Error Rate Performance Comparisons of Precoding Schemes over Fading Channels for Multiuser MIMO
In Multiuser MIMO communication systems, interuser interference has a strong impact on the transmitted signals. Precoding technique schemes are employed for multiuser broadcast channels to suppress an interuser interference. Different Linear and nonlinear precoding schemes are there. For the massive system dimension, it is difficult to design an appropriate precoding algorithm with low computational complexity and good error rate performance at the same time over fading channels. This paper describes the error rate performance of precoding schemes over fading channels with the assumption of perfect channel state information at the transmitter. To estimate the bit error rate performance, different propagation environments namely, Rayleigh, Rician and Nakagami fading channels have been offered. This paper presents the error rate performance comparison of these fading channels based on precoding methods like Channel Inversion and Dirty paper coding for multiuser broadcasting system. MATLAB simulation has been used. It is observed that multiuser system achieves better error rate performance by Dirty paper coding over Rayleigh fading channel.
C-LNRD: A Cross-Layered Neighbor Route Discovery for Effective Packet Communication in Wireless Sensor Network
One of the problems to be addressed in wireless sensor networks is the issues related to cross layer communication. Cross layer architecture shares the information across the layer, ensuring Quality of Services (QoS). With this shared information, MAC protocol adapts effective functionality maintenance such as route selection on changeable sensor network environment. However, time slot assignment and neighbour route selection time duration for cross layer have not been carried out. The time varying physical layer communication over cross layer causes high traffic load in the sensor network. Though, the traffic load was reduced using cross layer optimization procedure, the computational cost is high. To improve communication efficacy in the sensor network, a self-determined time slot based Cross-Layered Neighbour Route Discovery (C-LNRD) method is presented in this paper. In the presented work, the initial process is to discover the route in the sensor network using Dynamic Source Routing based Medium Access Control (MAC) sub layers. This process considers MAC layer operation with dynamic route neighbour table discovery. Then, the discovered route path for packet communication employs Broad Route Distributed Time Slot Assignment method on Cross-Layered Sensor Network system. Broad Route means time slotting on varying length of the route paths. During packet communication in this sensor network, transmission of packets is adjusted over the different time with varying ranges for controlling the traffic rate. Finally, Rayleigh fading model is developed in C-LNRD to identify the performance of the sensor network communication structure. The main task of Rayleigh Fading is to measure the power level of each communication under MAC sub layer. The minimized power level helps to easily reduce the computational cost of packet communication in the sensor network. Experiments are conducted on factors such as power factor, on packet communication, neighbour route discovery time, and information (i.e., packet) propagation speed.
An Energy Detection-Based Algorithm for Cooperative Spectrum Sensing in Rayleigh Fading Channel
Cognitive radios have been recognized as one of the most promising technologies dealing with the scarcity of the radio spectrum. In cognitive radio systems, secondary users are allowed to utilize the frequency bands of primary users when the bands are idle. Hence, how to accurately detect the idle frequency bands has attracted many researchers’ interest. Detection performance is sensitive toward noise power and gain fluctuation. Since signal to noise ratio (SNR) between primary user and secondary users are not the same and change over the time, SNR and noise power estimation is essential. In this paper, we present a cooperative spectrum sensing algorithm using SNR estimation to improve detection performance in the real situation.
Bit Error Rate Analysis of Mobile Communication Network in Nakagami Fading Channel: Interference Considerations
Co-channel interference is one of the major problems in wireless systems. The effects of co-channel interference in a Nakagami fading channel on the ABER (Average Bit Error Rate) with static nodes are well analyzed. In this paper, we derive the ABER with the presence of mobile nodes. ABER is also derived for mobile systems in the presence of co-channel interference.
Learning Materials for Enhancing Sustainable Colour Fading Process of Fashion Products
This study examines the results of colour fading of cotton fabric by plasma-induced ozone treatment, with an aim to provide learning materials for fashion designers when designing colour fading effects in fashion products. Cotton knitted fabrics were dyed with red reactive dye with a colour depth of 1.5% and were subjected to ozone generated by a commercially available plasma machine for colour fading. The plasma-induced ozone treatment was conducted with different parameters: (i) air concentration = 10%, 30%, 50% and 70%; (ii) water content in fabric = 35% and 45%, and (iii) treatment time = 10 minutes, 20 minutes and 30 minutes. Finally, the colour properties of the plasma–induced ozone treated fabric were measured by spectrophotometer under illuminant D65 to obtain the CIE L*, CIE a* and CIE b* values.
Average Secrecy Mutual Information of the Non-Identically Independently Distributed Hoyt Fading Wireless Channels
In this paper, we consider a non-identically independently distributed (non-i.i.d.) Hoyt fading single-input multiple-out put (SIMO) channel, where the transmitter sends some confidential information to the legitimate receiver in presence of an eavesdropper. We formulated the probability of non-zero secrecy mutual information; secure outage probability and average secrecy mutual information (SMI) for the SIMO wireless communication system. The calculation has been carried out using small limit argument approximation (SLAA) on zeroth-order modified Bessel function of first kind. In our proposed model, an eavesdropper observes transmissions of information through another Hoyt fading channel. First, we derived the analytical expression for non-zero secrecy mutual information. Then, we find the secure outage probability to investigate the outage behavior of the proposed model. Finally, we find the average secrecy mutual information. We consider that the channel state information (CSI) is known to legitimate receiver.
Statistical Modeling of Local Area Fading Channels Based on Triply Stochastic Filtered Marked Poisson Point Processes
Fading noise degrades the performance of cellular
communication, most notably in femto- and pico-cells in 3G and 4G
systems. When the wireless channel consists of a small number of
scattering paths, the statistics of fading noise is not analytically
tractable and poses a serious challenge to developing closed
canonical forms that can be analysed and used in the design of
efficient and optimal receivers. In this context, noise is multiplicative
and is referred to as stochastically local fading. In many analytical
investigation of multiplicative noise, the exponential or Gamma
statistics are invoked. More recent advances by the author of this
paper utilized a Poisson modulated-weighted generalized Laguerre
polynomials with controlling parameters and uncorrelated noise
assumptions. In this paper, we investigate the statistics of multidiversity
stochastically local area fading channel when the channel
consists of randomly distributed Rayleigh and Rician scattering
centers with a coherent Nakagami-distributed line of sight component
and an underlying doubly stochastic Poisson process driven by a
lognormal intensity. These combined statistics form a unifying triply
stochastic filtered marked Poisson point process model.
Combined Source and Channel Coding for Image Transmission Using Enhanced Turbo Codes in AWGN and Rayleigh Channel
Any signal transmitted over a channel is corrupted by noise and interference. A host of channel coding techniques has been proposed to alleviate the effect of such noise and interference. Among these Turbo codes are recommended, because of increased capacity at higher transmission rates and superior performance over convolutional codes. The multimedia elements which are associated with ample amount of data are best protected by Turbo codes. Turbo decoder employs Maximum A-posteriori Probability (MAP) and Soft Output Viterbi Decoding (SOVA) algorithms. Conventional Turbo coded systems employ Equal Error Protection (EEP) in which the protection of all the data in an information message is uniform. Some applications involve Unequal Error Protection (UEP) in which the level of protection is higher for important information bits than that of other bits. In this work, enhancement to the traditional Log MAP decoding algorithm is being done by using optimized scaling factors for both the decoders. The error correcting performance in presence of UEP in Additive White Gaussian Noise channel (AWGN) and Rayleigh fading are analyzed for the transmission of image with Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) as source coding technique. This paper compares the performance of log MAP, Modified log MAP (MlogMAP) and Enhanced log MAP (ElogMAP) algorithms used for image transmission. The MlogMAP algorithm is found to be best for lower Eb/N0 values but for higher Eb/N0 ElogMAP performs better with optimized scaling factors. The performance comparison of AWGN with fading channel indicates the robustness of the proposed algorithm. According to the performance of three different message classes, class3 would be more protected than other two classes. From the performance analysis, it is observed that ElogMAP algorithm with UEP is best for transmission of an image compared to Log MAP and MlogMAP decoding algorithms.
Security over OFDM Fading Channels with Friendly Jammer
In this paper, we investigate the effect of friendly
jamming power allocation strategies on the achievable average
secrecy rate over a bank of parallel fading wiretap channels.
We investigate the achievable average secrecy rate in parallel
fading wiretap channels subject to Rayleigh and Rician fading.
The achievable average secrecy rate, due to the presence of a
line-of-sight component in the jammer channel is also evaluated.
Moreover, we study the detrimental effect of correlation across the
parallel sub-channels, and evaluate the corresponding decrease in the
achievable average secrecy rate for the various fading configurations.
We also investigate the tradeoff between the transmission power
and the jamming power for a fixed total power budget. Our
results, which are applicable to current orthogonal frequency division
multiplexing (OFDM) communications systems, shed further light on
the achievable average secrecy rates over a bank of parallel fading
channels in the presence of friendly jammers.
Performance of Nakagami Fading Channel over Energy Detection Based Spectrum Sensing
Spectrum sensing is the main feature of cognitive
radio technology. Spectrum sensing gives an idea of detecting the
presence of the primary users in a licensed spectrum. In this paper we
compare the theoretical results of detection probability of different
fading environments like Rayleigh, Rician, Nakagami-m fading
channels with the simulation results using energy detection based
spectrum sensing. The numerical results are plotted as Pf Vs Pd for
different SNR values, fading parameters. It is observed that
Nakagami fading channel performance is better than other fading
channels by using energy detection in spectrum sensing. A MATLAB
simulation test bench has been implemented to know the performance
of energy detection in different fading channel environment.
Experimental Investigation of On-Body Channel Modelling at 2.45 GHz
This paper presents the experimental investigation of on-body channel fading at 2.45 GHz considering two effects of the user body movement; stationary and mobile. A pair of body-worn antennas was utilized in this measurement campaign. A statistical analysis was performed by comparing the measured on-body path loss to five well-known distributions; lognormal, normal, Nakagami, Weibull and Rayleigh. The results showed that the average path loss of moving arm varied higher than the path loss in sitting position for upper-arm-to-left-chest link, up to 3.5 dB. The analysis also concluded that the Nakagami distribution provided the best fit for most of on-body static link path loss in standing still and sitting position, while the arm movement can be best described by log-normal distribution.
Energy Efficient Transmission of Image over DWT-OFDM System
In many applications retransmissions of lost packets are not permitted. OFDM is a multi-carrier modulation scheme having excellent performance which allows overlapping in frequency domain. With OFDM there is a simple way of dealing with multipath relatively simple DSP algorithms.
In this paper, an image frame is compressed using DWT, and the compressed data is arranged in data vectors, each with equal number of coefficients. These vectors are quantized and binary coded to get the bit steams, which are then packetized and intelligently mapped to the OFDM system. Based on one-bit channel state information at the transmitter, the descriptions in order of descending priority are assigned to the currently good channels such that poorer sub-channels can only affect the lesser important data vectors. We consider only one-bit channel state information available at the transmitter, informing only about the sub-channels to be good or bad. For a good sub-channel, instantaneous received power should be greater than a threshold Pth. Otherwise, the sub-channel is in fading state and considered bad for that batch of coefficients. In order to reduce the system power consumption, the mapped descriptions onto the bad sub channels are dropped at the transmitter. The binary channel state information gives an opportunity to map the bit streams intelligently and to save a reasonable amount of power. By using MAT LAB simulation we can analysis the performance of our proposed scheme, in terms of system energy saving without compromising the received quality in terms of peak signal-noise ratio.
An Efficient Burst Errors Combating for Image Transmission over Mobile WPANs
This paper presents an efficient burst error spreading tool. Also, it studies a vital issue in wireless communications, which is the transmission of images over wireless networks. IEEE ZigBee 802.15.4 is a short-range communication standard that could be used for small distance multimedia transmissions. In fact, the ZigBee network is a Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN), which needs a strong interleaving mechanism for protection against error bursts. Also, it is low power technology and utilized in the Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) implementation. This paper presents the chaotic interleaving scheme as a data randomization tool for this purpose. This scheme depends on the chaotic Baker map. The mobility effects on the image transmission are studied with different velocity through utilizing the Jakes’ model. A comparison study between the proposed chaotic interleaving scheme and the traditional block and convolutional interleaving schemes for image transmission over a correlated fading channel is presented. The simulation results show the superiority of the proposed chaotic interleaving scheme over the traditional schemes.
Efficient Detection Using Sequential Probability Ratio Test in Mobile Cognitive Radio Systems
This paper proposes a smart design strategy for a sequential detector to reliably detect the primary user-s signal, especially in fast fading environments. We study the computation of the log-likelihood ratio for coping with a fast changing received signal and noise sample variances, which are considered random variables. First, we analyze the detectability of the conventional generalized log-likelihood ratio (GLLR) scheme when considering fast changing statistics of unknown parameters caused by fast fading effects. Secondly, we propose an efficient sensing algorithm for performing the sequential probability ratio test in a robust and efficient manner when the channel statistics are unknown. Finally, the proposed scheme is compared to the conventional method with simulation results with respect to the average number of samples required to reach a detection decision.
Impact of Modeling Different Fading Channels on Wireless MAN Fixed IEEE802.16d OFDM System with Diversity Transmission Technique
Wimax (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access)
is a promising technology which can offer high speed data,
voice and video service to the customer end, which is presently, dominated
by the cable and digital subscriber line (DSL) technologies.
The performance assessment of Wimax systems is dealt with. The
biggest advantage of Broadband wireless application (BWA) over its
wired competitors is its increased capacity and ease of deployment.
The aims of this paper are to model and simulate the fixed OFDM
IEEE 802.16d physical layer under variant combinations of digital
modulation (BPSK, QPSK, and 16-QAM) over diverse combination
of fading channels (AWGN, SUIs). Stanford University Interim (SUI)
Channel serial was proposed to simulate the fixed broadband wireless
access channel environments where IEEE 802.16d is to be deployed.
It has six channel models that are grouped into three categories
according to three typical different outdoor Terrains, in order to give
a comprehensive effect of fading channels on the overall performance
of the system.
Performance of Dual MRC Receiver for M-ary Modulations over Correlated Nakagami-m Fading Channels with Non-identical and Arbitrary Fading Parameter
Performance of a dual maximal ratio combining
receiver has been analyzed for M-ary coherent and non-coherent
modulations over correlated Nakagami-m fading channels with nonidentical
and arbitrary fading parameter. The classical probability
density function (PDF) based approach is used for analysis.
Expressions for outage probability and average symbol error
performance for M-ary coherent and non-coherent modulations have
been obtained. The obtained results are verified against the special
case published results and found to be matching. The effect of the
unequal fading parameters, branch correlation and unequal input
average SNR on the receiver performance has been studied.
Analytical Mathematical Expression for the Channel Capacity of a Power and Rate Simultaneous Adaptive Cellular DS/FFH-CDMA Systemin a Rayleigh Fading Channel
In this paper, an accurate theoretical analysis for the achievable average channel capacity (in the Shannon sense) per user of a hybrid cellular direct-sequence/fast frequency hopping code-division multiple-access (DS/FFH-CDMA) system operating in a Rayleigh fading environment is presented. The analysis covers the downlink operation and leads to the derivation of an exact mathematical expression between the normalized average channel capacity available to each system-s user, under simultaneous optimal power and rate adaptation and the system-s parameters, as the number of hops per bit, the processing gain applied, the number of users per cell and the received signal-tonoise power ratio over the signal bandwidth. Finally, numerical results are presented to illustrate the proposed mathematical analysis.
Energy Efficient Reliable Cooperative Multipath Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks
In this paper, a reliable cooperative multipath routing
algorithm is proposed for data forwarding in wireless sensor networks
(WSNs). In this algorithm, data packets are forwarded towards the
base station (BS) through a number of paths, using a set of relay
nodes. In addition, the Rayleigh fading model is used to calculate
the evaluation metric of links. Here, the quality of reliability is
guaranteed by selecting optimal relay set with which the probability
of correct packet reception at the BS will exceed a predefined
threshold. Therefore, the proposed scheme ensures reliable packet
transmission to the BS. Furthermore, in the proposed algorithm,
energy efficiency is achieved by energy balancing (i.e. minimizing
the energy consumption of the bottleneck node of the routing path)
at the same time. This work also demonstrates that the proposed
algorithm outperforms existing algorithms in extending longevity of
the network, with respect to the quality of reliability. Given this, the
obtained results make possible reliable path selection with minimum
energy consumption in real time.
Error Rate Probability for Coded MQAM with MRC Diversity in the Presence of Cochannel Interferers over Nakagami-Fading Channels
Exact expressions for bit-error probability (BEP) for
coherent square detection of uncoded and coded M-ary quadrature
amplitude modulation (MQAM) using an array of antennas with
maximal ratio combining (MRC) in a flat fading channel interference
limited system in a Nakagami-m fading environment is derived. The
analysis assumes an arbitrary number of independent and identically
distributed Nakagami interferers. The results for coded MQAM are
computed numerically for the case of (24,12) extended Golay code
and compared with uncoded MQAM by plotting error probabilities
versus average signal-to-interference ratio (SIR) for various values of
order of diversity N, number of distinct symbols M, in order to
examine the effect of cochannel interferers on the performance of the
digital communication system. The diversity gains and net gains are
also presented in tabular form in order to examine the performance of
digital communication system in the presence of interferers, as the
order of diversity increases. The analytical results presented in this
paper are expected to provide useful information needed for design
and analysis of digital communication systems with space diversity
in wireless fading channels.
A Degraded Practical MIMOME Channel: Issues Insecret Data Communications
In this paper, a Gaussian multiple input multiple output multiple eavesdropper (MIMOME) channel is considered where a transmitter communicates to a receiver in the presence of an eavesdropper. We present a technique for determining the secrecy capacity of the multiple input multiple output (MIMO) channel under Gaussian noise. We transform the degraded MIMOME channel into multiple single input multiple output (SIMO) Gaussian wire-tap channels and then use scalar approach to convert it into two equivalent multiple input single output (MISO) channels. The secrecy capacity model is then developed for the condition where the channel state information (CSI) for main channel only is known to the transmitter. The results show that the secret communication is possible when the eavesdropper channel noise is greater than a cutoff noise level. The outage probability is also analyzed of secrecy capacity is also analyzed. The effect of fading and outage probability is also analyzed.
Multiple Subcarrier Indoor Geolocation System in MIMO-OFDM WLAN APs Structure
This report aims to utilize existing and future Multiple-Input Multiple-Output Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Wireless Local Area Network (MIMO-OFDM WLAN) systems characteristics–such as multiple subcarriers, multiple antennas, and channel estimation characteristics–for indoor location estimation systems based on the Direction of Arrival (DOA) and Radio Signal Strength Indication (RSSI) methods. Hybrid of DOA-RSSI methods also evaluated. In the experimental data result, we show that location estimation accuracy performances can be increased by minimizing the multipath fading effect. This is done using multiple subcarrier frequencies over wideband frequencies to estimate one location. The proposed methods are analyzed in both a wide indoor environment and a typical room-sized office. In the experiments, WLAN terminal locations are estimated by measuring multiple subcarriers from arrays of three dipole antennas of access points (AP). This research demonstrates highly accurate, robust and hardware-free add-on software for indoor location estimations based on a MIMO-OFDM WLAN system.
Optimum Radio Capacity Estimation of a Single-Cell Spread Spectrum MIMO System under Rayleigh Fading Conditions
In this paper, the problem of estimating the optimal
radio capacity of a single-cell spread spectrum (SS) multiple-inputmultiple-
output (MIMO) system operating in a Rayleigh fading environment
is examined. The optimisation between the radio capacity
and the theoretically achievable average channel capacity (in the
sense of information theory) per user of a MIMO single-cell SS system
operating in a Rayleigh fading environment is presented. Then,
the spectral efficiency is estimated in terms of the achievable average
channel capacity per user, during the operation over a broadcast
time-varying link, and leads to a simple novel-closed form expression
for the optimal radio capacity value based on the maximization
of the achieved spectral efficiency. Numerical results are presented to
illustrate the proposed analysis.
Increasing the Efficiency of Rake Receivers for Ultra-Wideband Applications
In diversity rich environments, such as in Ultra-
Wideband (UWB) applications, the a priori determination of the
number of strong diversity branches is difficult, because of the considerably large number of diversity paths, which are characterized
by a variety of power delay profiles (PDPs). Several
Rake implementations have been proposed in the past, in order to reduce the number of the estimated and combined paths. To this
aim, we introduce two adaptive Rake receivers, which combine
a subset of the resolvable paths considering simultaneously the
quality of both the total combining output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the individual SNR of each path. These schemes achieve
better adaptation to channel conditions compared to other known receivers, without further increasing the complexity. Their performance
is evaluated in different practical UWB channels, whose models are based on extensive propagation measurements. The
proposed receivers compromise between the power consumption,
complexity and performance gain for the additional paths, resulting in important savings in power and computational resources.
Clustering Unstructured Text Documents Using Fading Function
Clustering unstructured text documents is an
important issue in data mining community and has a number of
applications such as document archive filtering, document
organization and topic detection and subject tracing. In the real
world, some of the already clustered documents may not be of
importance while new documents of more significance may evolve.
Most of the work done so far in clustering unstructured text
documents overlooks this aspect of clustering. This paper, addresses
this issue by using the Fading Function. The unstructured text
documents are clustered. And for each cluster a statistics structure
called Cluster Profile (CP) is implemented. The cluster profile
incorporates the Fading Function. This Fading Function keeps an
account of the time-dependent importance of the cluster. The work
proposes a novel algorithm Clustering n-ary Merge Algorithm
(CnMA) for unstructured text documents, that uses Cluster Profile
and Fading Function. Experimental results illustrating the
effectiveness of the proposed technique are also included.
Recursive Least Squares Adaptive Filter a better ISI Compensator
Inter-symbol interference if not taken care off may cause severe error at the receiver and the detection of signal becomes difficult. An adaptive equalizer employing Recursive Least Squares algorithm can be a good compensation for the ISI problem. In this paper performance of communication link in presence of Least Mean Square and Recursive Least Squares equalizer algorithm is analyzed. A Model of communication system having Quadrature amplitude modulation and Rician fading channel is implemented using MATLAB communication block set. Bit error rate and number of errors is evaluated for RLS and LMS equalizer algorithm, due to change in Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) and fading component gain in Rician fading Channel.
Mitigation of ISI for Next Generation Wireless Channels in Outdoor Vehicular Environments
In order to accommodate various multimedia
services, next generation wireless networks are characterized
by very high transmission bit rates. Thus, in such systems and
networks, the received signal is not only limited by noise but -
especially with increasing symbols rate often more
significantly by the intersymbol interference (ISI) caused by
the time dispersive radio channels such as those are used in
this work. This paper deals with the study of the performance
of detector for high bit rate transmission on some worst case
models of frequency selective fading channels for outdoor
mobile radio environments. This paper deals with a number of
different wireless channels with different power profiles and
different number of resolvable paths. All the radio channels
generated in this paper are for outdoor vehicular environments
with Doppler spread of 100 Hz. A carrier frequency of 1800
MHz is used and all the channels used in this work are such
that they are useful for next generation wireless systems.
Schemes for mitigation of ISI with adaptive equalizers of
different types have been investigated and their performances
have been investigated in terms of BER measured as a function
Least Square-SVM Detector for Wireless BPSK in Multi-Environmental Noise
Support Vector Machine (SVM) is a statistical
learning tool developed to a more complex concept of
structural risk minimization (SRM). In this paper, SVM is
applied to signal detection in communication systems in the
presence of channel noise in various environments in the form
of Rayleigh fading, additive white Gaussian background noise
(AWGN), and interference noise generalized as additive color
Gaussian noise (ACGN). The structure and performance of
SVM in terms of the bit error rate (BER) metric is derived and
simulated for these advanced stochastic noise models and the
computational complexity of the implementation, in terms of
average computational time per bit, is also presented. The
performance of SVM is then compared to conventional binary
signaling optimal model-based detector driven by binary
phase shift keying (BPSK) modulation. We show that the
SVM performance is superior to that of conventional matched
filter-, innovation filter-, and Wiener filter-driven detectors,
even in the presence of random Doppler carrier deviation,
especially for low SNR (signal-to-noise ratio) ranges. For
large SNR, the performance of the SVM was similar to that of
the classical detectors. However, the convergence between
SVM and maximum likelihood detection occurred at a higher
SNR as the noise environment became more hostile.
Issues in Deploying Smart Antennas in Mobile Radio Networks
With the exponentially increasing demand for
wireless communications the capacity of current cellular systems will
soon become incapable of handling the growing traffic. Since radio
frequencies are diminishing natural resources, there seems to be a
fundamental barrier to further capacity increase. The solution can be
found in smart antenna systems.
Smart or adaptive antenna arrays consist of an array of antenna
elements with signal processing capability, that optimize the
radiation and reception of a desired signal, dynamically. Smart
antennas can place nulls in the direction of interferers via adaptive
updating of weights linked to each antenna element. They thus cancel
out most of the co-channel interference resulting in better quality of
reception and lower dropped calls. Smart antennas can also track the
user within a cell via direction of arrival algorithms. This implies that
they are more advantageous than other antenna systems. This paper
focuses on few issues about the smart antennas in mobile radio
Effect of Transmission Codes on Hybrid SC/MRC Diversity Reception MQAM system over Rayleigh Fading Channels
In this paper, the effect of transmission codes on the
performance of coherent square M-ary quadrature amplitude
modulation (CSMQAM) under hybrid selection/maximal-ratio
combining (H-S/MRC) diversity is analysed. The fading channels are
modeled as frequency non-selective slow independent and identically
distributed Rayleigh fading channels corrupted by additive white
Gaussian noise (AWGN). The results for coded MQAM are
computed numerically for the case of (24,12) extended Golay code
and compared with uncoded MQAM under H-S/MRC diversity by
plotting error probabilities versus average signal to noise ratio (SNR)
for various values L and N in order to examine the improvement in
the performance of the digital communications system as the number
of selected diversity branches is increased. The results for no
diversity, conventional SC and Lth order MRC schemes are also
plotted for comparison. Closed form analytical results derived in this
paper are sufficiently simple and therefore can be computed
numerically without any approximations. The analytical results
presented in this paper are expected to provide useful information
needed for design and analysis of digital communication systems
over wireless fading channels.
Novel Adaptive Channel Equalization Algorithms by Statistical Sampling
In this paper, novel statistical sampling based equalization techniques and CNN based detection are proposed to increase the spectral efficiency of multiuser communication systems over fading channels. Multiuser communication combined with selective fading can result in interferences which severely deteriorate the quality of service in wireless data transmission (e.g. CDMA in mobile communication). The paper introduces new equalization methods to combat interferences by minimizing the Bit Error Rate (BER) as a function of the equalizer coefficients. This provides higher performance than the traditional Minimum Mean Square Error equalization. Since the calculation of BER as a function of the equalizer coefficients is of exponential complexity, statistical sampling methods are proposed to approximate the gradient which yields fast equalization and superior performance to the traditional algorithms. Efficient estimation of the gradient is achieved by using stratified sampling and the Li-Silvester bounds. A simple mechanism is derived to identify the dominant samples in real-time, for the sake of efficient estimation. The equalizer weights are adapted recursively by minimizing the estimated BER. The near-optimal performance of the new algorithms is also demonstrated by extensive simulations. The paper has also developed a (Cellular Neural Network) CNN based approach to detection. In this case fast quadratic optimization has been carried out by t, whereas the task of equalizer is to ensure the required template structure (sparseness) for the CNN. The performance of the method has also been analyzed by simulations.