Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 22

22
10009278
X-Ray Fluorescence Molecular Imaging with Improved Sensitivity for Biomedical Applications
Abstract:
X-ray Fluorescence Molecular Imaging (XFMI) holds great promise as a low-cost molecular imaging modality for biomedical applications with high chemical sensitivity. However, for in vivo biomedical applications, a key technical bottleneck is the relatively low chemical sensitivity of XFMI, especially at a reasonably low radiation dose. In laboratory x-ray source based XFMI, one of the main factors that limits the chemical sensitivity of XFMI is the scattered x-rays. We will present our latest findings on improving the chemical sensitivity of XFMI using excitation beam spectrum optimization. XFMI imaging experiments on two mouse-sized phantoms were conducted at three different excitation beam spectra. Our results show that the minimum detectable concentration (MDC) of iodine can be readily increased by five times via excitation spectrum optimization. Findings from this investigation could find use for in vivo pre-clinical small-animal XFMI in the future.
21
10009079
Fluorescence Quenching as an Efficient Tool for Sensing Application: Study on the Fluorescence Quenching of Naphthalimide Dye by Graphene Oxide
Abstract:

Recently, graphene has gained much attention because of its unique optical, mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties. Graphene has been used as a key material in the technological applications in various areas such as sensors, drug delivery, super capacitors, transparent conductor, and solar cell. It has a superior quenching efficiency for various fluorophores. Based on these unique properties, the optical sensors with graphene materials as the energy acceptors have demonstrated great success in recent years. During quenching, the emission of a fluorophore is perturbed by a quencher which can be a substrate or biomolecule, and due to this phenomenon, fluorophore-quencher has been used for selective detection of target molecules. Among fluorescence dyes, 1,8-naphthalimide is well known for its typical intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) and photo-induced charge transfer (PET) fluorophore, strong absorption and emission in the visible region, high photo stability, and large Stokes shift. Derivatives of 1,8-naphthalimides have found applications in some areas, especially fluorescence sensors. Herein, the fluorescence quenching of graphene oxide has been carried out on a naphthalimide dye as a fluorescent probe model. The quenching ability of graphene oxide on naphthalimide dye was studied by UV-VIS and fluorescence spectroscopy. This study showed that graphene is an efficient quencher for fluorescent dyes. Therefore, it can be used as a suitable candidate sensing platform. To the best of our knowledge, studies on the quenching and absorption of naphthalimide dyes by graphene oxide are rare.

20
10008251
A Review of the Characteristics and Optimization of Optical Properties of Zirconia Ceramics for Aesthetic Dental Restorations
Abstract:
The ceramic yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) has been used as a dental biomaterial for several decades. The strength and toughness of this material can be accounted for by its toughening mechanisms, which include transformation toughening, crack deflection, zone shielding, contact shielding, and crack bridging. Prevention of crack propagation is of critical importance in high-fatigue situations, such as those encountered in mastication and para-function. However, the poor translucence of Y-TZP in polycrystalline form is such that it may not meet the aesthetic requirements due to its white/grey appearance. To improve the optical properties of Y-TZP, more detailed study of the optical properties is required; in particular, precise evaluation of the refractive index, absorption coefficient, and scattering coefficient are necessary. The measurement of the optical parameters has been based on the assumption that light scattered from biological media is isotropically distributed over all angles. In fact, the optical behavior of real biological materials depends on the angular scattering of light due to the anisotropic nature of the materials. The purpose of the present work is to evaluate the optical properties (including color, opacity/translucence, scattering, and fluorescence) of zirconia dental ceramics and their control through modification of the chemical composition, phase composition, and surface microstructure.
19
10006767
Characterization of Organic Matter in Spodosol Amazonian by Fluorescence Spectroscopy
Abstract:

Soil organic matter (SOM) plays an important role in maintaining soil productivity and accounting for the promotion of biological diversity. The main components of the SOM are the humic substances which can be fractionated according to its solubility in humic acid (HA), fulvic acids (FA) and humin (HU). The determination of the chemical properties of organic matter as well as its interaction with metallic species is an important tool for understanding the structure of the humic fractions. Fluorescence spectroscopy has been studied as a source of information about what is happening at the molecular level in these compounds. Specially, soils of Amazon region are an important ecosystem of the planet. The aim of this study is to understand the molecular and structural composition of HA samples from Spodosol of Amazonia using the fluorescence Emission-Excitation Matrix (EEM) and Time Resolved Fluorescence Spectroscopy (TRFS). The results showed that the samples of HA showed two fluorescent components; one has a more complex structure and the other one has a simpler structure, which was also seen in TRFS through the evaluation of each sample lifetime. Thus, studies of this nature become important because it aims to evaluate the molecular and structural characteristics of the humic fractions in the region that is considered as one of the most important regions in the world, the Amazon.

18
10000013
Two-Photon Fluorescence in N-Doped Graphene Quantum Dots
Abstract:

Nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots (N-GQDs) were fabricated by microwave-assisted hydrothermal technique. The optical properties of the N-GQDs were studied. The luminescence of the N-GQDs can be tuned by varying the excitation wavelength. Furthermore, two-photon luminescence of the N-GQDs excited by near-infrared laser can be obtained. It is shown that N-doping play a key role on two-photon luminescence. The N-GQDs are expected to find application in biological applications including bioimaging and sensing.

17
9999549
Using Artificial Neural Networks for Optical Imaging of Fluorescent Biomarkers
Abstract:

The article presents the results of the application of artificial neural networks to separate the fluorescent contribution of nanodiamonds used as biomarkers, adsorbents and carriers of drugs in biomedicine, from a fluorescent background of own biological fluorophores. The principal possibility of solving this problem is shown. Use of neural network architecture let to detect fluorescence of nanodiamonds against the background autofluorescence of egg white with high accuracy - better than 3 ug/ml.

16
9999348
Fluorescence Spectroscopy of Lysozyme-Silver Nanoparticles Complex
Abstract:

Identifying the nature of protein-nanoparticle interactions and favored binding sites is an important issue in functional characterization of biomolecules and their physiological responses. Herein, interaction of silver nanoparticles with lysozyme as a model protein has been monitored via fluorescence spectroscopy. Formation of complex between the biomolecule and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) induced a steady state reduction in the fluorescence intensity of protein at different concentrations of nanoparticles. Tryptophan fluorescence quenching spectra suggested that silver nanoparticles act as a foreign quencher, approaching the protein via this residue. Analysis of the Stern-Volmer plot showed quenching constant of 3.73 μM−1. Moreover, a single binding site in lysozyme is suggested to play role during interaction with AgNPs, having low affinity of binding compared to gold nanoparticles. Unfolding studies of lysozyme showed that complex of lysozyme- AgNPs has not undergone structural perturbations compared to the bare protein. Results of this effort will pave the way for utilization of sensitive spectroscopic techniques for rational design of nanobiomaterials in biomedical applications.

15
9997267
Chemical Analysis of Available Portland Cement in Libyan Market Using X-Ray Fluorescence
Abstract:

This study compares the quality of different brands of Portland Cement (PC) available in Libyan market. The amounts of chemical constituents like SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, CaO, MgO, SO3 and Lime Saturation Factor (LSF) were determined in accordance with Libyan (L.S.S) and Amrican (A.S.S) Standard Specifications. All the cement studies were found to be good for concrete work especially where no special property is required. The chemical and mineralogical analyses for studied clinker samples show that the dominant phases composition are C3S and C2S while the C3A and C4AF are less abundant.

14
2527
Phase Behavior and Structure Properties of Supported Lipid Monolayers and Bilayers in Interaction with Silica Nanoparticles
Abstract:

In this study we investigate silica nanoparticle (SiO2- NP) effects on the structure and phase properties of supported lipid monolayers and bilayers, coupling surface pressure measurements, fluorescence microscopy and atomic force microscopy. SiO2-NPs typically in size range of 10nm to 100 nm in diameter are tested. Our results suggest first that lipid molecules organization depends to their nature. Secondly, lipid molecules in the vinicity of big aggregates nanoparticles organize in liquid condensed phase whereas small aggregates are localized in both fluid liquid-expanded (LE) and liquid-condenced (LC). We demonstrated also by atomic force microscopy that by measuring friction forces it is possible to get information as if nanoparticle aggregates are recovered or not by lipid monolayers and bilayers.

13
6496
Contrast-Enhanced Multispectal Upconversion Fluorescence Analysis for High-Resolution in-vivo Deep Tissue Imaging
Abstract:

Lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles which can convert near-infrared lights to visible lights have attracted growing interest because of their great potentials in fluorescence imaging. Upconversion fluorescence imaging technique with excitation in the near-infrared (NIR) region has been used for imaging of biological cells and tissues. However, improving the detection sensitivity and decreasing the absorption and scattering in biological tissues are as yet unresolved problems. In this present study, a novel NIR-reflected multispectral imaging system was developed for upconversion fluorescent imaging in small animals. Based on this system, we have obtained the high contrast images without the autofluorescence when biocompatible UCPs were injected near the body surface or deeply into the tissue. Furthermore, we have extracted respective spectra of the upconversion fluorescence and relatively quantify the fluorescence intensity with the multispectral analysis. To our knowledge, this is the first time to analyze and quantify the upconversion fluorescence in the small animal imaging.

12
14028
Evaluation of Chlorophyll Content and Chlorophyll Fluorescence Parameters and Relationships between Chlorophyll a, b and Chlorophyll Content Index under Water Stress in Olea europaea cv. Dezful
Abstract:

This study was conducted to determine effect of water stress on chlorophyll content and chlorophyll fluorescence parameter in young `Dezful- olive trees. Three irrigation regimes (40% ETcrop, 65% ETcrop and 100% ETcrop) were used. After irrigation treatments were applied, some of biochemical parameters including chlorophyll a, b, total chlorophyll, chlorophyll fluorescence and also chlorophyll content index (C.C.I) were measured. Results of Analysis of variance showed that irrigation treatments had significant effect on chlorophylla, total chlorophyll (chl a+b), C.C.I and Fv/Fm ratio. The amount of decreased chlorophyll a and total chlorophyll in plants were received 40% ETcrop were 51.55% and 46.86%, respectively, compared with 100% ETcrop.

11
2590
Tidal Flow Patterns Near A Coastal Headland
Abstract:
Experimental investigations were carried out in the Manchester Tidal flow Facility (MTF) to study the flow patterns in the region around and adjacent to a hypothetical headland in tidal (oscillatory) ambient flow. The Planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) technique was used for visualization, with fluorescent dye released at specific points around the headland perimeter and in its adjacent recirculation zone. The flow patterns can be generalized into the acceleration, stable flow and deceleration stages for each halfcycle, with small variations according to location, which are more distinct for low Keulegan-Carpenter number (KC) cases. Flow patterns in the mixing region are unstable and complex, especially in the recirculation zone. The flow patterns are in agreement with previous visualizations, and support previous results in steady ambient flow. It is suggested that the headland lee could be a viable location for siting of pollutant outfalls.
10
15554
Study on Nitrite Accumulation Characteristics and Nitrifying Population Dynamics at Different Growth Environments
Abstract:
Novel nitrogen removal technologies via nitrite pathway attract increasing interest in recent years. In this study, batch experiments were performed to investigate nitrite accumulation characteristics and shifts in nitrifying community structure at different growth environments including ammonia concentration, pH and alkalinity. It was found that nitrite accumulation ratios were maintained at around 95% at studied conditions, and the optimum pH and Alk/N (ratio between alkalinity and nitrogen) for ammonium oxidization were 8.5 and 8.33, respectively. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of nitrifying bacteria showed that high free ammonia (from influent ammonium or caused by high pH) significantly altered the structure of nitrifying community, leading to abundance of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), especially Nitrososmonas, and inhibition of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB). The results suggest that free ammonia plays more important role than other studied conditions on nitrite accumulation.
9
10664
Multichannel Image Mosaicing of Stem Cells
Abstract:

Image mosaicing techniques are usually employed to offer researchers a wider field of view of microscopic image of biological samples. a mosaic is commonly achieved using automated microscopes and often with one “color" channel, whether it refers to natural or fluorescent analysis. In this work we present a method to achieve three subsequent mosaics of the same part of a stem cell culture analyzed in phase contrast and in fluorescence, with a common non-automated inverted microscope. The mosaics obtained are then merged together to mark, in the original contrast phase images, nuclei and cytoplasm of the cells referring to a mosaic of the culture, rather than to single images. The experiments carried out prove the effectiveness of our approach with cultures of cells stained with calcein (green/cytoplasm and nuclei) and hoechst (blue/nuclei) probes.

8
4555
Chlorophyll Fluorescence as Criterion for the Diagnosis Salt Stress in Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Plants
Abstract:
To investigate effect of salt stress on Chlorophyll fluorescence four cultivars (fong,star,chamran and kharchia) of wheat (Triticum aestivum) plants subjected to salinity levels ( control,8,12 and 16 dsm-1 ) from one week after emergence to the end of stem elongation under greenhouse condition . results showed that quantum yield of photosystem II from light adopted leaves (ΦPSII), Photochemical quenching (qP) ,quantum yield of dark adopted leaves (fv/fm) and non photochemical quenching (NPq) were affected by salt stress . Salinity levels affected photosynthetic rate. Star and fong cultivars showed minimum and maximum levels of photosynthetic rate in respectively. Minimum photosynthetic rate differences between levels of salinity were shown in Kharchia. Shoot dry matter of all cultivars decreased by increasing salinity levels. Results showed that non photochemical quenching by salinity levels attribute to the decreases in shoot dry matter.
7
8355
Shannon-Weaver Biodiversity of Neutrophils in Fractal Networks of Immunofluorescence for Medical Diagnostics
Authors:
Abstract:
We develop new nonlinear methods of immunofluorescence analysis for a sensitive technology of respiratory burst reaction of DNA fluorescence due to oxidative activity in the peripheral blood neutrophils. Histograms in flow cytometry experiments represent a fluorescence flashes frequency as functions of fluorescence intensity. We used the Shannon-Weaver index for definition of neutrophils- biodiversity and Hurst index for definition of fractal-s correlations in immunofluorescence for different donors, as the basic quantitative criteria for medical diagnostics of health status. We analyze frequencies of flashes, information, Shannon entropies and their fractals in immunofluorescence networks due to reduction of histogram range. We found the number of simplest universal correlations for biodiversity, information and Hurst index in diagnostics and classification of pathologies for wide spectra of diseases. In addition is determined the clear criterion of a common immunity and human health status in a form of yes/no answers type. These answers based on peculiarities of information in immunofluorescence networks and biodiversity of neutrophils. Experimental data analysis has shown the existence of homeostasis for information entropy in oxidative activity of DNA in neutrophil nuclei for all donors.
6
3082
Screening Wheat Parents of Mapping Population for Heat and Drought Tolerance, Detection of Wheat Genetic Variation
Authors:
Abstract:
To evaluate genetic variation of wheat (Triticum aestivum) affected by heat and drought stress on eight Australian wheat genotypes that are parents of Doubled Haploid (HD) mapping populations at the vegetative stage, the water stress experiment was conducted at 65% field capacity in growth room. Heat stress experiment was conducted in the research field under irrigation over summer. Result show that water stress decreased dry shoot weight and RWC but increased osmolarity and means of Fv/Fm values in all varieties except for Krichauff. Krichauff and Kukri had the maximum RWC under drought stress. Trident variety was shown maximum WUE, osmolarity (610 mM/Kg), dry mater, quantum yield and Fv/Fm 0.815 under water stress condition. However, the recovery of quantum yield was apparent between 4 to 7 days after stress in all varieties. Nevertheless, increase in water stress after that lead to strong decrease in quantum yield. There was a genetic variation for leaf pigments content among varieties under heat stress. Heat stress decreased significantly the total chlorophyll content that measured by SPAD. Krichauff had maximum value of Anthocyanin content (2.978 A/g FW), chlorophyll a+b (2.001 mg/g FW) and chlorophyll a (1.502 mg/g FW). Maximum value of chlorophyll b (0.515 mg/g FW) and Carotenoids (0.234 mg/g FW) content belonged to Kukri. The quantum yield of all varieties decreased significantly, when the weather temperature increased from 28 ÔùªC to 36 ÔùªC during the 6 days. However, the recovery of quantum yield was apparent after 8th day in all varieties. The maximum decrease and recovery in quantum yield was observed in Krichauff. Drought and heat tolerant and moderately tolerant wheat genotypes were included Trident, Krichauff, Kukri and RAC875. Molineux, Berkut and Excalibur were clustered into most sensitive and moderately sensitive genotypes. Finally, the results show that there was a significantly genetic variation among the eight varieties that were studied under heat and water stress.
5
9817
Screening Wheat Parents of Mapping Population for Heat and Drought Tolerance, Detection of Wheat Genetic Variation
Authors:
Abstract:

To evaluate genetic variation of wheat (Triticum aestivum) affected by heat and drought stress on eight Australian wheat genotypes that are parents of Doubled Haploid (HD) mapping populations at the vegetative stage, the water stress experiment was conducted at 65% field capacity in growth room. Heat stress experiment was conducted in the research field under irrigation over summer. Result show that water stress decreased dry shoot weight and RWC but increased osmolarity and means of Fv/Fm values in all varieties except for Krichauff. Krichauff and Kukri had the maximum RWC under drought stress. Trident variety was shown maximum WUE, osmolarity (610 mM/Kg), dry mater, quantum yield and Fv/Fm 0.815 under water stress condition. However, the recovery of quantum yield was apparent between 4 to 7 days after stress in all varieties. Nevertheless, increase in water stress after that lead to strong decrease in quantum yield. There was a genetic variation for leaf pigments content among varieties under heat stress. Heat stress decreased significantly the total chlorophyll content that measured by SPAD. Krichauff had maximum value of Anthocyanin content (2.978 A/g FW), chlorophyll a+b (2.001 mg/g FW) and chlorophyll a (1.502 mg/g FW). Maximum value of chlorophyll b (0.515 mg/g FW) and Carotenoids (0.234 mg/g FW) content belonged to Kukri. The quantum yield of all varieties decreased significantly, when the weather temperature increased from 28 ÔùªC to 36 ÔùªC during the 6 days. However, the recovery of quantum yield was apparent after 8th day in all varieties. The maximum decrease and recovery in quantum yield was observed in Krichauff. Drought and heat tolerant and moderately tolerant wheat genotypes were included Trident, Krichauff, Kukri and RAC875. Molineux, Berkut and Excalibur were clustered into most sensitive and moderately sensitive genotypes. Finally, the results show that there was a significantly genetic variation among the eight varieties that were studied under heat and water stress.

4
14076
En-Face Optical Coherence Tomography Combined with Fluorescence in Material Defects Investigations for Ceramic Fixed Partial Dentures
Abstract:
Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) combined with the Confocal Microscopy, as a noninvasive method, permits the determinations of materials defects in the ceramic layers depth. For this study 256 anterior and posterior metal and integral ceramic fixed partial dentures were used, made with Empress (Ivoclar), Wollceram and CAD/CAM (Wieland) technology. For each investigate area 350 slices were obtain and a 3D reconstruction was perform from each stuck. The Optical Coherent Tomography, as a noninvasive method, can be used as a control technique in integral ceramic technology, before placing those fixed partial dentures in the oral cavity. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the capability of En face Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) combined with a fluorescent method in detection and analysis of possible material defects in metalceramic and integral ceramic fixed partial dentures. As a conclusion, it is important to have a non invasive method to investigate fixed partial prostheses before their insertion in the oral cavity in order to satisfy the high stress requirements and the esthetic function.
3
3572
Optical Coherence Tomography Combined with the Confocal Microscopy Method and Fluorescence for Class V Cavities Investigations
Abstract:
The purpose of this study is to present a non invasive method for the marginal adaptation evaluation in class V composite restorations. Standardized class V cavities, prepared in human extracted teeth, were filled with Premise (Kerr) composite. The specimens were thermo cycled. The interfaces were examined by Optical Coherence Tomography method (OCT) combined with the confocal microscopy and fluorescence. The optical configuration uses two single mode directional couplers with a superluminiscent diode as the source at 1300 nm. The scanning procedure is similar to that used in any confocal microscope, where the fast scanning is enface (line rate) and the depth scanning is much slower (at the frame rate). Gaps at the interfaces as well as inside the composite resin materials were identified. OCT has numerous advantages which justify its use in vivo as well as in vitro in comparison with conventional techniques.
2
6634
Synthesis and Fluorescence Spectroscopy of Sulphonic Acid-Doped Polyaniline When Exposed to Oxygen Gas
Abstract:
Three sulphonic acid-doped polyanilines were synthesized through chemical oxidation at low temperature (0-5 oC) and potential of these polymers as sensing agent for O2 gas detection in terms of fluorescence quenching was studied. Sulphuric acid, dodecylbenzene sulphonic acid (DBSA) and camphor sulphonic acid (CSA) were used as doping agents. All polymers obtained were dark green powder. Polymers obtained were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, thermogravimetry analysis, elemental analysis, differential scanning calorimeter and gel permeation chromatography. Characterizations carried out showed that polymers were successfully synthesized with mass recovery for sulphuric aciddoped polyaniline (SPAN), DBSA-doped polyaniline (DBSA-doped PANI) and CSA-doped polyaniline (CSA-doped PANI) of 71.40%, 75.00% and 39.96%, respectively. Doping level of SPAN, DBSAdoped PANI and CSA-doped PANI were 32.86%, 33.13% and 53.96%, respectively as determined based on elemental analysis. Sensing test was carried out on polymer sample in the form of solution and film by using fluorescence spectrophotometer. Samples of polymer solution and polymer film showed positive response towards O2 exposure. All polymer solutions and films were fully regenerated by using N2 gas within 1 hour period. Photostability study showed that all samples of polymer solutions and films were stable towards light when continuously exposed to xenon lamp for 9 hours. The relative standard deviation (RSD) values for SPAN solution, DBSA-doped PANI solution and CSA-doped PANI solution for repeatability were 0.23%, 0.64% and 0.76%, respectively. Meanwhile RSD values for reproducibility were 2.36%, 6.98% and 1.27%, respectively. Results for SPAN film, DBSAdoped PANI film and CSA-doped PANI film showed the same pattern with RSD values for repeatability of 0.52%, 4.05% and 0.90%, respectively. Meanwhile RSD values for reproducibility were 2.91%, 10.05% and 7.42%, respectively. The study on effect of the flow rate on response time was carried out using 3 different rates which were 0.25 mL/s, 1.00 mL/s and 2.00 mL/s. Results obtained showed that the higher the flow rate, the shorter the response time.
1
8631
ANN-Based Classification of Indirect Immuno Fluorescence Images
Abstract:

In this paper we address the issue of classifying the fluorescent intensity of a sample in Indirect Immuno-Fluorescence (IIF). Since IIF is a subjective, semi-quantitative test in its very nature, we discuss a strategy to reliably label the image data set by using the diagnoses performed by different physicians. Then, we discuss image pre-processing, feature extraction and selection. Finally, we propose two ANN-based classifiers that can separate intrinsically dubious samples and whose error tolerance can be flexibly set. Measured performance shows error rates less than 1%, which candidates the method to be used in daily medical practice either to perform pre-selection of cases to be examined, or to act as a second reader.

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