecture and the use of formal methods to design its kernel part are effective for achieving a secure embedded system having a high-assurance separation kernel.
A Simulator for Robot Navigation Algorithms
A robot simulator was developed to measure and
investigate the performance of a robot navigation system based on
the relative position of the robot with respect to random obstacles in
any two dimensional environment. The presented simulator focuses
on investigating the ability of a fuzzy-neural system for object
avoidance. A navigation algorithm is proposed and used to allow
random navigation of a robot among obstacles when the robot faces
an obstacle in the environment. The main features of this simulator
can be used for evaluating the performance of any system that can
provide the position of the robot with respect to obstacles in the
environment. This allows a robot developer to investigate and
analyze the performance of a robot without implementing the
Universal Qibla and Prayer Time Finder
People nowadays love to travel around the world.
Regardless of their location and time, they especially Muslims still need to perform their five times prayer. Normally for travelers, they
need to bring maps, compass and for Muslim, they even have to bring Qibla pointer when they travel. It is slightly difficult to
determine the Qibla direction and to know the time for each prayer. In this paper we present a new electronic device called Universal Qibla and Prayer Time Finder to locate the Qibla direction and to determine each prayer time based on the current user-s location. This device use PIC microcontroller equipped with digital compass and
Global Positioning System (GPS) where it will display the exact Qibla direction and prayer time automatically at any place in the world. This device is reliable, user friendly and accurate in
determining the Qibla direction and prayer time.
A Modified Spiral Search Algorithm and Its Embedded System Architecture Design
One of the most growing areas in the embedded community is multimedia devices. Multimedia devices incorporate a number of complicated functions for their operation, like motion estimation. A multitude of different implementations have been proposed to reduce motion estimation complexity, such as spiral search. We have studied the implementations of spiral search and identified areas of improvement. We propose a modified spiral search algorithm, with lower computational complexity compared to the original spiral search. We have implemented our algorithm on an embedded ARM based architecture, with custom memory hierarchy. The resulting system yields energy consumption reduction up to 64% and performance increase up to 77%, with a small penalty of 2.3 dB, in average, of video quality compared with the original spiral search algorithm.
Web Based Remote Access Microcontroller Laboratory
This paper presents a web based remote access
microcontroller laboratory. Because of accelerated development in
electronics and computer technologies, microcontroller-based devices
and appliances are found in all aspects of our daily life. Before the
implementation of remote access microcontroller laboratory an
experiment set is developed by teaching staff for training
microcontrollers. Requirement of technical teaching and industrial
applications are considered when experiment set is designed.
Students can make the experiments by connecting to the experiment
set which is connected to the computer that set as the web server. The
students can program the microcontroller, can control digital and
analog inputs and can observe experiment. Laboratory experiment
web page can be accessed via www.elab.aku.edu.tr address.
Real-Time Control of a Two-Wheeled Inverted Pendulum Mobile Robot
The research on two-wheeled inverted pendulum (TWIP) mobile robots or commonly known as balancing robots have gained momentum over the last decade in a number of robotic laboratories around the world. This paper describes the hardware design of such a robot. The objective of the design is to develop a TWIP mobile robot as well as MATLAB interfacing configuration to be used as flexible platform comprises of embedded unstable linear plant intended for research and teaching purposes. Issues such as selection of actuators and sensors, signal processing units, MATLAB Real Time Workshop coding, modeling and control scheme will be addressed and discussed. The system is then tested using a wellknown state feedback controller to verify its functionality.
Implementation of IEEE 802.15.4 Packet Analyzer
A packet analyzer is a tool for debugging sensor
network systems and is convenient for developers. In this paper, we
introduce a new packet analyzer based on an embedded system. The
proposed packet analyzer is compatible with IEEE 802.15.4, which is
suitable for the wireless communication standard for sensor networks,
and is available for remote control by adopting a server-client scheme
based on the Ethernet interface. To confirm the operations of the
packet analyzer, we have developed two types of sensor nodes based
on PIC4620 and ATmega128L microprocessors and tested the
functions of the proposed packet analyzer by obtaining the packets
from the sensor nodes.
Energy Consumption Analysis of Design Patterns
The importance of low power consumption is widely
acknowledged due to the increasing use of portable devices, which
require minimizing the consumption of energy. Energy dissipation is
heavily dependent on the software used in the system. Applying
design patterns in object-oriented designs is a common practice
nowadays. In this paper we analyze six design patterns and explore
the effect of them on energy consumption and performance.
Complexity of Component-based Development of Embedded Systems
The paper discusses complexity of component-based
development (CBD) of embedded systems. Although CBD has its
merits, it must be augmented with methods to control the complexities
that arise due to resource constraints, timeliness, and run-time deployment
of components in embedded system development. Software
component specification, system-level testing, and run-time reliability
measurement are some ways to control the complexity.
Performance Improvements of DSP Applications on a Generic Reconfigurable Platform
Speedups from mapping four real-life DSP
applications on an embedded system-on-chip that couples coarsegrained
reconfigurable logic with an instruction-set processor are
presented. The reconfigurable logic is realized by a 2-Dimensional
Array of Processing Elements. A design flow for improving
application-s performance is proposed. Critical software parts, called
kernels, are accelerated on the Coarse-Grained Reconfigurable
Array. The kernels are detected by profiling the source code. For
mapping the detected kernels on the reconfigurable logic a prioritybased
mapping algorithm has been developed. Two 4x4 array
architectures, which differ in their interconnection structure among
the Processing Elements, are considered. The experiments for eight
different instances of a generic system show that important overall
application speedups have been reported for the four applications.
The performance improvements range from 1.86 to 3.67, with an
average value of 2.53, compared with an all-software execution.
These speedups are quite close to the maximum theoretical speedups
imposed by Amdahl-s law.
A Method for Analysis of Industrial Distributed Embedded Systems
The paper presents a set of guidelines for analysis of industrial embedded distributed systems and introduces a mathematical model derived from these guidelines. In this study, the author examines a set of modern communication technologies that are or possibly can be used to build communication links between the subsystems of a distributed embedded system. An investigation of these guidelines results in a algorithm for analysis of specific use cases of target technologies. A goal of the paper acts as an important base for ongoing research on comparison of communication technologies. The author describes the principles of the model and presents results of the test calculations. Practical implementation of target technologies and empirical experiment data are based on a practical experience during the design and test of specific distributed systems in Latvian market.