An Implementation of a Configurable UART-to-Ethernet Converter
This paper presents an implementation of a configurable UART-to-Ethernet converter using an ARM-based 32-bit microcontroller as well as a dedicated configuration program running on a PC for configuring the operating parameters of the converter. The program was written in Python. Various parameters pertaining to the operation of the converter can be modified by the configuration program through the Ethernet interface of the converter. The converter supports 3 representative asynchronous serial communication protocols, RS-232, RS-422, and RS-485 and supports 3 network modes, TCP/IP server, TCP/IP client, and UDP client. The TCP/IP and UDP protocols were implemented on the microcontroller using an open source TCP/IP protocol stack called lwIP (A lightweight TCP/IP) and FreeRTOS, a free real-time operating system for embedded systems. Due to the use of a real-time operating system, the firmware of the converter was implemented as a multi-thread application and as a result becomes more modular and easier to develop. The converter can provide a seamless bridge between a serial port and an Ethernet port, thereby allowing existing legacy apparatuses with no Ethernet connectivity to communicate using the Ethernet protocol.
A Study of Recent Contribution on Simulation Tools for Network-on-Chip
The growth in the number of Intellectual Properties (IPs) or the number of cores on the same chip becomes a critical issue in System-on-Chip (SoC) due to the intra-communication problem between the chip elements. As a result, Network-on-Chip (NoC) has emerged as a system architecture to overcome intra-communication issues. This paper presents a study of recent contributions on simulation tools for NoC. Furthermore, an overview of NoC is covered as well as a comparison between some NoC simulators to help facilitate research in on-chip communication.
Towards a Framework for Embedded Weight Comparison Algorithm with Business Intelligence in the Plantation Domain
Embedded systems have emerged as important elements in various domains with extensive applications in automotive, commercial, consumer, healthcare and transportation markets, as there is emphasis on intelligent devices. On the other hand, Business Intelligence (BI) has also been extensively used in a range of applications, especially in the agriculture domain which is the area of this research. The aim of this research is to create a framework for Embedded Weight Comparison Algorithm with Business Intelligence (EWCA-BI). The weight comparison algorithm will be embedded within the plantation management system and the weighbridge system. This algorithm will be used to estimate the weight at the site and will be compared with the actual weight at the plantation. The algorithm will be used to build the necessary alerts when there is a discrepancy in the weight, thus enabling better decision making. In the current practice, data are collected from various locations in various forms. It is a challenge to consolidate data to obtain timely and accurate information for effective decision making. Adding to this, the unstable network connection leads to difficulty in getting timely accurate information. To overcome the challenges embedding is done on a portable device that will have the embedded weight comparison algorithm to also assist in data capture and synchronize data at various locations overcoming the network short comings at collection points. The EWCA-BI will provide real-time information at any given point of time, thus enabling non-latent BI reports that will provide crucial information to enable efficient operational decision making. This research has a high potential in bringing embedded system into the agriculture industry. EWCA-BI will provide BI reports with accurate information with uncompromised data using an embedded system and provide alerts, therefore, enabling effective operation management decision-making at the site.
Parametrization of Piezoelectric Vibration Energy Harvesters for Low Power Embedded Systems
Matching an embedded electronic application with a
cantilever vibration energy harvester remains a difficult endeavour
due to the large number of factors influencing the output power.
In the presented work, complementary balanced energy harvester
parametrization is used as a methodology for simplification of
harvester integration in electronic applications. This is achieved
by a dual approach consisting of an adaptation of the general
parametrization methodology in conjunction with a straight forward
harvester benchmarking strategy. For this purpose, the design and
implementation of a suitable user friendly cantilever energy harvester
benchmarking platform is discussed. Its effectiveness is demonstrated
by applying the methodology to a commercially available Mide
V21BL vibration energy harvester, with excitation amplitude and
frequency as variables.
An Optimal Steganalysis Based Approach for Embedding Information in Image Cover Media with Security
This paper deals with the study of interest in the fields
of Steganography and Steganalysis. Steganography involves hiding
information in a cover media to obtain the stego media in such a
way that the cover media is perceived not to have any embedded
message for its unintended recipients. Steganalysis is the mechanism
of detecting the presence of hidden information in the stego media
and it can lead to the prevention of disastrous security incidents. In
this paper, we provide a critical review of the steganalysis algorithms
available to analyze the characteristics of an image stego media
against the corresponding cover media and understand the process
of embedding the information and its detection. We anticipate that
this paper can also give a clear picture of the current trends in
steganography so that we can develop and improvise appropriate
Development of 3D Laser Scanner for Robot Navigation
Autonomous robotic systems need an equipment like a human eye for their movement. In this study a 3D laser scanner has been designed and implemented for those autonomous robotic systems. In general 3D laser scanners are using 2 dimension laser range finders that are moving on one-axis (1D) to generate the model. In this study, the model has been obtained by a one-dimensional laser range finder that is moving in two –axis (2D) and because of this the laser scanner has been produced cheaper.
Development of a Computer Vision System for the Blind and Visually Impaired Person
Eyes are an essential and conspicuous organ of the human body. Human eyes are outward and inward portals of the body that allows to see the outside world and provides glimpses into ones inner thoughts and feelings. Inevitable blindness and visual impairments may results from eye-related disease, trauma, or congenital or degenerative conditions that cannot be corrected by conventional means. The study emphasizes innovative tools that will serve as an aid to the blind and visually impaired (VI) individuals. The researchers fabricated a prototype that utilizes the Microsoft Kinect for Windows and Arduino microcontroller board. The prototype facilitates advanced gesture recognition, voice recognition, obstacle detection and indoor environment navigation. Open Computer Vision (OpenCV) performs image analysis, and gesture tracking to transform Kinect data to the desired output. A computer vision technology device provides greater accessibility for those with vision impairments.
Embedded Systems Energy Consumption Analysis Through Co-modelling and Simulation
This paper presents a new methodology to study power and energy consumption in mechatronic systems early in the development process. This new approach makes use of two modeling languages to represent and simulate embedded control software and electromechanical subsystems in the discrete event and continuous time domain respectively within a single co-model. This co-model enables an accurate representation of power and energy consumption and facilitates the analysis and development of both software and electro-mechanical subsystems in parallel. This makes the engineers aware of energy-wise implications of different design alternatives and enables early trade-off analysis from the beginning of the analysis and design activities.
A Microcontroller Implementation of Model Predictive Control
Model Predictive Control (MPC) is increasingly being
proposed for real time applications and embedded systems. However
comparing to PID controller, the implementation of the MPC in
miniaturized devices like Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA)
and microcontrollers has historically been very small scale due to its
complexity in implementation and its computation time requirement.
At the same time, such embedded technologies have become an
enabler for future manufacturing enterprises as well as a transformer
of organizations and markets. Recently, advances in microelectronics
and software allow such technique to be implemented in embedded
systems. In this work, we take advantage of these recent advances
in this area in the deployment of one of the most studied and
applied control technique in the industrial engineering. In fact in
this paper, we propose an efficient framework for implementation
of Generalized Predictive Control (GPC) in the performed STM32
microcontroller. The STM32 keil starter kit based on a JTAG interface
and the STM32 board was used to implement the proposed GPC
firmware. Besides the GPC, the PID anti windup algorithm was
also implemented using Keil development tools designed for ARM
processor-based microcontroller devices and working with C/Cµ
langage. A performances comparison study was done between both
firmwares. This performances study show good execution speed and
low computational burden. These results encourage to develop simple
predictive algorithms to be programmed in industrial standard hardware.
The main features of the proposed framework are illustrated
through two examples and compared with the anti windup PID
Application of Formal Methods for Designing a Separation Kernel for Embedded Systems
A separation-kernel-based operating system (OS) has been designed for use in secure embedded systems by applying formal methods to the design of the separation-kernel part. The separation kernel is a small OS kernel that provides an abstract distributed environment on a single CPU. The design of the separation kernel was verified using two formal methods, the B method and the Spin model checker. A newly designed semi-formal method, the extended state transition method, was also applied. An OS comprising the separation-kernel part and additional OS services on top of the separation kernel was prototyped on the Intel IA-32 architecture. Developing and testing of a prototype embedded application, a point-of-sale application, on the prototype OS demonstrated that the proposed architecture and the use of formal methods to design its kernel part are effective for achieving a secure embedded system having a high-assurance separation kernel.
A Simulator for Robot Navigation Algorithms
A robot simulator was developed to measure and
investigate the performance of a robot navigation system based on
the relative position of the robot with respect to random obstacles in
any two dimensional environment. The presented simulator focuses
on investigating the ability of a fuzzy-neural system for object
avoidance. A navigation algorithm is proposed and used to allow
random navigation of a robot among obstacles when the robot faces
an obstacle in the environment. The main features of this simulator
can be used for evaluating the performance of any system that can
provide the position of the robot with respect to obstacles in the
environment. This allows a robot developer to investigate and
analyze the performance of a robot without implementing the
A Modified Spiral Search Algorithm and Its Embedded System Architecture Design
One of the most growing areas in the embedded community is multimedia devices. Multimedia devices incorporate a number of complicated functions for their operation, like motion estimation. A multitude of different implementations have been proposed to reduce motion estimation complexity, such as spiral search. We have studied the implementations of spiral search and identified areas of improvement. We propose a modified spiral search algorithm, with lower computational complexity compared to the original spiral search. We have implemented our algorithm on an embedded ARM based architecture, with custom memory hierarchy. The resulting system yields energy consumption reduction up to 64% and performance increase up to 77%, with a small penalty of 2.3 dB, in average, of video quality compared with the original spiral search algorithm.
Web Based Remote Access Microcontroller Laboratory
This paper presents a web based remote access
microcontroller laboratory. Because of accelerated development in
electronics and computer technologies, microcontroller-based devices
and appliances are found in all aspects of our daily life. Before the
implementation of remote access microcontroller laboratory an
experiment set is developed by teaching staff for training
microcontrollers. Requirement of technical teaching and industrial
applications are considered when experiment set is designed.
Students can make the experiments by connecting to the experiment
set which is connected to the computer that set as the web server. The
students can program the microcontroller, can control digital and
analog inputs and can observe experiment. Laboratory experiment
web page can be accessed via www.elab.aku.edu.tr address.
Energy Consumption Analysis of Design Patterns
The importance of low power consumption is widely
acknowledged due to the increasing use of portable devices, which
require minimizing the consumption of energy. Energy dissipation is
heavily dependent on the software used in the system. Applying
design patterns in object-oriented designs is a common practice
nowadays. In this paper we analyze six design patterns and explore
the effect of them on energy consumption and performance.
Complexity of Component-based Development of Embedded Systems
The paper discusses complexity of component-based
development (CBD) of embedded systems. Although CBD has its
merits, it must be augmented with methods to control the complexities
that arise due to resource constraints, timeliness, and run-time deployment
of components in embedded system development. Software
component specification, system-level testing, and run-time reliability
measurement are some ways to control the complexity.
Performance Improvements of DSP Applications on a Generic Reconfigurable Platform
Speedups from mapping four real-life DSP
applications on an embedded system-on-chip that couples coarsegrained
reconfigurable logic with an instruction-set processor are
presented. The reconfigurable logic is realized by a 2-Dimensional
Array of Processing Elements. A design flow for improving
application-s performance is proposed. Critical software parts, called
kernels, are accelerated on the Coarse-Grained Reconfigurable
Array. The kernels are detected by profiling the source code. For
mapping the detected kernels on the reconfigurable logic a prioritybased
mapping algorithm has been developed. Two 4x4 array
architectures, which differ in their interconnection structure among
the Processing Elements, are considered. The experiments for eight
different instances of a generic system show that important overall
application speedups have been reported for the four applications.
The performance improvements range from 1.86 to 3.67, with an
average value of 2.53, compared with an all-software execution.
These speedups are quite close to the maximum theoretical speedups
imposed by Amdahl-s law.
RTCoord: A Methodology to Design WSAN Applications
Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks (WSANs) constitute an emerging and pervasive technology that is attracting increasing interest in the research community for a wide range of applications. WSANs have two important requirements: coordination interactions and real-time communication to perform correct and timely actions. This paper introduces a methodology to facilitate the task of the application programmer focusing on the coordination and real-time requirements of WSANs. The methodology proposed in this model uses a real-time component model, UM-RTCOM, which will help us to achieve the design and implementation of applications in WSAN by using the component oriented paradigm. This will help us to develop software components which offer some very interesting features, such as reusability and adaptability which are very suitable for WSANs as they are very dynamic environments with rapidly changing conditions. In addition, a high-level coordination model based on tuple channels (TC-WSAN) is integrated into the methodology by providing a component-based specification of this model in UM-RTCOM; this will allow us to satisfy both sensor-actor and actor-actor coordination requirements in WSANs. Finally, we present in this paper the design and implementation of an application which will help us to show how the methodology can be easily used in order to achieve the development of WSANs applications.
A Redundant Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol for Collaborating Embedded Systems
This paper describes a UDP over IP based, server-oriented redundant host configuration protocol (RHCP) that can be used by collaborating embedded systems in an ad-hoc network to acquire a dynamic IP address. The service is provided by a single network device at a time and will be dynamically reassigned to one of the other network clients if the primary provider fails. The protocol also allows all participating clients to monitor the dynamic makeup of the network over time. So far the algorithm has been implemented and tested on an 8-bit embedded system architecture with a 10Mbit Ethernet interface.