Forecasting the Volatility of Geophysical Time Series with Stochastic Volatility Models
This work is devoted to the study of modeling
geophysical time series. A stochastic technique with time-varying
parameters is used to forecast the volatility of data arising in
geophysics. In this study, the volatility is defined as a logarithmic
first-order autoregressive process. We observe that the inclusion of
log-volatility into the time-varying parameter estimation significantly
improves forecasting which is facilitated via maximum likelihood
estimation. This allows us to conclude that the estimation algorithm
for the corresponding one-step-ahead suggested volatility (with ±2
standard prediction errors) is very feasible since it possesses good
Heavy Metals Estimation in Coastal Areas Using Remote Sensing, Field Sampling and Classical and Robust Statistic
Sediments are an important source of accumulation of toxic contaminants within the aquatic environment. Bioassays are a powerful tool for the study of sediments in relation to their toxicity, but they can be expensive. This article presents a methodology to estimate the main physical property of intertidal sediments in coastal zones: heavy metals concentration. This study, which was developed in the Bay of Santander (Spain), applies classical and robust statistic to CASI-2 hyperspectral images to estimate heavy metals presence and ecotoxicity (TOC). Simultaneous fieldwork (radiometric and chemical sampling) allowed an appropriate atmospheric correction to CASI-2 images.
Analysis of Translational Ship Oscillations in a Realistic Environment
To acquire accurate ship motions at the center of gravity, a single low-cost inertial sensor is utilized and applied on board to measure ship oscillating motions. As observations, the three axes accelerations and three axes rotational rates provided by the sensor are used. The mathematical model of processing the observation data includes determination of the distance vector between the sensor and the center of gravity in x, y, and z directions. After setting up the transfer matrix from sensor’s own coordinate system to the ship’s body frame, an extended Kalman filter is applied to deal with nonlinearities between the ship motion in the body frame and the observation information in the sensor’s frame. As a side effect, the method eliminates sensor noise and other unwanted errors. Results are not only roll and pitch, but also linear motions, in particular heave and surge at the center of gravity. For testing, we resort to measurements recorded on a small vessel in a well-defined sea state. With response amplitude operators computed numerically by a commercial software (Seaway), motion characteristics are estimated. These agree well with the measurements after processing with the suggested method.
Sparse Unmixing of Hyperspectral Data by Exploiting Joint-Sparsity and Rank-Deficiency
In this work, we exploit two assumed properties of the abundances of the observed signatures (endmembers) in order to reconstruct the abundances from hyperspectral data. Joint-sparsity is the first property of the abundances, which assumes the adjacent pixels can be expressed as different linear combinations of same materials. The second property is rank-deficiency where the number of endmembers participating in hyperspectral data is very small compared with the dimensionality of spectral library, which means that the abundances matrix of the endmembers is a low-rank matrix. These assumptions lead to an optimization problem for the sparse unmixing model that requires minimizing a combined l2,p-norm and nuclear norm. We propose a variable splitting and augmented Lagrangian algorithm to solve the optimization problem. Experimental evaluation carried out on synthetic and real hyperspectral data shows that the proposed method outperforms the state-of-the-art algorithms with a better spectral unmixing accuracy.
Obtaining the Analytic Dependence for Estimating the Ore Mill Operation Modes
The particular significance of comprehensive estimation of the increase in the operation efficiency of the mill motor electromechanical system, providing the main technological process for obtaining a metallic concentrate, as well as the technical state of the system are substantiated. The works carried out in the sphere of investigating, creating, and improving the operation modes of electric drive motors and ore-grinding mills have been studied. Analytic dependences for estimating the operation modes of the ore-grinding mills aimed at improving the ore-crashing process maintenance and technical service efficiencies have been obtained. The obtained analytic dependencies establish a link between the technological and power parameters of the electromechanical system, and allow to estimate the state of the system and reveal the controlled parameters required for the efficient management in case of changing the technological parameters. It has been substantiated that the changes in the technological factors affecting the consumption power of the drive motor do not cause an instability in the electromechanical system.
Using SNAP and RADTRAD to Establish the Analysis Model for Maanshan PWR Plant
In this study, we focus on the establishment of the analysis model for Maanshan PWR nuclear power plant (NPP) by using RADTRAD and SNAP codes with the FSAR, manuals, and other data. In order to evaluate the cumulative dose at the Exclusion Area Boundary (EAB) and Low Population Zone (LPZ) outer boundary, Maanshan NPP RADTRAD/SNAP model was used to perform the analysis of the DBA LOCA case. The analysis results of RADTRAD were similar to FSAR data. These analysis results were lower than the failure criteria of 10 CFR 100.11 (a total radiation dose to the whole body, 250 mSv; a total radiation dose to the thyroid from iodine exposure, 3000 mSv).
Estimation of the Temperatures in an Asynchronous Machine Using Extended Kalman Filter
In order to monitor the thermal behavior of an
asynchronous machine with squirrel cage rotor, a 9th-order extended
Kalman filter (EKF) algorithm is implemented to estimate the
temperatures of the stator windings, the rotor cage and the stator
core. The state-space equations of EKF are established based on
the electrical, mechanical and the simplified thermal models of an
asynchronous machine. The asynchronous machine with simplified
thermal model in Dymola is compiled as DymolaBlock, a physical
model in MATLAB/Simulink. The coolant air temperature, three-phase
voltages and currents are exported from the physical model and are
processed by EKF estimator as inputs. Compared to the temperatures
exported from the physical model of the machine, three parts of
temperatures can be estimated quite accurately by the EKF estimator.
The online EKF estimator is independent from the machine control
algorithm and can work under any speed and load condition if the
stator current is nonzero current system.
Perspectives of Renewable Energy in 21st Century in India: Statistics and Estimation
With the favourable geographical conditions at Indian-subcontinent, it is suitable for flourishing renewable energy. Increasing amount of dependence on coal and other conventional sources is driving the world into pollution and depletion of resources. This paper presents the statistics of energy consumption and energy generation in Indian Sub-continent, which notifies us with the increasing energy demands surpassing energy generation. With the aggrandizement in demand for energy, usage of coal has increased, since the major portion of energy production in India is from thermal power plants. The increase in usage of thermal power plants causes pollution and depletion of reserves; hence, a paradigm shift to renewable sources is inevitable. In this work, the capacity and potential of renewable sources in India are analyzed. Based on the analysis of this work, future potential of these sources is estimated.
Influence of the Line Parameters in Transmission Line Fault Location
In the paper, two fault location algorithms are presented for transmission lines which use the line parameters to estimate the distance to the fault. The first algorithm uses only the measurements from one end of the line and the positive and zero sequence parameters of the line, while the second one uses the measurements from both ends of the line and only the positive sequence parameters of the line. The algorithms were tested using a transmission grid transposed in MATLAB. In a first stage it was established a fault location base line, where the algorithms mentioned above estimate the fault locations using the exact line parameters. After that, the positive and zero sequence resistance and reactance of the line were calculated again for different ground resistivity values and then the fault locations were estimated again in order to compare the results with the base line results. The results show that the algorithm which uses the zero sequence impedance of the line is the most sensitive to the line parameters modifications. The other algorithm is less sensitive to the line parameters modification.
Dynamic State Estimation with Optimal PMU and Conventional Measurements for Complete Observability
This paper presents a Generalized Binary Integer Linear Programming (GBILP) method for optimal allocation of Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) and to generate Dynamic State Estimation (DSE) solution with complete observability. The GBILP method is formulated with Zero Injection Bus (ZIB) constraints to reduce the number of locations for placement of PMUs in the case of normal and single line contingency. The integration of PMU and conventional measurements is modeled in DSE process to estimate accurate states of the system. To estimate the dynamic behavior of the power system with proposed method, load change up to 40% considered at a bus in the power system network. The proposed DSE method is compared with traditional Weighted Least Squares (WLS) state estimation method in presence of load changes to show the impact of PMU measurements. MATLAB simulations are carried out on IEEE 14, 30, 57, and 118 bus systems to prove the validity of the proposed approach.
A Concept to Assess the Economic Importance of the On-Site Activities of ETICS
Construction technology and on-site construction activities have a direct influence on the life cycle costs of energy efficiently renovated apartment buildings. The systematic inadequacies of the External Thermal Insulation Composite System (ETICS) which occur during the construction phase increase the risk for all stakeholders, reduce mechanical durability and increase the life cycle costs of the building. The economic effect of these shortcomings can be minimised if the risk of the most significant on-site activities is recognised. The objective of the presented ETICS economic assessment concept is to evaluate the economic influence of on-site shortcomings and reveal their significance to the foreseeable future repair costs. The model assembles repair techniques, discusses their direct cost calculation methods, argues over the proper usage of net present value over the life cycle of the building, and proposes a simulation tool to evaluate the risk of on-site activities. As the technique is dependent on the selected real interest rate, a sensitivity analysis is anticipated to determine the validity of the recommendations. After the verification of the model on the sample buildings by the industry, it is expected to increase economic rationality of resource allocation and reduce high-risk systematic shortcomings during the construction process of ETICS.
Artificial Neural Network Model Based Setup Period Estimation for Polymer Cutting
The paper presents the results and industrial
applications in the production setup period estimation based on
industrial data inherited from the field of polymer cutting. The
literature of polymer cutting is very limited considering the number
of publications. The first polymer cutting machine is known since the
second half of the 20th century; however, the production of polymer
parts with this kind of technology is still a challenging research topic.
The products of the applying industrial partner must met high
technical requirements, as they are used in medical, measurement
instrumentation and painting industry branches. Typically, 20% of
these parts are new work, which means every five years almost the
entire product portfolio is replaced in their low series manufacturing
environment. Consequently, it requires a flexible production system,
where the estimation of the frequent setup periods' lengths is one of
the key success factors. In the investigation, several (input)
parameters have been studied and grouped to create an adequate
training information set for an artificial neural network as a base for
the estimation of the individual setup periods. In the first group,
product information is collected such as the product name and
number of items. The second group contains material data like
material type and colour. In the third group, surface quality and
tolerance information are collected including the finest surface and
tightest (or narrowest) tolerance. The fourth group contains the setup
data like machine type and work shift. One source of these
parameters is the Manufacturing Execution System (MES) but some
data were also collected from Computer Aided Design (CAD)
drawings. The number of the applied tools is one of the key factors
on which the industrial partners’ estimations were based previously.
The artificial neural network model was trained on several thousands
of real industrial data. The mean estimation accuracy of the setup
periods' lengths was improved by 30%, and in the same time the
deviation of the prognosis was also improved by 50%. Furthermore,
an investigation on the mentioned parameter groups considering the
manufacturing order was also researched. The paper also highlights
the manufacturing introduction experiences and further
improvements of the proposed methods, both on the shop floor and
on the quotation preparation fields. Every week more than 100 real
industrial setup events are given and the related data are collected.
Lithium-Ion Battery State of Charge Estimation Using One State Hysteresis Model with Nonlinear Estimation Strategies
Battery state of charge (SOC) estimation is an important
parameter as it measures the total amount of electrical energy stored
at a current time. The SOC percentage acts as a fuel gauge if it
is compared with a conventional vehicle. Estimating the SOC is,
therefore, essential for monitoring the amount of useful life remaining
in the battery system. This paper looks at the implementation of three
nonlinear estimation strategies for Li-Ion battery SOC estimation.
One of the most common behavioral battery models is the one
state hysteresis (OSH) model. The extended Kalman filter (EKF),
the smooth variable structure filter (SVSF), and the time-varying
smoothing boundary layer SVSF are applied on this model, and the
results are compared.
Online Battery Equivalent Circuit Model Estimation on Continuous-Time Domain Using Linear Integral Filter Method
Equivalent circuit models (ECMs) are widely used in
battery management systems in electric vehicles and other battery
energy storage systems. The battery dynamics and the model
parameters vary under different working conditions, such as different
temperature and state of charge (SOC) levels, and therefore online
parameter identification can improve the modelling accuracy. This
paper presents a way of online ECM parameter identification using a
continuous time (CT) estimation method. The CT estimation method
has several advantages over discrete time (DT) estimation methods
for ECM parameter identification due to the widely separated battery
dynamic modes and fast sampling. The presented method can be used
for online SOC estimation. Test data are collected using a lithium ion
cell, and the experimental results show that the presented CT method
achieves better modelling accuracy compared with the conventional
DT recursive least square method. The effectiveness of the presented
method for online SOC estimation is also verified on test data.
Motion Estimator Architecture with Optimized Number of Processing Elements for High Efficiency Video Coding
Motion estimation occupies the heaviest computation in HEVC (high efficiency video coding). Many fast algorithms such as TZS (test zone search) have been proposed to reduce the computation. Still the huge computation of the motion estimation is a critical issue in the implementation of HEVC video codec. In this paper, motion estimator architecture with optimized number of PEs (processing element) is presented by exploiting early termination. It also reduces hardware size by exploiting parallel processing. The presented motion estimator architecture has 8 PEs, and it can efficiently perform TZS with very high utilization of PEs.
Solid Waste Management Challenges and Possible Solution in Kabul City
Most developing nations face energy production and supply problems. This is also the case of Afghanistan whose generating capacity does not meet its energy demand. This is due in part to high security and risk caused by war which deters foreign investments and insufficient internal revenue. To address the issue above, this paper would like to suggest an alternative and affordable way to deal with the energy problem. That is by converting Solid Waste to energy. As a result, this approach tackles the municipal solid waste issue (potential cause of several diseases), contributes to the improvement of the quality of life, local economy, and so on. While addressing the solid waste problem in general, this paper samples specifically one municipality which is District-12, one of the 22 districts of Kabul city. Using geographic information system (GIS) technology, District-12 is divided into nine different zones whose municipal solid waste is respectively collected, processed, and converted into electricity and distributed to the closest area. It is important to mention that GIS has been used to estimate the amount of electricity to be distributed and to optimally position the production plant.
A Quantification Method of Attractiveness of Stations and an Estimation Method of Number of Passengers Taking into Consideration the Attractiveness of the Station
In the metropolitan areas in Japan, in many stations, shopping areas are set up, and escalators and elevators are installed to make the stations be barrier-free. Further, many areas around the stations are being redeveloped. Railway business operators want to know how much effect these circumstances have on attractiveness of the station or number of passengers using the station. So, we performed a questionnaire survey of the station users in the metropolitan areas for finding factors to affect the attractiveness of stations. Then, based on the analysis of the survey, we developed a method to quantitatively evaluate attractiveness of the stations. We also developed an estimation method for number of passengers based on combination of attractiveness of the station quantitatively evaluated and the residential and labor population around the station. Then, we derived precise linear regression models estimating the attractiveness of the station and number of passengers of the station.
The Cost and Benefit on the Investment in Safety and Health of the Enterprises in Thailand
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the monetary worthiness of investment and the usefulness of risk estimation as a tool employed by a production section of an electronic factory. This study employed the case study of accidents occurring in production areas. Data is collected from interviews with six production of safety coordinators and collect the information from the relevant section. The study will present the ratio of benefits compared with the operation costs for investment. The result showed that it is worthwhile for investment with the safety measures. In addition, the organizations must be able to analyze the causes of accidents about the benefits of investing in protective working process. They also need to quickly provide the manual for the staff to learn how to protect themselves from accidents and how to use all of the safety equipment.
High Performance of Direct Torque and Flux Control of a Double Stator Induction Motor Drive with a Fuzzy Stator Resistance Estimator
In order to have stable and high performance of direct torque and flux control (DTFC) of double star induction motor drive (DSIM), proper on-line adaptation of the stator resistance is very important. This is inevitably due to the variation of the stator resistance during operating conditions, which introduces error in estimated flux position and the magnitude of the stator flux. Error in the estimated stator flux deteriorates the performance of the DTFC drive. Also, the effect of error in estimation is very important especially at low speed. Due to this, our aim is to overcome the sensitivity of the DTFC to the stator resistance variation by proposing on-line fuzzy estimation stator resistance. The fuzzy estimation method is based on an on-line stator resistance correction through the variations of the stator current estimation error and its variations. The fuzzy logic controller gives the future stator resistance increment at the output. The main advantage of the suggested algorithm control is to avoid the drive instability that may occur in certain situations and ensure the tracking of the actual stator resistance. The validity of the technique and the improvement of the whole system performance are proved by the results.
Variogram Fitting Based on the Wilcoxon Norm
Within geostatistics research, effective estimation of
the variogram points has been examined, particularly in developing
robust alternatives. The parametric fit of these variogram points which
eventually defines the kriging weights, however, has not received
the same attention from a robust perspective. This paper proposes
the use of the non-linear Wilcoxon norm over weighted non-linear
least squares as a robust variogram fitting alternative. First, we
introduce the concept of variogram estimation and fitting. Then, as
an alternative to non-linear weighted least squares, we discuss the
non-linear Wilcoxon estimator. Next, the robustness properties of the
non-linear Wilcoxon are demonstrated using a contaminated spatial
data set. Finally, under simulated conditions, increasing levels of
contaminated spatial processes have their variograms points estimated
and fit. In the fitting of these variogram points, both non-linear
Weighted Least Squares and non-linear Wilcoxon fits are examined
for efficiency. At all levels of contamination (including 0%), using
a robust estimation and robust fitting procedure, the non-weighted
Wilcoxon outperforms weighted Least Squares.
An Energy Detection-Based Algorithm for Cooperative Spectrum Sensing in Rayleigh Fading Channel
Cognitive radios have been recognized as one of the most promising technologies dealing with the scarcity of the radio spectrum. In cognitive radio systems, secondary users are allowed to utilize the frequency bands of primary users when the bands are idle. Hence, how to accurately detect the idle frequency bands has attracted many researchers’ interest. Detection performance is sensitive toward noise power and gain fluctuation. Since signal to noise ratio (SNR) between primary user and secondary users are not the same and change over the time, SNR and noise power estimation is essential. In this paper, we present a cooperative spectrum sensing algorithm using SNR estimation to improve detection performance in the real situation.
Frequency Estimation Using Analytic Signal via Wavelet Transform
Frequency estimation of a sinusoid in white noise using
maximum entropy power spectral estimation has been shown to be
very sensitive to initial sinusoidal phase. This paper presents use of
wavelet transform to find an analytic signal for frequency estimation
using maximum entropy method (MEM) and compared the results
with frequency estimation using analytic signal by Hilbert transform
method and frequency estimation using real data together with MEM.
The presented method shows the improved estimation precision and
A Stochastic Diffusion Process Based on the Two-Parameters Weibull Density Function
Stochastic modeling concerns the use of probability
to model real-world situations in which uncertainty is present.
Therefore, the purpose of stochastic modeling is to estimate the
probability of outcomes within a forecast, i.e. to be able to predict
what conditions or decisions might happen under different situations.
In the present study, we present a model of a stochastic diffusion
process based on the bi-Weibull distribution function (its trend
is proportional to the bi-Weibull probability density function). In
general, the Weibull distribution has the ability to assume the
characteristics of many different types of distributions. This has
made it very popular among engineers and quality practitioners, who
have considered it the most commonly used distribution for studying
problems such as modeling reliability data, accelerated life testing,
and maintainability modeling and analysis. In this work, we start
by obtaining the probabilistic characteristics of this model, as the
explicit expression of the process, its trends, and its distribution by
transforming the diffusion process in a Wiener process as shown in
the Ricciaardi theorem. Then, we develop the statistical inference of
this model using the maximum likelihood methodology. Finally, we
analyse with simulated data the computational problems associated
with the parameters, an issue of great importance in its application to
real data with the use of the convergence analysis methods. Overall,
the use of a stochastic model reflects only a pragmatic decision on
the part of the modeler. According to the data that is available and
the universe of models known to the modeler, this model represents
the best currently available description of the phenomenon under
Application of the Total Least Squares Estimation Method for an Aircraft Aerodynamic Model Identification
The aerodynamic coefficients are important in the evaluation of an aircraft performance and stability-control characteristics. These coefficients also can be used in the automatic flight control systems and mathematical model of flight simulator. The study of the aerodynamic aspect of flying systems is a reserved domain and inaccessible for the developers. Doing tests in a wind tunnel to extract aerodynamic forces and moments requires a specific and expensive means. Besides, the glaring lack of published documentation in this field of study makes the aerodynamic coefficients determination complicated. This work is devoted to the identification of an aerodynamic model, by using an aircraft in virtual simulated environment. We deal with the identification of the system, we present an environment framework based on Software In the Loop (SIL) methodology and we use MicrosoftTM Flight Simulator (FS-2004) as the environment for plane simulation. We propose The Total Least Squares Estimation technique (TLSE) to identify the aerodynamic parameters, which are unknown, variable, classified and used in the expression of the piloting law. In this paper, we define each aerodynamic coefficient as the mean of its numerical values. All other variations are considered as modeling uncertainties that will be compensated by the robustness of the piloting control.
Kalman Filter Design in Structural Identification with Unknown Excitation
This article is about first step of structural health monitoring by identifying structural system in the presence of unknown input. In the structural system identification, identification of structural parameters such as stiffness and damping are considered. In this study, the Kalman filter (KF) design for structural systems with unknown excitation is expressed. External excitations, such as earthquakes, wind or any other forces are not measured or not available. The purpose of this filter is its strengths to estimate the state variables of the system in the presence of unknown input. Also least squares estimation (LSE) method with unknown input is studied. Estimates of parameters have been adopted. Finally, using two examples advantages and drawbacks of both methods are studied.
Foil Bearing Stiffness Estimation with Pseudospectral Scheme
Compliant foil gas lubricated bearings are used for the
support of light loads in the order of few kilograms at high speeds, in
the order of 50,000 RPM. The stiffness of the foil bearings depends
both on the stiffness of the compliant foil and on the lubricating
gas film. The stiffness of the bearings plays a crucial role in the
stable operation of the supported rotor over a range of speeds. This
paper describes a numerical approach to estimate the stiffness of the
bearings using pseudo spectral scheme. Methodology to obtain the
stiffness of the foil bearing as a function of weight of the shaft is
given and the results are presented.
The Competitive Newsvendor Game with Overestimated Demand
The tradition competitive newsvendor game assumes decision makers are rational. However, there are behavioral biases when people make decisions, such as loss aversion, mental accounting and overconfidence. Overestimation of a subject’s own performance is one type of overconfidence. The objective of this research is to analyze the impact of the overestimated demand in the newsvendor competitive game with two players. This study builds a competitive newsvendor game model where newsvendors have private information of their demands, which is overestimated. At the same time, demands of each newsvendor forecasted by a third party institution are available. This research shows that the overestimation leads to demand steal effect, which reduces the competitor’s order quantity. However, the overall supply of the product increases due to overestimation. This study illustrates the boundary condition for the overestimated newsvendor to have the equilibrium order drop due to the demand steal effect from the other newsvendor. A newsvendor who has higher critical fractile will see its equilibrium order decrease with the drop of estimation level from the other newsvendor.
An Approach to Noise Variance Estimation in Very Low Signal-to-Noise Ratio Stochastic Signals
This paper describes a method for AWGN (Additive White Gaussian Noise) variance estimation in noisy stochastic signals, referred to as Multiplicative-Noising Variance Estimation (MNVE). The aim was to develop an estimation algorithm with minimal number of assumptions on the original signal structure. The provided MATLAB simulation and results analysis of the method applied on speech signals showed more accuracy than standardized AR (autoregressive) modeling noise estimation technique. In addition, great performance was observed on very low signal-to-noise ratios, which in general represents the worst case scenario for signal denoising methods. High execution time appears to be the only disadvantage of MNVE. After close examination of all the observed features of the proposed algorithm, it was concluded it is worth of exploring and that with some further adjustments and improvements can be enviably powerful.
Software Engineering Inspired Cost Estimation for Process Modelling
Up to this point business process management projects
in general and business process modelling projects in particular
could not rely on a practical and scientifically validated method to
estimate cost and effort. Especially the model development phase
is not covered by a cost estimation method or model. Further
phases of business process modelling starting with implementation
are covered by initial solutions which are discussed in the literature.
This article proposes a method of filling this gap by deriving a cost
estimation method from available methods in similar domains namely
software development or software engineering. Software development
is regarded as closely similar to process modelling as we show. After
the proposition of this method different ideas for further analysis and
validation of the method are proposed. We derive this method from
COCOMO II and Function Point which are established methods of
effort estimation in the domain of software development. For this
we lay out similarities of the software development process and the
process of process modelling which is a phase of the Business Process
The Sequential Estimation of the Seismoacoustic Source Energy in C-OTDR Monitoring Systems
The practical efficient approach is suggested for
estimation of the seismoacoustic sources energy in C-OTDR
monitoring systems. This approach is represents the sequential plan
for confidence estimation both the seismoacoustic sources energy, as
well the absorption coefficient of the soil. The sequential plan
delivers the non-asymptotic guaranteed accuracy of obtained
estimates in the form of non-asymptotic confidence regions with
prescribed sizes. These confidence regions are valid for a finite
sample size when the distributions of the observations are unknown.
Thus, suggested estimates are non-asymptotic and nonparametric,
and also these estimates guarantee the prescribed estimation accuracy
in form of prior prescribed size of confidence regions, and prescribed
confidence coefficient value.